|Publication number||US3275193 A|
|Publication date||Sep 27, 1966|
|Filing date||Dec 21, 1964|
|Priority date||Dec 21, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3275193 A, US 3275193A, US-A-3275193, US3275193 A, US3275193A|
|Inventors||Barr Irwin R|
|Original Assignee||Aircraft Armaments Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (33), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 27, 1966 1, R B
CONTAINER AND METHOD RELATING TO TELESCOPICALLY EXPANDED DIAPHRAGMS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed March 15. 1962 FIG. 2
6| 60 IRWIN R. BARR INVENTOR Sept. 27, 1966 l. R. BARR 3,275,193 CONTAINER AND METHOD RELATING TO TELESCOPICALLY EXPANDED DIAPHRAGMS Original Filed March 15, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IRWIN R. BARR i E INVENTOR l2" \1 l '1 ll '& ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,275,193 CONTAINER AND METHDD RELATING TO TELE- SCOPICALLY EXPANDED DIAPHRAGMS Irwin R. Barr, Baltimore, Md., assignor to Aircraft Armaments, Inc., Cockeysville, Md., a corporation of Maryland Continuation of application Ser. No. 179,970, Mar. 15, 1962. This application Dec. 21, 1964, Ser. No. 423,631
11 Claims. (Cl. 2221) This application is a continuation of copending application Serial Number 179,970, filed March 15,1962, which application is now abandoned.
This invention relates to containers, and more particularly to dispensers and expansible chamber containers.
Briefly, according to one broad aspect of the invention, there is provided a propellant-gas sealed material propelling arrangement including a case with a bore formed therein and a folded cup-shaped Wall or diaphragm seal formed of malleable material capable of cold flow to a substantially permanent plastic deformation, in which the cup-shaped seal has a longitudinally extending inner tubular body portion closed at one end and open at its other end, with a transversely outfolded end portion integral with and formed at the open end with means connecting the outfolded end portion to the casing in substantially gas pressure sealing relation, gas pressure generating means adjacent the closed end of the cup-shaped seal for imparting longitudinal inside-out telescopic reversal movement of the tubular body portion toward and through the opposite open end, and the invertible cupshaped diaphragm seal being formed with a plurality of annular undulating folds having annular fold portions of greater diameter than other annular folded portions thereof, this providing among other advantages increased strength against lateral collapse of the cup-shaped seal during material propulsion and discharge, and in several different embodiments a desired increase in diaphragm extension, over that without such annular folds, when the device is operated. In operation, the smoothly undulating annular folds serve to prevent lateral collapse of the cup-shaped seal, which collapse would materially decrease the utility of the apparatus in that a substantial quantity of the material to be discharged would become entrapped. In the process of discharging the material, the cup-shaped seal is rolled inside-out through its open end by the action of the propellant gas on the closed opposite end, which effectively moves the cup-shaped seal in the manner of a hollow self-extensible piston, the inner material carrying cavity of which becomes smaller and smaller as the piston body progressively turns inside-out and moves forward, and the actuating chamber becoming correspondingly larger than its original relatively small interior and exterior size and volume. During this movement of the cup-shaped seal there is a substantial tendency for the lateral side walls to be laterally crushed inwardly, and the various embodiments of the present invention are effective to prevent this occurence. Inasmuch as the cupseal is formed of malleable material (as distinguished from highly elastic material such as rubber or the like) capable of cold flow to a substantially permanent plastic deformation in order to further aid in conjunction with the annular undulating folds to provide adequate strength against lateral collapse, in order to minimize the possibility of blowout of the cup-seal after inside-out telescopic reversal movement through its open end, it is desirable to provide a casing extension or other restricting annular wall beyond the open end of the cup-seal, with an interior casing wall having an internal diameter at various positions along its length which is greater than all of the annular folded portions, but which is only sufficiently greater relative to the respective portion of the seal which will 3,275,193 Patented Sept. 27, 1966 be engaged therewith after inside-out movement by a difference in diameter within the elastic elongation limit of the malleable seal material.
