US 3276041 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 4, 1966 w. M. JONAS 3,276,041
GARMENT BONING MEMBER 0R STAY Filed Jan. 17, 1966 ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,276,041 GARMENT BONING MEMBER R STAY Walter M. Jonas, Easton, Pa., assignor to Maid-Rite Wire Products Corp., Long Island, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Jan. 17, 1966, Ser. No. 520,930 3 Claims. '(Cl. 2--258) This is a continuation-in-part of my pending application for United States Letters Patent Serial No. 328,425, filed December 5, 1963, now abandoned.
This invention relates generally to stiifening and shaping members of the type usually employed in undergarments, such as, brassieres, girdles, corsets and the like, and more particularly known as boning members or stays.
Various types of boning members or stays have been used in the undergarment trade. Among these existing types, have been boning members or stays formed of elongated, at strips of spring metal, whale bone, celluloid or other resilient plastic material which normally lie in a iiat plane and are capable of ilexing only in the direction normal to that plane, that is, about the laterally extending axes of their cross-sectional areas. Where it is desired to provide ilexing of the boning member or stay within the flat plane in which the latter normally lies as well as in directions perpendicular to that Hat plane, the undergarment or foundation industry has accepted as the standard for such use a boning member having a body portion of high carbon steel wire formed into a zig-zag or continuous sinusoidal shape, or into a flattened spiral shape, with the ends of the steel wire body being encased in metal or plastic tips, for example, as shown in US. Patent No. 2,908,913 and No. 3,020,557, issued October 20, 1959 and February 13, 1962, respectively, to Morton Sobel. Although the spirally wound or zig-zag shaped wire body of such a boning member is capable of flexing in its normal at plane as well as in directions perpendicular to that plane, such a boning member is relatively expensive by reason of its multi-part construction, relatively heavy and further presents rough or uneven longitudinal edges which frequently interfere with the insertion of the boning member or stay into the fabric pocket provided in the undergarment for receiving the same. The caps or tips at the ends of the wire body do become separated from the latter, in which case the sharp wire ends jab the wearer and cause acute discomfort. The steel wire forming the resiliently flexible body of the boning member also tends to rust or corrode, particularly when the undergarment is subjected to repeated laundering, and rust from the boning member stains or discolors the fabric of the undergarment. Further, the wire frequently has oil or another coating thereon, which dirties the hands of the persons inserting the boning members into garments and thus soils the latter.
Although it has been proposed, for example, in U.S. Patent No. 3,030,633, to provide a plastic boning member which can ex laterally in the normal flat plane by providing the side edges thereof with staggered V-shaped notches, such notched side edges interfere with `the insertion of the boning member into the fabric pocket provided therefor in the undergarment and do not approximate the flexural characteristics of the previously mentioned standard boning members accepted by the foundation or undergarment trade. Further, plastic boning members formed of three or more longitudinal, laterally spaced rod-like plastic elements connected to each other by staggered, spaced bridging members, as in U.S. Patent No. 3,037,211, have not beeen satisfactory in use, in that such boning members also do not provide the desired ratio of flexibility in the normal at plane to flexibility perpendicular to such plane, and are relatively expensive to produce.
Patented Oct. 4, 1966 ICC Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a yone-piece boning member or stay molded of a plastic having a high exural modulus, and which, in use, has operating characteristics, as concerns flexing and the like, corresponding to those of Athe standard boning members disclosed in the previously identified U.S. Patents No. 2,908,913 and No. 3,020,557, while being relatively inexpensive to produce and avoiding the above mentioned disadvantages of such standard boning members.
In accordance with an aspect of this invention, a onepiece, molded boning member of a plastic material having a exural modulus of at least approximately 400,000 p.s.i. at room temperature, comprises an elongated, normally flat body of an overall width approximately 4 times its thickness and having straight, smooth side edges extending substantially along the length of the body, and such body has solid end portions and longitudinal slot means extending through the body parallel to its side edges between the end portions and dividing each corresponding portion of the body into two laterally uniformly spaced, elongated elements of uniform cross-section having predetermined ratios of thickness =to width, spacing and length so as to achieve the desired flexural characteristics.
It has been found that the desired llexu-ral characteristics of the described boning member are achieved only when each of its elongated elementshas a ratio of thickness to width of approximatey 4:5 with a lateral spacing between the elements which is in the range between l to 11/2 times the Width of each element, and when the elongated elements extending along at least the middle half of the body each have a length lying in the range between approximately 16 times the width of the element and 63 rtimes the thickness of the element.
The above, and other objects, features and advantages of the invention, wiill be apparent in the lfollowing detailed description of illustrative embodiment thereof which is to be read in connection with the accompanying drawing forming a part hereof, and wherein:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary elevational view, partly broken away, `showiing the manner in which a boning member embodying this invention is incorporated in a garment;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged elevational View of the boning member of FIG. l;
FIG. 3 is a side elevational view of the boning member of FIG. 2;
FIGS. 4 and 5 are enlarged sectional views taken along the lines 4 4 and 5 5, respectively, on FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 iis a view similar to that of FIG. 2, but illustrating lateral flexing of the boning member; and
FIGS. 7 and S are further views similar to that of FIG. 2, but showing other embodiments of the invention.
