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Publication numberUS3274909 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 27, 1966
Filing dateAug 8, 1963
Priority dateAug 8, 1963
Publication numberUS 3274909 A, US 3274909A, US-A-3274909, US3274909 A, US3274909A
InventorsMarkvard Hauerbach
Original AssigneeDick Co Ab
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for spacing characters
US 3274909 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 27, 1966 M. HAUERBACH APPARATUS FOR SPACING CHARACTERS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 8, 1963 MOkUmPm D @EMM l 202 NEE/:JOU

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MUNZJO VOJU Sept. 27, 1966 M. HAUERBACH APPARATUS FOR SPACING CHARACTERS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 8, 1963 United States Patent O 3,274,909 APPARATUS FOR SPACING CHARACTERS Markvard Hauerbach, Mountain View, Calif., asslg'nor to A. B. Dick Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Filed Aug. 8, 1963, Ser. No. 300,769 6 Claims. (Cl. 95-45) This invention relates to improvements in means for spacing characters and finds particular utility in photocomposition systems.

Typical of the photocomposition systems disclosed in the prior art are those which employ a character generating cathode ray tube, such as a monoscope, in con junction with a display cathode ray tube which has associated therewith a camera-type device including a light sensitive film. In all such systems, it is desirable to be able to justify a message or line of characters so that the characters exactly till the space devoted to a line. That is, a line of characters is justified when the characters are properly spaced and in addition have the tlirst character in the message aligned with a left margin and the last character in the message aligned with a right margin. Various justification techniques are proposed in the prior `art but all require relatively complex and extensive hardware.

It is an object of this invention to provide apparatus for spacing or justifying a line of characters which is considerably simpler, less expensive, and more reliable than heretofore known methods and apparatus.

Briefly, the invention herein is directed to apparatus for spacing or performing justification on a relatively small, but significant, segment of printed matter. Typical of this segment is a telephone directory in which entries or messages are arranged in columns and each message includes a first portion (name and address) and a last `portion (telephone number) with spacer characters (dots) separating the first and last portions. Justification of this type of material requires that the first letter in the telephone subscribers last name be aligned with the left column margin and the last digit of the telephone number be aligned with the right column margin. Inasmuch as the widths of different characters are different (i.e. is a wider character than 1), it should be apparent that alignment of the last digit of each telephone number with the right column cannot be assured merely by aligning the first digits of each telephone number.

In accordance with the invention, character spacing is accomplished by initially displaying the first character of the first message portion in alignment with a left column margin and subsequent characters in said first message portion spaced incremental distances to the right thereof and secondly displaying the last character in said second message portion in alignment with a right column margin with prior characters in said second message portion spaced incremental distances to the left thereof. As a consequence, all column entries are automatically justiied and space between the first character in the second message portion and the last character in the first message portion is lled with spacer characters.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the characters of the second message portion are generated in reverse order, that is from right to left, by effectively reversing the polarity of the potential normally applied to the deiiection plates or coil of both the character generator cathode ray tube and display cathode ray tube. The character generator tube functions in response to digital information stored in a memory, for example of the punched paper tape type, which information includes a reverse" command code which is read after the character codes of the first message portion have been read. In response to the reverse command code, a reverse switch is actuated to reverse the deiiection polarity. In order to determine how many spacer characters should be generated to till the space between the first character of the second message portion and the last character of the first message portion, means are provided for totaling the space required to display the message characters and for subtracting this space from the total space provided for a message to thereby obtain a space difference. The number of spacer characters to be generated is then determined based on the magnitude of the space difference.

Although the disclosed embodiment makes use of a monoscope character generator, it is pointed out that the invention is equally as applicable to systems using other character generators, as for example a flying spot scanner.

The novel features that are considered characteristic of this invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself both as to its organization and method of operation, as well as additional objects and advantages thereof, will best understood from the following `description when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a block diagram of apparatus utilized to couple manual input means, such as a typewriter, t0 a paper tape punch;

FIGURE 2 is a block diagram of a photo-composition system constructed in accordance with the present invention and responsive to punched paper tape provided by the apparatus of FIGURE l; and

FIGURE 3 illustrates a typical character region on the target of the monoscope of FIGURE 2.