According to a further broad aspect of the invention, in carrying out the formation of the foregoing described material-propelling arrangement there is also provided a novel telescopically expandable housing forming an expandable chamber and including a telescopically expandable folded tubular body portion formed of malleable material, such as aluminum, steel, nickel, etc., capable of cold flow to a substantially permanent plastic deformation, the folded tubular body portion being formed of a plurality of annular smoothly undulating folds spaced along its length and being axially extendible telescopically within itself. According to one preferred embodiment the telescopically expandable folded tubular body portion has a plurality of interfolded interfacing longitudinally extending tubular portions disposed radially one within the other, the innermost tubular portion having a closed end facing an opposite closed end of a further body portion of the housing and defining therewith a telescopically expandable cavity or chamber. In addition to the advantage of improved strength for this inside-out telescopic unrolling body portion, various configurations employing such annular smoothly undulating folds enable substantially increased lengthwise expansion of the folded tubular body portion from a given original folded length with consequent increase in the expanded chamber.
A unique expansion chamber and method of expanding an enclosed chamber from one size to a larger size is thus alforded according to invention, and in the illustrated embodiment this expansion chamber and method are em ployed in the construction and operation of several unique dispensers.
Still other objects, features and attendant advantages will become apparent to those skilled in the art from a reading of the following detailed description of several physical embodiments constructed in accordance therewith, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of a container having a straight single tubular walled diaphragm shown in its position occupied prior to the dispensing operation.
FIGURE 2 is similar to FIGURE 1 except that the diaphragm is shown in its position occupied subsequent to the dispensing of an initial quantity of material.
FIGURE 3 is similar to FIGURE 1 except that other diaphragm positions are shown corresponding to the dispensing of larger quantities of material.
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary longitudinal section view of a dispenser showing one embodiment of the connection between the shells making up the container and the diaphragm inside the container.
FIGURES 5 and 6 are longitudinal cross-sectional and schematic views of one embodiment showing an undulated diaphragm according to the invention in its position prior to dispensing and at several positions during dispensing.
FIGURES 7 and 8 are longitudinal cross-section views of still another and preferred embodiment showing a diaphragm resistant to crushing and its position prior to dispensing and after initial dispensing.
FIGURE 9 is a longitudinal cross-section view of a further embodiment shown prior to and during dispensing.
Referring now to FIGUE 1, there is shown a dispenser 10 which includes hollow container 11, diaphragm 12 and valve means 13.
Container 11 comprises upper shell 14 and lower shell 15. These shells may be of pressure weldable material such as aluminum, etc., although other materials are satisfactory. Upper shell 14 has tubular walls 16 and top wall 3 17 that closes one axial end of the shell. The other end of shell 14 is open, and at, the open end, walls 16 are pro vided with a circumferential outturned lip or flange 18. Top wall 17 has an upstanding circular flange 19 centered thereonsurrounding opening 20 into which valve means 13 is inserted. 1
Bottom shell 15 has tubular walls 21 and bottom wall 22 that closes one axial end of the shell. The other end of shell 15 is open, and at the open end, walls 21 are provided with a circumferential outturned lip or flange 23.
Diaphragm or expandable wall 12 has three main parts: tubular portion 24, lip or flange portion 25 and closure 26. Portion 24 is slightly smaller in diameter than lower shell 15 and is about as long as shell 15. It has circumferential outturned flange 25 at one axial end and closure 26 at the other axial end. Diaphragm or expandable wall 12 is formed of a malleable material capable of cold flow incremental rolling bending movement to a substantially permanent plastic deformation, such as aluminum, steel, nickel, etc.
Valve means 13 includes 'base 26, body 27 and control 28. Base 26 is provided with circumferential groove 29 into which radial lip 30 on flange 19 is engaged to securely attach the valve means to the container. Curved orifice '31 in body 27 interconnects with hole 32 in base 26 for defining a passageway that vents the interior of shell 14. Control 28 extends axially through base 26 and body 27 and 'seats against a conical rim defining a portion of hole 32. Spring means (not shown) may be used to maintain control 28 seated against the rim. This control is manually operable to permit the container to be vented.