Referring to the drawing in detail and initially to FIGS. 2 and 3, it will be seen that a boning member or stay embodying this invention, and there generally identified by the reference numeral 10, is of one-piece construction and is preferably molded of a plastic material having a flexural modulus of at least approximately 400,000 p.s.i. at room temperature. The plastic material employed is preferably Delrin, that is, superpolyoxymethylene having a molecular weight of at least 15,000, but other plastic materials having the requisite high flexural moduli may be used, `such as, the acetal resin available from General Electric under the tradename Celcon.
The one-piece boning member 10 consists of an elongated body lof uniform overall Width Wa and thickness T (FIG. 4) along substantially its entire length (FIGS. 2 and 3), with the overall width Wa being approximately 4 times the thickness T so that, while the boning member or stay 10 normally tends to lie in a at plane, as indicated in f-ull lines on FIG. 3, it is free to flex o-r bend out of that plane, as indicated in broken lines at 10 on FIG. 3 by reason of the relatively small thickness T of material resisting bending out of the ilat plane. The elongated body of honing member has straight longitudinal or side edges 11 extending 4along substantially the entire length of the honing member and then tapering into smoothly curved or rounded end edges 12.
Lateral ilexing of honing member 10, that is, flexing of the honing member in the normally ilat plane thereof, is made possible by providing the elongated body of the honing member with at least one longitudinal slot 13 extending therethrough parallel to the side edges 11 and terminating short of the ends of the honing member to divide the body, between the end portions 14 thereof, into laterally spaced, elongated elements 15. As shown on FIG. 5, the end portions 14 preferably taper in thickness toward the end edges and each have a 4length l from 1%. to 2 times the overall width Wa of the body.
The honing member 10 is intended to be incorporated in an undergarment 16 (of which a portion is illustrated on FIG. 1), such as, a hrassiere, girdle, corset or the like. The honing member 10 is received or sheathed in a pocket 17 formed by a fabric strip stitched to the body of the garment. In practice, the fabric stripris usually stitched to the garment along the two longitudinal edges and one end of the strip, so that the resulting pocket is open at one end for reception of the honing member. The rounded en-d edges 12 and the tapering of end portions 14 of the honing member 10 and the smooth, straight side edges 11 greatly facilitate insertion of the latter in the pocket 17 by ensuring that there are no rough edges or indentations lsusceptible of catching on the mouth of the pocket. After the honing member 10 has been inserted in the pocket 17, the open end of the latter is stitched closed. In order to further secure the Ahoning member within the pocket 17, a line of stitching 18, for example, the stitching of a hem 19 along an edge of the garment, may be passed through an end portion 14 of the honing member. Passage of the stitching 18 through the end portion 14 of the honing member is made possible by selection of the plastic material of the latter, and is further facilitated by the described tapering or reduction of thickness of the honing member at the end portions 14 thereof.
In accordance with this invention, each of the elongated elements has a ratio of its thickness T `to its Width We of approximately 4:5 and the lateral 'spacing between the elements 15, as defined by the Width Ws of slot 13 (FIG. 4) .is in the range between 1 to 11/2 times the element width We. Thus, in an illustrative example of a honing member in accordance with the invention, the thickness T of the body, and hence of each element 15, is 0.060, the width We of each element is 0.075" and the slot width Ws or spacing between the elements 15 is 0.095", giving an overall Width Wa of 0.245".
Further, in accordance with the invention, the length L (FIG. l) of slot 13, and hence the length of each element 15, lies in the range between approximately 16 times the element width We and 63 times the element thickness T. Thus, in the specific example of element Width and thickness given above, the length L of each element 15 may be between a minimum of 1.20" and a maximum of 3.78.
The effect of the .foregoing ratios of element width, thickness, spacing and length is to ensure that the honing member 10 when installed in the pocket 17 securely resists longitudinally directed forces, as -indicated by the arrows F on FIG. 1, for example, the tendency of the hem 19 which may form the upper margin of a corset or girdle, to creep downwardly, and yet, be capable of the desired degrees of exihle, both laterally in its normal flat plane and in directions perpendicular toy that plane so as to follow the body movements of the wearer land thereby afford maximum comfort to the latter.
As shown on FIG. 6, when the honing member 10 is subjected to `lateral exing by body movements of the wearer, the elongated element 15 at the inside of the curvature bends more sharply than the other elongated element 15 and therefore moves laterally across the slot 13 toward the latter.