Attention is now called to FIGURE 1 of the drawings which illustrates apparatus for enabling an operator to form a punched paper tape, for use by the apparatus of FIGURE 2, from a manuscript. It is assumed that the manuscript comprises a listing of all telephone subscrihers together with appropriate address and telephone number information. It is of course immaterial ns to whether or not the lines of the manuscript are justified.

The apparatus of FIGURE l includes a typewriter keyboard comprised of a plurality of keys l0, each key comprising a switch connected to a different input terminal of an encoder circuit l2. The encoder circuit l2 includes an output register (not shown) and in response to the depression of any one of the keys 10 will enter a corresponding code into the output register. For illustrative purposes herein, it will be assumed that up to 64 different keys are provided and that a different six bit binary code is entered into the encoder circuit output register in response to the depression of each key. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the operator will successively type the characters of the telephone subscribers name and address inserting appropriate spaces where necessary. After typing this first message portion, the operator will insert an "end of first message portion character (n) and then type the digits of the subscribers telephone number in reverse order. Subsequently, an end of message character (d) will be typed.

The encoder circuit 12 has six output lines extending therefrom, each output line connected to the data input terminal of a different one of the shift registers 13. In addition to the data input terminal, each shift register 13 is provided with a shift" command terminal. The output of an And gate 14 is connected to the shift command terminal of each of the shift registers 13. One of the inputs to the And gate 14 comprises the output of a clock source 16 while the other input to the And gate 14 comprises the true output terminal of a set-reset flip-hop 18.

Connected to the set input terminal of ip-flop 18 is the output of an Or gate 20 whose inputs are each respectively connected to a different one of the keys 10. The output of clock source 16 is in addition connected to the reset input terminal of ip-op 18.

In response to the operator depressing a key 10, a six bit code will be generated by the encoder circuit 12 and entered into the encoder circuit output register. 1n addition, the output of Or gate 20 will be made true to thereby set liip-tiop 18. In response to the next clock pulse derived from source 16, the contents of the encoder circuit output reigster will be entered into the left most stage of the various shift registers 13 and the flip-liep 18 will be reset. Subsequent depressions of the keys 10 will cause additional six bit codes to be entered into the shift registers 13 with previously entered codes being shifted to the right.

The output of And gate 14 is additionally connected to the input of Or gate 21 whose output is connected to the inputs of each of a plurality of And gates 22. A second input to each of the And gates 22 is derived from the output of a different one of the shift registers 13. The outputs of each of the And gates 22 is connected to an input channel of a paper tape punch 23. As a consequence of this apparatus, in response to each key 10 being depressed by an operator, a code will be entered into the shift registers, which code will be shifted one stage to the right as each succeeding code is entered. The output of the shift registers is coupled through the And gates 22 to the paper tape punch 23.

In addition to each code that is entered into the output register of the encoder circuit 12 being transferred to the shift registers 13, each code is applied to the input of a value table 24 which includes a memory in which is stored information defining the Width or horizontal space along a line of displayed characters that each character should occupy. For example, let it be assumed that proper spacing requires that the character i" occupies two unit spaces while the character w occupies three unit spaces. In response to the application of the code defining character i to the value table 24, the value table 24 will provide two output pulses or some other manifestations representing the numeral 2. In response to the application of a code defining character w to the value tabie 24, the value table 24 will provide three output pulses. The output of the value table 24 is connected to the input of an Or gate 26 whose output in turn is coupled to a decrementing terminal of a counter 28. Prior to an operator typing a message, the count in the counter 28 is set to a number representing the maximum number of units in a line to be displayed. Consequently, after the operator has typed all the characters and spaces in a message, the count remaining in the counter 28 will represent that space in each displayed message that has to be tilled with spacer characters such as dots.

A second input to Or gate 26 is derived from And gate 3|) whose inputs respectively comprise the output of clock source 16 and the output of a detector 32 which functions to detect the end of message character (qb) provided at the output of the shift registers. The output of the counler 28 is connected to the input of a non-zero detector 34 whose output in turn is coupled to the input of an And gate 36 along with the output of And gate 30. The output of And gate 36 is coupled to the input of the previously mentioned Or gate 21 and to a typewriter lockout device 38.