The assembly of the container and diaphragm may be understood by referring to FIGURE 4. Diaphragm 12 is first positioned in lower shell 15 with lip 25 engaged over lip 23 so that tubular portion 24 is concentric with the shell and closure 26 is adjacent to bottom wall 22. Next, shell 14 is placed on the configuration so that shell 14 opens into shell 15 with lip 18 engaged =over lip 25 of the diaphragm. The lip configuration appears as in FIGURE 4, and if the material of the shells and diaphragm are pressure weldable, the lips may now be pressure welded as at 33 to form a mechanical connection between the shells and a hermetic seal which permits the diaphragm to divide the interior of the container into two compartments. If the material is not pressure weldable, other conventional joints can be used. Gas compartment 34 is generally annular in shape and is defined by surface 35 of the diaphragm and the inside of walls 24 and 22. Material compartment 36 is generally cylindrical in shape and is defined by the other surface 37 of the diaphragm and the inside of walls 16 and 17.
After compartment 36 is filled with dispensible material, valve means 13 may be securely attached. In this manner, compartment 36 is closed and may be vented by selective operation of control 28 of the valve means. Propellant material may now be introduced into chamber 34 through an aperture (not shown) in wall 22. After such material is introduced, chamber 34 is sealed by closing the aperture. The material is preferably introduced into the gas chamber in liquid form. The particular material chosen will depend upon the ambient temperature of the environment in which the dispenser is to be used. In general, the liquid will evaporate until the pressure in the gas chamber at the desired operating temperature of the dispenser is around 50 to 75 p.s.i.g. Since the volume is relatively small when the diaphragm is in this condition, most of the material remains in the liquid phase.
When the valve means is selectively operated to vent chamber 36, the pressure in chamber 34 acts to deform the diaphragm in a particular manner. This can best be understood by recognizing that the area of closure 26 exposed to the gases is much larger than the area of lip 25 exposed to the gases. As a result, the force exerted on closure 26 and directed away from wall 22 exceeds the force exerted on lip 25 and directed away from wall 22. When the valve means is operated, closure 26 is thrust upwardly away from wall 22 causing lip 25 to be deformed into a tube having the same diameter as shell 14 and engaged with walls 16. A part of the tubular portion of the diaphragm is deformed into a circumferential lip that connects the newly formed tube with the remainder of the tubular portion. In other words, the gas pressure causes the diaphragm to be rolled up into the upper shell when the valve means is selectively operated. This causes gas chamber 34 to expand to the volume indicated at 34' in FIGURE 2 while chamber 36 decreases to the volume indicated at 36 in FIGURE 2. The change in volume of the chambers equals the volume of material dispensed.
Upon further operation of the valve means, the diaphragm may move to the position shown in FIGURE 3 where the new gas chamber 34" is larger than 34 and the new material chamber 36" is smaller than 36. It should be noted that tubular portion 24 of the diaphragm is bent and expanded during deformation from its original condition in FIGURE 1 to its subsequent conditions in FIG- URES 2 and 3, and that once a portion of the diaphragm engages the walls 16 of the upper shell, no further relative motion between such portion and the walls occurs. In other words, the deformation of the diaphragm is such that there is no frictional resistance to its deformation. This operates to limit the work required to be done by the gas to the bending and stretching of the diaphragm, and the movement of the dispensed volume of material through the valve means, without Wasting work in frictional engagement of the diaphragm with the container casing or shell 14.
As the volume of chamber 34 expands, more liquid material therein evaporates to maintain the pressure at the desired operating level. At the end of the operation, the diaphragm is completely unrolled into upper shell 14, substantially all of the material having been forced from the container and all of the propellant gases being retained in the enlarged container chamber.
To streamline the construction, lips 18, 23, and 25 may be bent over into engagement with the shells as suggested by the arrows of FIGURE 4 and as shown in FIG- URES 1-3.
