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Publication numberUS3276869 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 4, 1966
Filing dateMay 9, 1961
Priority dateMay 9, 1961
Publication numberUS 3276869 A, US 3276869A, US-A-3276869, US3276869 A, US3276869A
InventorsMccune Jr William J
Original AssigneePolaroid Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Capsular product coated with silver halide and containing a color-providing substance
US 3276869 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 4, 1966 w ccu JR 3,276,869

CAPSULAR PRODU CT COATED WITH SILVER HALIDE AND CONTAINING A COLOR-PROVIDING SUBSTANCE Filed May 9. 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 VENTOR.

Oct. 4, 1966 w. J. MCCUNE, JR 3,276,869

CAPSULAR PRODUCT COATED WITH SILVER HALIDE AND CONTAINING A COLOR-PROVIDING SUBSTANCE Fled May 9, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 RUPTURABLE CONTAINER HOLDING PROCESSING COMPOSITION IMAGE'RECEIVING ELEMENT SILVER HALIDE EMULSION LAYER {LIGHT REFLECTIVE CAPSULES CONTAINING 72 DYE E.G.DYE DEVELOPER 74 F 'G 3 SUPPORT SUPPORT oe -REcEvNG LAYER- ||2 LAYER OF PROCESSING COMPOSITION e BLuE-sENsTvE SILVER HALDE EMULsoN o4 YELLOW DYE E.G. YELLOW DYE DEVELOPER o2 GREEN-sENsTwE SILVER HALIDE EMULSION oo MAGENTA DYE E.G. MAGENTA DYE DEVELOPER 0 %g RED-sENsTvE SILVER HALDE EMuLsoN LIGHT REFLECTIVE CAPSULES coNTANNG 92 CYAN DYE E.G. CYAN DYE DEVELOPER SUPPORT {BLuE-sENsTvE SILVER HALDE AND YELLOW DYE Es. YELLOW DYE DEVELOPER INTERLAYER coNTANNG YELLOW FLTER '30 GREEN-sENsmvE SILVER HALIDE AND [28 MAGENTA DYE E.G. DYE DEVELOPER ae .SENsTvE sLvER-HALDE LAYER REFLECTIVE CAPSULES CONTAINING 24 DYE E.G. CYAN DYE DEVELOPER I SUPPORT SILVER HALIDE EMuLsoN LAYER MIXTURE OF LIGHT REFLEcTvE CAPSULES, 46 u ONE TYPE CONTAINING YELLOW DYE, ONE

Z I I I 331 1 1 3 3:I TYPE coNTANNG MAGENTA DYE AND oNE 144 of....03.070.ototpfoo. V TYPE CONTAINING CYAN DYE I42 SUPPORT Oct. 4, 1966 J. MCCUNE, JR 2 3 W. CAPSULAR PRODUCT COATED WITH SILVER HALIDE AND CONTAINING A COLOR-PROVIDING SUBSTANCE Filed May 9, 1961 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 IMAGE RECEIVING LAYER SUPPORT RUPTURABLE CONTAINER HOLDING PROCESSING FLUID eo 5e{ !58 PHOTOSENSITIVE LAYER OF MINUTE CAPSULES '50 5 III/m {CONTAING A COLOR-PROVIDING SUBSTANCE mm E.G. DYE DEVELOPER F I G. 7

SUPPORT IMAGE-RECEIVING LAYER !84 LAYER OF PROCESSING FLUID v --1- I [BLUE -SENSITIVE MINUTE CAPSULES CONTAINING,

FOR EXAMPLE, YELLOW DYE DEVELOPER ITS- f GREEN-SENSTIVE MINUTE CAPSULES CONTAINING,

7o l76v4\\\\ `{FoR EXAMPLE, MAGENTA DYE DEVELOPER RED-SENSITIVE MINUTE CAPSULES CONTAlNlNG, 72 [FOR EXAMPLE, CYAN DYE DEVELOPER SUPPORT SUPPORT 25 IMAGE-RECEIVING LAYER LAYER OF PROCESSING FLUID {SCREEMEACH LIGHT-SENSITIVE PORTION 214 mm coNssTNG OF MINUTE CAPSULES CONTAINING F I. COLOR-PROVIDING SUBSTANCE FOR {22 SUBTRACTIVE COLOR SUPPORT F G. IO

INVENTOR. a %c Cu,

United States Patett O 3,276,869 CAPSULAR PRODUCT COATED WITH SILVER HALIDE AND CONTAINING A COLOR-PRO- VlDlNG SUBSTANCE William J. McCune, Jr., South Lincoln, Mass., assignor to Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Mass., a corporation of Delaware Filed May 9, 1961, Ser. No. 108,774 11 Claims. (CI. 96-3) This invention relates to capsules adapted to retain solid and fluid materials and to the -use of such capsules in photographic color processes for forming monochromatic and multichromatic images and to photographic products for carrying out said processes.