In the operation of the apparatus of FIGURE 1 an operator will successively type the characters of the name and address of a telephone subscriber in a forward direction. For purposes of illustration, the name Joe Simth and the address 10 Oak are illustrated in FIGURE l. It should be clear that each character is in fact represented by six binary digits in corresponding stages of the six shift registers 13. In accordance with the invention, the

operator will type an end of first message portion character (0) after the characters of the name and address of the telephone subscriber are typed. Then, the characters representing the digits of the subscribers telephone number will be typed in reverse order. That is, let it be assumed that the telephone number of Joe Smith is 347-6573. The operator will type this in reverse order so that after the end of first message portion character is typed, the digits of the telephone number will be typed in the following order: 3-7-5-6-7-4-3. Subsequently, the operator will type the end of message character As characters are being entered into the shift registers, their width or space value in units is determined by the value table 24 and the count in counter 28 is decremented accordingly, Consequently, when the detector 32 detects the end of message character the count in counter 28 will represent the space difference between the space to be occupied by the displayed characters (including appropriate spaces) and the total space available in which to display a line of characters. In response to the detection by detector 32 of the end of message character and the generation of a pulse by clock source 16, the And gate 30 will provide an output pulse. The output of And gate 30 is coupled through Or gate 26 to decrement the counter 28 by one for each clock pulse. So long as the count in counter 28 is greater than zero, the And gate 36 will likewise provide an output signal which will enable Or gate 21 to repeatedly enter the end of message character code into the paper tape `punch device 23. During this time the operator is prevented from entering new information into the shift registers by virtue of the lockout device 38 being actuated. As a practical matter, inasmuch as the frequency of the clock pulse source 16 can be reasonably high and the number of end of message character codes that need be repeatedly generated relatively small, the typewriter lockout device need be energized for only a fraction of a second which will not impede the operators progress. Of course, in order to avoid even this short duration lockout, appropriate buffering means can be provided to accept new information even when the shift registers are prevented from shifting.

From the above explanation, it should be apparent that the tape derived from the paper tape punch device 23 will therefore have not only the appropriate character information in the first and second message portions but in addition will include .a number of end of message character codes equal to the appropriate number of spacer characters to be inserted between the first and second message portions.

Attention is now called to FIGURE 2 which illustrates apparatus for responding to codes provided on a tape formed by the paper tape punch 23 of FIGURE 1 for forming video signal representative of characters for application to a display device. `Means are provided for justifying the characters displayed and in addition a camera-type device is provided for recording the display on a light sensitive film.

More particularly, the apparatus of FIGURE 2 includes a character generator tube 40 which, for purposes of illustration herein, will be assumed to be `a monoscope. A monoscope consists of a substantially conventional cathode ray tube having a target separated into a plurality of regions including areas having different secondary emission characteristics. FIGURE 3 illustrates a typical regi-on and includes a character area 42 having a first secondary emission characteristic enveloped by a guard area 44 having a second secondary emission characteristic. Spaced beneath the character area 42 is a guide bar area 46 having a first secondary emission characteristic. Means are provided for generating a beam in the cathode ray monoscope tube 40 which can be deflected by electrostatic or electromagnetic means to a particular character region on the monoscope target and thereafter can be caused to trace a scanning raster over the character region in order to derive video signals which are applied to a display cathode ray tube 50.

The beam in monoscope cathode `ray tube 40 is controlled in response to a paper tape read by tape reader 52. The output of tape reader 52 is coupled to a data pulse source 54 which in turn is coupled to the input of indexing circuits 56. The indexing circuits 56 function to develop horizontal and vertical analog deflection voltages in response to digital data signals provided by the data pulse source 54 for successively defiecting the monoscope tube beam to target regions designated by successive codes read by tape reader S12. It is here pointed out that the beam is deflected to a region including a spacer character (dot) in response to each end of rnessage code (tp) detected. The horizontal and vertical `analog deeotion voltage developed by indexing circuits 56 are respectively applied to adder circuits 58 and 60. The output of adder -circuit 60 is directly applied to vertical deection plates 62 in the monoscope tube 40. The vertical deflections voltage provided by the indexing circuits 56 deects the beam in the tube 40 to a position below the upper surface of the guide bar area 46 in a selected target region. In order to cause the beam to scan a target region, a vertical scanning voltage derived from a raster generator 64 is also applied to the adder 60. The vertical scanning voltage comprises a high frequency sawtooth wave which repeatedly causes the beam to be moved vertically from the guide bar area and through the guard and character areas 44 and 42.