Where the viscosity of the material to be dispensed is low, the pressure in the material compartment is essentially atmospheric pressure when the valve means is operated. Because the diaphragm is necessarily thin when the invention is employed in dispensers such as for foodstuffs as illustrated, there is a tendency for the tubular portion to be crushed. Where the work required to crush the tubular portion is less than the work required to unroll the diaphragm, operation of the valve means is accompanied by radial collapse :of the diaphragm instead of axial displacement of the closure. For this and other reasons the device of FIGURES 1-3 is not preferred, although it does' have limited utility in some instances, as where large ratios of expanded length versus pre-expanded length are not advantageous, or where radial crush resistance can be relatively small.
To obtain improved total lateral crush resistance as well as providing a larger ratio of expanded length/preexpanded length of the pressure expanded chamber it is highly desirable to provide a plurality of annular folds or undulations along the length of the telescopically invertible diaphragm body portion. To this end, in the improved arrangement of FIGURE 5 a series of circumferential ridges 40 is formed in the diaphragm 12. The undulated tubular portion 41 of diaphragm 12 resists the radial inwardly directed forces acting on portion 41 due to the gas pressure. This arrangement only slightly increases the total work required to unroll the diaphragm, but effectively will prevent its collapse. It is, of course, necessary that the amplitude of the undulations formed by the ridges 40 be small enough that the diaphragm material will not be stretched beyond its plastic flow limit when rolled inside-out, in order to prevent breakage of the diaphragm during the operation of the device. Various positions of diaphragm 12' during the dispensing operation are shown in FIGURE 6.
One advantage of the dispenser lies in the fact that shells 14 and are substantially identical. That is, each may be made by an impact extrusion or deep draw process, and each has a wall length that is the same. Thus, each shell need be only one half the height of the completed dispenser, and can be easily formed on conventional equipment to produce dispensers of the normal size. The fact that each shell is half the dispenser height is utilized in the diaphragm design because the joint that mechanically connects the shells into a unitary container also provides the attachment and sealing means for the diaphragm which, in the design shown in FIGURES 1-6, must extend at least half the height of the container.
A highly advantageous and preferred modification is shown schematically in FIGURES 7 and 8 at 10 employing a modified multiple fold diaphragm seal .12 which may be unrolled and extended to a length several times greater than its initial folded length. The attachment of the shells or casing sections 14, '15 and diaphragm 12" may be the same as previously described. Diaphragm 12 is multiple-folded in a series of substantially concentric tubular folds, having a first tubular portion 50 that extends from the out-turned lip 51 attaching the diaphragm to the container casing or shell, toward bottom wall 52 of bottom shell 15. Tubular portion 50 connects through a smooth annular bend 53 adjacent to bottom 52 with a second concentric tubular portion 54 which in turn connects through a further smooth annular bend 55 with a third innermost tubular portion 56 extending from told 55 toward bottom 52 and terminating in an integral end closure wall 57 which is adjacent to bottom 52. Tubular folded portions 50, 54 and 56 vfit in substantially concentric relation within the base end section 15 of the shell or casing.
In operation, diaphragm 12" is axially telescopically unrolled and extended within itself through incremental rolling and radial stretching of the material sequentially through the axially moving annular folds by the gas pressure acting thereon, with the inner tubular folded portions 50, 54 and 56 beingtelescoped axially outwardly as an integral unit toward the material discharge end of the casing 14', which may be of requisite extended length to accommodate the axially extended diaphragm 12". An intermediate position of the diaphragm 12" is indicated schematically in broken lines in FIGURE 8.
Another modification of the diaphragm and container is shown in FIGURE 9. Diaphragm 12 is similar to diaphragm 1 2' in that both are extremely resistant to radial deformation due to the gas pressure. As shown in FIGURE 9, diaphragm 12 has a generally cylindrical tubular portion 60 that is formed of a series of stepped cylinders 61 interconnected by circumferential shoulders 62. The width of the shoulders may vary from three times the metal thickness of the diaphragm to ten times the thickness, although this range is not critical. Such width reinforces the tubular portion against radial collapse due to the (gas pressure in gas compartment 63. Circumferential lip 64 at the open end of diaphragm 12" is interposed between outturned flanges 65, 66, on the container halves. Where design considerations require shoulders 62 to have sizable widths, top 67 of the container may be provided with a series of steps 68 which match the contour of diaphragm 12. In this manner, the container may be completely emptied, because the top of the container matches the inverted shape of the diaphragm. It should be noted that the operation of the embodiment of FIGURE 9, so far as the engagement of the diaphragm with the wall is concerned, is the same as the previously described embodiments. Once the diaphragm contacts the walls of the container, there is no relative motion, thereby eliminating wasted functional drag on the diaphragm.