It is to be understood that honing members or stays embodying this invention may he provided with only a single longitudinal slot, as at 13 on FIGS. 2 and 6, or with a plurality of end-to-end arranged longitudinal slots effective to divide the respective portions of the body of the honing member linto laterally spaced elongated elements which are free to move laterally relative to each other during lateral flexing of the honing member. As more particularly shown on FIG. 7, a honing member or stay 10a embodying this invention lmay be formed with two longitudinal slots 13a in end-to-end, spaced apart relationship between the end portions 14a. Thus, the end portions 14a of the honin-g member are connected by elongated elements 15a which, as before, are laterally spaced apart so as to be free to flex or move laterally relative to each other. In accordance with this invention, the elements 15a -have the ratios of width, thickness, spacing and length mentioned above with respect to the honing member 10 so as to provide the requisite ratios of flexing laterally 'in the normal ilat plane and o'f flexing perpendicular to that plane, and also to provide the necessary resistance to movement of end portions 14a toward each other. When the honing member 10a -is subjected to lateral ilexin-g, the elongated elements 15a at the inside of the curve or bend are bent more sharply than the corresponding outer elongated elements and move laterally toward the latter across the intervening slots 13a. Although there is a relatively rigid connection 16a between the opposite sides of the honing member 10a at the middle of the latter, such rigid connection does not substantially interfere with the relative movements of the elongated elements 15a between the middle of the honing member and the end portions 14a of the latter. In order to ensure that the rigid connection 16a does not unduly restrict lateral flexing of the honing member 10a, such rigid connection 16a must have a length along the honing member that does not substantially exceed the overall width Wa of the honing member.
Referring now to FIG. 8, it will be seen that a still longer honing member or stay 10b in accordance with this invention may be formed with four longitudinal slots 13b and 13b in end-to-end, spaced apart relationship between the end portions 14h. Thus, t-he end porhions 1412 are connected by elongated elements 15b and 15b spaced apart by the respective slots 13b and 13'b so as to he .free `to flex or move laterally relative to each other. Where the honing member has more than two slots, as in FIG. 8, at least the elongated elements 15b which extend along the -middle half of the honing member have ratios of width, thickness, spacing and length L as specified above in connection with the honing memher 10, Whereas the remaining elongated members 15b have ratios of width, thickness and spacing, as previously specilied, but may have lengths L' that .are shorter than the previously mentioned minimum of 16 times the width of each element 15b. In all cases, the rigid connections 16h between slots 13b and the rigid connections 16b between the adjacent ends of slots 13b and 13'b preferably have lengths that do not substantially exceed the overall Width of the honing member.
It will be apparent that honing members -or stays embodying this invention, being of one-piece construction and formed of plastic material, will be inexpensive, light in weight, and perfectly clean and lcorrosion resistant, all of which are desirable characteristics for incorporation in undergannents of the described character. Further, the tapering and .rounded or curved end portions 14, 14a or 1412, being formed integrally with the remainder of the honing member, cannot become separa-ted therefrom, even under severe usa-ge, and thereby avoid the previously mentioned disadvantageous tendency of the caps or tips to separate from the zig-zag or flat spirally wound spring wire bodies of the only existing laterally flexible boning members of comparable characteristics.
Although illustrative embodiments of this invention have been described in detail herein with reference to the accompanying drawing, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to those precise embodiments, and that various changes and modifications may be effected therein by one skilled in the art without departing from the sc-ope or spinit Iof the invention, except as dened in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A one-piece, molded boning member of a plastic material having a ilexural modulus of at least approximately 400,000 p.s.i. at room temperature, comprising an elongated, normally at body having a thickness of approximately 0.060 inch, said body having an overall width approximately 4 times its thickness and having straight, smooth side edges extending substantially along the Ilength of said body, said body having solid end portions and longitudinal slot means extending through said body parallel to said side edges between said end portions, said slot means dividing each corresponding portion of the body into two laterally uniformly spaced, elongated elements lof uniform cross-section and each having a ratio of thickness to width of approximately 4:5 with a lateral spacing between said elements which is in the range between 1 to 11/2 times said widths thereof, the elongated elements extending along at least the middle half of said body each having a length lying in the range between approximately 16 times said width of each element and 63 times said thickness of each element so as to permit lateral exing of the boning member in its normal flat plane and flexing of the boning member out oi said plane while adequately resisting substantial movement of said end portions toward each other.
2. A boning member according to claim 1; wherein said slot means consists of a single slot extending through said body un-interruptedly between said end portions thereof.
3. A honing member according to claim 1; wherein said slot means consists of `a plurality of slots extending throu-gh said body in end-tofend, :longitudinally spaced relationship between said end portions, and -the spacing between adjacent ends of said slots is not substantially greater than said overall width ofthe body.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 394,746 12/ 1888 Williamson 2-259 469,619 2/ 1892 Weldon 2-264 766,630 8/1904 Kops 2-259 913,435 2/1909 Schloss 2-134 2,710,967 6/1955 Bohm 2--260.1 2,908,913 10/ 1959 Sobel 2-260 3,020,557 2/ 1962 Sobel 2-260 3,030,633 4/1962 Chalfin 2-258 3,037,211 6/1962 Bohm 2-256 FOREIGN PATENTS 9,487 1885 Great Britain.
JORDAN FRANKLIN, Primary Examiner.
A. R. GUEST, Assistant Examiner.