In order to enable the beam to trace a raster for the purpose of developing video signals representative of the character in the region being scanned, means must be provided for incrementally horizontally deilecting the beam for each vertical scanning line traced. The horizontal detiection voltage provided by the indexing circuits 56 normally positions the beam approximately in the horizontal center of the guide bar area '46. The horizontal deflection voltage provided by the horizontal output of the raster generator `64 is added to the horizontal voltage derived from the indexing circuits `56 in the adder 58. The polarity of the horizontal voltage derived from the raster generator 64 is determined by the state of a setreset flip-flop 66 which controls a reversing switch 68. The effect of the polarity of the horizontal voltage derived from the raster generator 64 is to cause the beam in the tube 40 to either be deflected from left to right or right to left under the influence of the deflection plates 70 coupled to the output of adder circuit 58. The state of the flip-liep '66 is determined by detectors 72 and 74 whose inputs are each coupled to the output of tape reader 52. Detector 72 functions to detect the end of first message portion character and detector 74 functions to detect the end of message character. Detection by detector 72 sets flip-flop 66 while detection by detector 74 resets tip-op 66. The true output terminal of dip-flop 66 is coupled to the input of an And gate 76 of reversing switch 168. The false output terminal of riipaop 66 is similarly connected to the input of an And gate 78 of the reversing switch 68. The horizontal output terminal of the raster generator 64 is connected to the inputs of both And gates 76 and 78. The output of And gate 76 is connected through an inverter `80 to the input of an Or gate 82 along with the output of And gate 78. The output of Or gate 82 is applied to the adder 58. Consequently, when the flip-flop 66 is true, the character regions of the monoscope target dened by the characters of the second message portion will be scanned from right to left. On the other hand, when the `flip-flop 66 is false, the characters on the monoscope target defined by the characters of the rst message portion will be scanned from left to right.

Video signals derived from the monoscope tube 40 as a result of the beam scanning areas in each target region having different secondary emission characteristics, are coupled through video amplifier 84 to a control electrode of display cathode ray tube 50 in order to modulate the intensity of the beam therein.

`In order to cause the display cathode ray tube 50 to display characters represented by the video signals, in addition to modulating the intensity of the display tube beam, it is necessary to cause the display tube `beam to trace a raster in the same manner as the raster traced by the monoscope tube beam. In order to avoid improper vertical alignment of displayed characters however, in lieu of synchronizing the scanning of the display tube beam with the monoscope tube beam, means are provided for initiating the display tube vertical scan in response to the monoscope tube beam emerging from the guide bar area 46 and entering the guard area 44. `Inasmuch as the character areas 42 in all of the monoscope target regions are spaced from the upper surface of their corresponding guide bar area 46 by the same distance, this technique assures that the bottom surface of all displayed characters will be aligned. This alignment technique is implemented by coupling a vertical timing pulse, as for example the vertical retrace blank pulse derived from the raster generator 64, through a differentiator circuit 86 and a one-shot multivibrator 88 to the input of an And gate 90. The output of the video amplifier 84 in addition to being applied to the control electrode of the display tube S0, is coupled through a differentiator circuit 92 which in turn is connected to a second input of the And gate 90. The emergence of the monoscope tube beam from the guide bar area 46 into the guard area 44 will be detected by the video amplifier `84 and will consequently appear as a spike on the input of And gate 90. Since this spike will appear within the initial portion 0f each vertical scanning line interval, it can be separated from the video signal representing the character information by enabling gate i90 only for this initial interval portion- More particularly, the vertical retrace blank pulse derived from raster generator 64 is differentiated and used to trigger the one-shot multivibrator 88 which is conscqucntly turned on for the initial portion (eg. 10 percent) of the vertical scanning line interval. The spike provided by the differentiator circuit 92 is coupled through the And gate 90 and applied to a horizontal generator 96 and a vertical scanning generator 98.