While the invention has been described with respect to several physical embodiments and modes of practice thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various modifications and improvements may be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited by the particular illustrative embodiments, but only by the scope of the appended claims.
That which is claimed is:
1. The method of forming a larger enclosed chamber from a smaller enclosed chamber defined by a telescopically expandable folded tubular body portion closed at one end and a further fiuid-tight-interc-onnected body portion having an open end and an opposite closed end facing the closed end of said telescopically expandable body portion, said folded tubular body portion being formed of material capable of cold flow to a substantially permanent de-formtion and having a plurality of annular smoothly undulating folds disposed along its length and between said closed end and said open end of said further interconnected body portion, comprising exerting a longitudinally expanding pressure on said one closed end of said folded tubular body portion in a direction longitudinally away from said closed end and toward said open end of said further interconnected body portion and along the direction of potential telescopic expansion thereof through said open end, and telescopically longitudinally moving said closed end and the connecting undulating folded side wall material of said folded tubular body portion from within itself and away from said opposite closed end and through said open end, and sequentially plastically deforming said undulating folds through an inside-out incremental rolling reverse bend and radially stretching and expanding the material of the inner folds beyond its elastic elongation limit but Within the elongation-torupture limit upon passing of said inner folds through said reverse bend, all of said steps being effected as a function of differential pressure on said one closed end of said folded tubular body portion to thereby turn said tubular body portion inside out and expand said chamber.
2. A propellant-gas-sealed material-propelling arrange. ment comprising casing means having a bore formed therein; a cup-shaped diaphragm seal formed of malleable material of substantially constant thickness and internal rigidity, capable of cold flow to a substantially permanent plastic deformation and having a longitudinally extending inner tubular portion closed at one end and conmeeting at the opposite end with the remaining body portion, said inner tubular portion extending lengthwise along a portion of the length of said bore, a transversely outfolded end portion integral with and formed at the opposite open end of said tubular body portion, and means connecting said outfolded end portion to said casing in substantially gas pressure sealing relation, gas pressure generating means adjacent said one closed end of said cupshaped diaphragm seal for imparting longitudinal insideout telescopic reversal movement of said tubular body portion toward and through said opposite open end, said cup-shaped diaphragm .sea'l being formed with a plurality of annular smoothly undulating folds and having annular folded portions of greater diameter than other annular folded portions thereof, the annular wall of said casing means extending longitudinally from and beyond said opposite open end in a direction away from said closed one end of said cup-shaped seal and being of greater diameter than all of said annular folded portions, the ratio of the diiference between the respective internal diameter of each of said other annularly folded portions and the respective associated internal diameter of said casing means at the inside-out extending position of said cup-shaped seal relative to the original internal diameter of said other folded portions being greater than the elastic elongation limit of the seal material and less than the elongation limit to rupture of the seal material, whereby the seal may be outrolled inside-out through its said opposite open end to an enlarged position with its original inner wall permanently plastically radially expanded to form the inverted outer wall of said seal in substantial contact with the respective associated effective inner wall portion of said casing means.
3. A pr-opellant-gassealed propelling arrangement according to claim 2, said annular folded portions forming a plurality of integrally interconnected mutually laterally interfacing tubular-portions spaced radially one within the other and including said first mentioned tubular body portion as the radially innermost tubular portion, said means connecting said transversely outfolded end portion to said casing means including said annularly folded portions other than said first-mentioned tubular body portion.
4. A propellant-g-as-sealed propelling arrangement according to claim 3 wherein said plurality of tubular portions have substantially cylindrical mutually interfacing spaced apart wall portions respectively interconnected by successively longitudinally opposite smooth reverse-curved annular end wall portions.