A principal object of the present invention is to provide improved capsules, that is, improved capsules of the construction comprising a nucleus of a solid or fluid material contained or encapsulated within a shell-like coating of a film-forming polymeric material, the outermost surface or wall of the capsules being coated with -a suitable material to predeterminedly modify said wall.

Another object of the invention is to provide minute capsules of the aforementioned constr-uction which possess substantially high impermeability or impe'viousness to prevent loss of encapsulated fluid material or to occlude environmental substances such as water vapor or oxygen or the like from contact with encapsulated material which may be sensitive or reactive therewith.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide color images =by a process wherein the effective emulsion speed of the photosensitive element employed is substantially ncreased by utilizing minute capsules -of the aforementioned Construction.

Another object of the invention is to provide novel products and processes utilizing minute capsules of the aforementioned construction for forming color images by transfer techniques wherein an imagewise distribution of one or more color-providing substances is formed in -unexposed parts of a negative photosensitive element having one or more light-sensitive portions having silver halide therein and transferred to an image-receiving element, and wherein the imagewise distribution of each color-providing substance so transferred -by imbibition and deposited upon the image-receiving element arranged in superposed relation t-o the negative photosensitive element colors the image-receivng element a predetermined color to provide therein a monochromatic or multichromatic image comprsng one or more positive images of negative latent color images -formed by the exposure of said photosensitive element.

Still another object of the invention is the provision of a photosensitive element, usable in a color process which comprises a support, one or more light-sensitive portions comprisng a silver halide emulsion, capsules containing at least a predetermined color-providing substance, such as, for example, a dye which is capable of coupling with an oxidized silver halide developer or a dye which is itself a silver 'halide developer, associated with each light-sensitive portion, the color-providing substance employed adapted to be transferred at least in part to an imagereceiving element for coloring said image-receiving element, said capsules having a light reflecting coating for iucreasing the effective emulsion speed of the photosensitive element.

A further object of the invention resides in the provision of a photographic product in the nature of a film -unit especially adapted for use in a transfer process and comprising a photosensitive element or negative material of the character described above, a positive image-receiving element adapted to be associated with said negative photosensitive element in superposed relation thereto, and a container holding a liquid processing composition for processing said film unit after exposure thereof.

A further object of the present invention is to provide novel photographic processes and products for obtaining color images -by diffusion-transfer processes, wherein color-providing substances such as dye developers utilized to provide said colored images are encapsulated within minute capsules of alkali-permeab-le polymeric material, said capsules being coated with silver halide.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide nove] photosensitive elements comprising at least one layer containing minute capsules of alkalipermeable polymeric material, said capsules containing therewithin :a color-providing substance and being coated with silver halide.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide novel minute capsules of alkali-permeable polymeric material containing therewithin a color-providing substance, said capsules being coated With silver halide.

Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.

The invention accordingly comprises the several steps and the relation and order of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, and the products possessing the features, properties and the relation of elements which are exemplified in the following detailed disclosure and the scope of the application of which will `be indicated in the claims.

For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the drawings wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a broken-away, side elevation of an apparatus for performing steps of a process for producing products of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-section of the apparatus of FIG- URE 1, taken substantially above the line 2-2;

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic enlarged side elevation of one embodiment of a film unit comprising a negative photosensitive element useful in carrying out the practices of this invention and, in association with said photosensitive element, an image-receiving element and a rupturable container, the three elements together providing a photographic product employable to carry out a photographic transfer process;

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic enlarged sectional view illustrating the association of elements during one stage of the performance of a transfer process, the thickness of the various materials being exaggerated, and FIG. 4 further illustrates another embodiment of a photosensitive element useful in carrying out the practices of the invention for the formation of multicolor images;

FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic enlarged sectional View of still another embodinent of a photosensitive element useful in carrying out the practices of this invention;

FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic enlarged sectional view of still another embodiment of a photosensitive element useful in carrying out the practices of this invention;

FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view of a photographic film unit for use in obtaining monochromatic images, and comprisng a photosenstive element, an im-age-receiving element and a rupturable container holding a liquid processing fluid;

FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional View of one embodiment of this invention for use in obtaining multicolor images, during processing, and comprising an integral multilayer photosensitive element, an imagereceiving element and a processing fluid;

FIG. 9 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view of another embodiment of this invention for use in obtaining multicolor images, during processing, and comprising a photosensitive element, an image-receiving element and a processing fluid; and

FIGURE is a diagrammatic cross-sectional View of still another embodiment of this invention for use in obtaining multcolor images, during processing'and comprisng a photosensitve color screen element, an imagereceiving element and a processing fluid.

The formation in a variety of sizes and shapes of capsules consisting of a nu'cleus comprsing, for example, a liquid around which is deposited a dense shell-like coating of a film-forming organic polymeric material is well known to the art. A great number of materials in solid or liquid form may be encapsulated. For example, materials such as mineral and Vegetable oils, kerosene, gasoline, turpentine, carbon tetra-chloride, chloroform, flavors, perfumes, catalysts, propellants, oxidizers, medicines, eg., vitamins, color-providing substances or materials, e.g., dye developers, adhesives, magnetic materials and a host of others have been encapsulated. Release of the encapsulated material at the required time may be accomplished in any one of several ways suchas, for example, rupturing or breaking, melting, dssolving, etc. the capsule wall.