The output of the vertical scanning generator 98 is applied to the input of an adder circuit 100 along with the output of a vertical output terminal of a display format generator 102. The output of the horizontal scanning generator 96 is coupled through a reversing switch 104, similar to reversing switch 68, to the input of adder circuit 106. The second input to adder circuit 106 is derived from the horizontal output terminal of the display format generator 102. The outputs of adder circuits 100 and 106 are respectively applied to the vertical and horizontal deflection plates 108 and 110 respectively of the display cathode ray tube 50.

As pointed out, by energizing the vertical scanning generator 98 in response to the emergence of the monoscope tube beam from the guide bar area 46 which is spaced the same distance from the character area 42 in all of the monoscopc target regions, vertical alignment of all characters displayed by the tube 50 is assured. Proportionate spacing of each character is effected by the horizontal length of each guide bar arca 46. More particularly, inasmuch as the horizontal and vertical scanning generators 96 and 98 are energized to generate a different scanning line only when the monoscope beam emerges from the guide bar area 46 and enters the guard area 44 of a target region, no horizontal scanning of the display tube beam will be effected when the vertical scanning lines of the monoscope tube beam are either to the left or the right ofthe guide bar arca 46. Consequently, the characters displayed by display tube 50 will have a width or in other words, occupy a horizontal space proportional to the length of the guide bar area 46 corresponding thereto.

The display format generator 102 functions to provide horizontal and vertical output deflection voltages. The vertical deflection voltage so provided establishes the vertical position of the display tube beam or in other words the vertical position of a line of characters to be printed in a column of such lines. The horizontal deflection voltage so provided positions the display tube beam in alignment with either a left or right margin. More particularly, in response to a true state of flip-flop 66, the display format generator 102 provides a horizontal deflection voltage deflecting the display tube beam to a position in alignment with the right margin while a false state of the flipflop 66 positions the beam in alignment with the left margin. The deflection voltage provided by the horizontal scanning generator 96 serves to incrementally deflect the beam to the right when it is positioned adjacent the left margin and incrementally deflect the beam to the left when it is positioned adjacent the right margin.

The horizontal scanning generator 96 preferably includes a capacitor which is charged by each spike passed by And gate 90. The charge or voltage across the capacitor 96 is added to the voltage provided by the horizontal output terminal of the display format generator 102 to develop a total horizontal defiection voltage which is provided by adder 106 to the horizontal deflection plates 110. The polarity of the voltage provided by the horizontal scanning generator 96 is determined by the condition of the reversing switch 104 which in turn is controlled by the state ofthe flip-flop 66.

More particularly, when the fiip-flop 66 is true, the potential on the capacitor in the horizontal scanning generator 96 will be added to the horizontal defiection voltage provided by the display format generator 102 so as to incrementally deflect the display tube beam to the left in response to each increase in potential across the scanning generator capacitor. Conversely, when the flip-flop 66 is false, increases in potential across the capacitor of the scanning generator 96 will be added to the horizontal deflection voltage provided by the format generator 102 so as to incrementally deflect the beam in display tube 50 t0 the right.

The horizontal scanning generator 96 is provided with a reset terminal 97. The application of a pulse to the reset terminal 97 functions to discharge the scanning generator capacitor. Discharge should be effected of course in response to sufficient deflection of the display tube beam to the right to fully display the first message portion or sufficient deflection of the display tube beam to the left to display the second message portion and spacer characters. Detection by detectors 72 and 74 can be utilized to sense these conditions. Accordingly, the output of delector 72 is coupled to the input of And gate 112 while the output of detector 74 is connected to the input of And gate 114. The true output of flip-flop 66 is connected to the input of And gate 114 and the false output of flipflop 66 is connected to the input of And gate 112. The outputs of And gates 112 and 114 are connected to the input of Or gate 116 whose output in turn is coupled to the discharge input terminal 97.