'5. A propellant-gas-sealed propelling arrangement according to claim 3 further comprising a manually operable material-discharge control device disposed on said casing [means opposite said closed one end of said seal.
6. A pr-opellant-gas-sealed propelling arrangement according to claim 2 wherein said longitudinally extending tubular body portion has said smoothly undulating folds successively longitudinally spaced in alternating increasing and decreasing diameter form along its length.
7. A propellant-gas-sealed propelling arrangement according to claim 6 wherein said successively longitudinally spaced smoothly undulating folds are of substantially repetitive maximum and minimum diameter values.
8. A propellant-gas-sealed propelling arrangement according to claim 2, said annularly folded portions forming a plurality of integrally interconnected stepped tubular cylindrical portions of successively increasing diameter along said first-mentioned tubular body portion progressing longitudinally from said closed one end, said successively increasing diameter tubular cylindrical portions being successively further spaced from said closed one end of said inner tubular portion, and said casing means being formed longitudinally beyond said transversely outfolded end portion with succeeding decreasing diameter stepped tubular cylindrical inner wall surfaces decreasing in diameter by steps longitudinally corresponding to the respective opposite steps in said stepped tubular body portion of said seal.
9. A propellant-gas-sealed material-propelling arrangement comprising casing means having a bore formed therein; a cup-shaped diaphragm seal formed of malleable material of substantially constant thickness and internal rigidity, capable of cold-flow to a substantially permanent plastic deformation and having a longtiudinally extending inner tubular portion closed at one end and connecting adjacent its other open end in a smooth circumferential bend with the remaining body portion, which said remaining body portion is in connection adjacent its 8 other open end in fluid sealing relation to said casing, said inner tubular portion extending lengthwise along a portion of the length of said bore, gas-pressure-generating means adjacent said one close-d end of said cup-shaped diaphragm seal for imparting longitudinal inside-out telescopic reversal movement of said tubular body portion through itself, said cup-shaped diaphragm seal being formed with a plurality of annular smoothly undulating folds and having annular folded portions of greater diameter than other annular folded portions thereof, the annular wall of said casing means extending longitudinally from and beyond said seal in a direction away from said gas-pressure-generating means and in a direction along the line of motion of said seal during its said insideout telescopic reversal movement under the influence of said gas pressure, said longitudinally extended wall of said casing means being of greater diameter than a plurality of said annular folded portions, the ratio of the difference between the respective internal diameter of each of said other annularly folded portions and the respective associated internal diameter of said casing means at the inside-out extended position of said cup-shaped seal relative to the original internal diameter of said other folded portions being greater than the elastic elongation limit of the seal material and less than the elongation-to-rupture limit of the seal material, whereby the seal may be out- ,rolled inside-out through its said opposite open end to an enlarged position with its original inner wall permanently plastically radially expanded to form the inverted outer wall of said seal in substantial contact with the respective associated effective inner Wall portion of said casing means.
10. A propellant-gas-sealed propelling arrangement according to claim 9, said annular folded portions forming a plurality of integrally interconnected mutually laterally interfacing tubular portions spaced radially one within the other and including said first mentioned tubular body portion as the radially innermost tubular portion, said means connecting said transversely outf-olded end portion to said casing means including said annularly folded portions other than said first-mentioned tubular body portion.
11. A propellant-gas-sealed propelling arrangement according to claim 10, wherein said plurality of tubular portions have substanially cylindrical mutually interfacing spaced apart wall portions respectively interconnected by successively longitudinally opposite smooth reverse-curved annular end Wall portions.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,099,855 6/1914 Mallory 92l03 X 2,343,320 3/1944 Parker l3830 2,953,304 9/1960 Sellinger 222-386.5 X 3,104,526 9/1963 Hirschfeld et al. 222-386.5 X
ROBERT B. REEVES, Primary Examiner.
LOUIS I. DEMBO, Examiner. S. H. TOLLBERG, Assistant Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||222/95, 222/386.5|
|International Classification||B65D83/14, B05B11/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B05B11/0045, B65D83/62|