When flip-flop 66 is in a true state, meaning that the display tube beam is being traced from right to left and when an end of message character is sensed by the detector 74, the capacitor in the scanning generator 96 is discharged, the flip-flop 66 is reset, and the display tube beam is deflected to a position adjacent the left margin. On the other hand, when the flip-flop 66 is in a false state and the end of first message portion character is detected, the flip-flop 66 is switched to a true state, the capacitor in the scanning generator 96 is discharged, and the beam in display tube 50 is deflected to a position adjacent the right margin.

A camera device 118 is provided adjacent the face of display tube 50. The camera device 118 includes light sensitive film for recording images produced by the display tube 50. An exposure control means 120 is utilized to couple the camera device 118 to the tape reader 52 for the purpose of synchronizing the feed rate of the tape with the exposure time required by the camera device 118. That is, it should be apparent that if for some reason longer exposures of the light sensitive film in camera device 118 are required, the feed rate of the tape to the reader S2 must be slowed. On the other hand, if the exposure time can be reduced, the tape can be fed more rapidly.

From tihe foregoing, it should be apparent that a system has been provided herein by which a certain class of messages can be easily justified. Essentially, the basis of the apparatus is that justification of certain material can be accomplished by assuring that the first and last characters of a message are aligned with left and right margins by actually physically controlling their placement and by inserting excess space between the rst and last portions of the message. The excess space can be fil-led with a number of spacer characters which can be automatically determined by developing the sum of the space value units required for the message characters and subtracting this amount of space from the total space available for a message.

Although `a preferred embodiment of the invention has been illustrated herein, it is specifically pointed out that considerable variations in apparatus are equally as feasible as the one illustrated. Moreover, it is emphasized that the basic teachings of the invention, that is of assuring proper `placement of the first and last characters of a message by controlling fthe beams in character generator and display tubes and for causing the beams to scan in both a forward and a reverse direction, can be performed by hand.

What is claimed is:

1. In a system for displaying messages wherein each message includes first and last portions and each portion is comprised of a plurality of ordered characters including first and last characters, a display device including a cathode ray tube; means for generating a beam in said display cathode ray tube; means for initially generating a video signal representative of isaid first character in said first portion and for successively generating video signals representative of subsequent characters in said first portion; means effective concurrent with said generation of said video signal representative of said first character in said first portion for deflecting said display tube beam to a first position and effective concurrent with the generation of each successive video signal for incrementally deflecting said display tube beam in a forward direction toward a second position; means for secondly Hgenerating a video signal representative of said last character in said last portion `and for successively generating video signals representative of prior characters in said last portion; means effective concurrent with said generation of said video signal representative of said last character in said last portion for detlecting said display 'tube beam to said second position and effective concurrent with the generation of each successive video signal for incrementally deiiecting said display tube beam in a reverse direction toward said first position; a memory storing information idefining the space in which each character in said message is displayed; means for summing the space attributable to each character in said message for developing a total character space; means for determining the space difference between said total character space and the total space provided for said message; means determining the number of spacer characters that can be displayed in said space difference; means for successively generating video signals representing said number of spacer characters; and means effective concurrent with said generation of said video signals representative of said spacer characters for incrementally moving said display tube beam through said space between the leftmost character in said second portion and the rightmost character in said first portion.

2. The system of claim 1 wherein said means for `generating video signals represenative of said characters of said first and second portions comprises a character gcnerator including a cathode ray tube; a target having a plurality of characters thereon; means for generating a beam in said character generator cathode ray tube; means for initially defiecting said character generator tube beam to a character on said target identified by said first character in said first portion and for successively defiecting said character generator tube beam to characters on said target identified by subsequent characters in said first portion; and means for secondly defiecting said character generator tube beam to a character on said target identified by said last character in said last portion and for successively detiecting said character generator tube beam to characters on :said ttarget identified by prior characters in said first portion.

3. 'Ilhe system of claim 2 including means for causing said character generator tube beam to trace a raster in a first direction over each target character identified by a character in said first portion and a raster in a second direction over each target character identified by a character in said second portion.

4. A photocomposition system compriisng a display device including a cathode ray tube and means for generating a beam in said tube; a source of messages, each of said messages including first and last portions, each portion being comprised of a plurality of ordered characters including first and last characters, said characters being represented by character codes manifested by digital data signals; a character generator device responsive to said digital data signals for initially generating a video signal representative of said first character in said first portion and for successively thereafter generating video signals representative of subsequent characters in said first portion and for secondly generating a video signal representative of said last character in said last portion and for successively thereafter generating video signals representative of prior characters in said last portion; means applying said video signals to said cathode ray tube for modulating the intensity of said beam; means for deflecting said beam to a position adjacent a first margin concurrent with the application to said cathode ray tube of said video signal representative of said first character of said first portion `and for incrementally deficcting said beam in a first direction concurrent with the application of cach succeeding video signal representative of a character in said first portion; means for defle-cting said beam to a position adjacent a second margin concurrent with the application to said cathode ray tube of said video signal representative of said last character of said second portion and for incrementally deflecting said beam in a second direction concurrent with the application of each succeeding video signal representative of a character in said second portion; a `memory sto-ring information defining the space in which each character in said message is displayed; means for summing the space attributable to each character in said message for developing a total character space; means for determining the space difference between said total character space and the total Space provided for said message; means determining the number of spacer characters that can be displayed in said space difference; and means displaying said number of spacer characters between the rst character of said second portion and the last character of said first portion.

5. In a photocomposing system, a system for spacing a two portion message, each portion including a plurality of ordered characters including first and last characters, so that the first characters in the first message portion and the last character in the second message portion are respectively aligned with first and second reference margins, said system including:

means for initially recording on a control record a digital code representing said first character in said first message portion and for subsequently recording digital codes, in order, representing succeeding characters in said first message portion;

means for subsequently recording a digital code representing said last character in said second message portion and for subsequently recording, in reverse order, digital codes representing the other characters in said second message portion;

a memory storing information defining a space value attributable to each character represented by said digital codes;

means for .summing the space values attributable to said characters represented by said digital codes recorded on said record for developing a total character space;

means for determining the space difference between said total character space and the total space provided for said message; and

means responsive to said space difference for recording on said record a plurality of digital codes each representative of a spacer character.

6. The system of claim 1 wherein said video signal deflects said display tube beam to describe said characters and including camera means for recording on light sensitive film images produced by said display tube;

means for controlling the exposure time of said camera means; and

means for relating said exposure time to 'the rate at which said beam describes said characters.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,388,961 lf/1945 Elliott 95-45 2,624,798 1/1953 Dinga 178-6] 2,923,215 2/1960 Corrado 95 4.5 2,963,544 12/1960 Nieset ITS-6.8

JOHN M. HORAN, Primary Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3357327 *May 12, 1965Dec 12, 1967Harris Intertype CorpTabulation and leader insertion for phototypesetting system
US3478327 *Jun 19, 1968Nov 11, 1969Mobark InstrDigital recording apparatus and method
US3582946 *Sep 23, 1968Jun 1, 1971Nippon Electric CoCathode-ray tube display device
US3742456 *Apr 5, 1972Jun 26, 1973Pitney Bowes IncApparatus for selectively formatting serial data bits into separate data characters
US3744033 *Jan 21, 1972Jul 3, 1973IbmText formatting for display
US3930251 *May 9, 1974Dec 30, 1975Compugraphic CorpCharacter image generation apparatus and CRT phototypesetting systems
US3955186 *May 17, 1974May 4, 1976Compugraphic CorporationCharacter image generation apparatus and CRT phototypesetting system
US4207612 *Aug 1, 1977Jun 10, 1980Realty & Industrial CorporationElectronic typographical display device with justification feature
US4661808 *Jan 31, 1985Apr 28, 1987Gulton Industries, Inc.Variable font display
US4703318 *Apr 16, 1985Oct 27, 1987Wang Laboratories, Inc.Character-based monochromatic representation of color images
US5724067 *Aug 8, 1995Mar 3, 1998Gilbarco, Inc.System for processing individual pixels to produce proportionately spaced characters and method of operation
Classifications
U.S. Classification396/550, 345/25
International ClassificationB41B27/36, B41B19/01, B41B27/00, B41B19/00
Cooperative ClassificationB41B19/01, B41B27/36
European ClassificationB41B19/01, B41B27/36