The applications or uses for such encapsulated materials are obviously numerous. For example, in U.S. Patents 2,712,5()7, 2,730,456 and 2,730,457 there is disclosed, for use in manifold record materials, microscopc pressure-rupturable capsules comprising film-forming hydrophilic colloid material deposited around a central nucleus of `an oily water-immiscible printing fluid. In

U.S. Patent 2,932,582 there is disclosed a transfer record sheet having a coatng of microscopc, pressure-rupturable capsules containing a liquid solvent or vehicle for a coloring material carried by saidsheet in solid form. In U.S. Patent 2,907,682 there is disclosed adhesive tapes which employ microscopc pressure-rupturable capsules containing solid soluble adhesive and microscopc pressure-rupturable capsules containing a liquid solvent for the solid adhesive used. The use of encapsulated dyes has also been proposed for various photographic systems. Pressure-rupturable capsules containing particles of magnetic material, e.g., 'magnetic iron oxide, have been disclosed for printing purposes. Other uses are as means for storing and handling hazardous, reactive, toxic or noxious materials, etc.

In a great many uses, a capsule wall of high impermeability is desired in order, for example, to prevent l-oss of encapsulated fluid material or to exclude environmental substances such as moisture, oxygen or the like from contact with the encapsulated material. In the present invention there are provided capsules having the outer surfaces or walls thereof coated with a thin continuous film or layer of a metal such as, for example, aluminum or other material, for example, polymeric fiuorocarbons which increase the impermeability of the capsule wall without at the same time (a) appreciably increasing the wall thickness or capsule size, (b) appreciably modifying the rupture or release characteristics of the capsule wall, and (c) undesirably modifying the wall-to-fill ratio. The thin continuous coating may be applied by any one of several methods such as, for example, spraying, electroplating, vapor deposition and the like.

The minute capsules of the present invention -may be formed of film-forming polymeric material of a hydrophilic nature or character such as, for example, gelatin; or they may be formed of film-forming' polymeric material of a hydrophobic nature such as, for example, polyvinyl chloride Each capsule consists of a nucleus comprising, for example, a solid or substantially solid material, e.g., magnetc iron oxide or a fluid material, e.g., a color-providing substance in solution or dispersed in a suitable medium around which has been deposited a dense shell-like coating of film-forming polymeric material which may be pressure-rupturable.

The encapsulating material which encl-oses or surrounds the nucleus may comprise one or more hydrophilic film-forming polymeric materials or one or more filmforming hydrophobic polymeric materials. Thus, hydrophilic polymeric materials such as gelatin, gum arabic, methyl cellulose, starch, alginates, polyvinyl alcohol, casein, agar-agar and the like may be utilized `as encapsulating materials. It is also possible to employ as the encapsulating material a complex' of film-forming hydrophilic ,polymeric materials. By a "complex" of hydrophilic polymeric materials is meant the product resulting from the union in a suitable medium of two kinds of hydrophilic polymeric materials having opposite ionic charges in said medium, the union being brought about by such difierence in charge. Hydrophobic polymeric materials such as, for example, polyvinyl chloride, butadiene-sty'ene containing resins, acrylic resins, urethanes, fluorocarbons, polyethylene, polyvinylidine chloride, regenerated `cellulose and the like, may also be employed as the relatively thick or self-supporting shell-like encapsulating wall. The encapsulating material selected in `any specific instance depends upon the encapsulating process employed and the particular material to be encased therewithin.

There are` many ways in which the capsules of the present invention may be formed and 'which are well known to the art. suitable methods are described, for example, in U.S. Patents 2,800,457, 2,800,458, and 2,907,682. One illustrative method of making minute or microscopc capsules of film-forming hydrophilic polymeric` material containing a color-providing substance such as a dye or dye intermediate comprises making an aqueous sol of a hydrophilic polymeric material, e.g., gelatin, and emulsifying therein a water-immiscible organic liquid, in which the color-providing substance is dissolved or stability Suspended until the required microscopc drop size is attained, and thereafter diluting the emulsion with water or an acidified .aqueous solution in such amout so as to cause the hydrophilic polymeric material to deposit around each microscopc drop of adhesive. All of the foregoing steps are carried out at a temperature above the gelatin or solidification point of the polymeric material. In the case of gelatin, the temperature during these steps is maintained at 50 C. or above. Gelation or solidification of the encapsulating material is then achieved by cooling to a temperature below the gelation or solidfication point of the material. If this latter step is performed rapidly, as by rapid cooling, the pore size of the resultant capsules will be small. If the gelation step is performed slowly, the pore structure of the encapsulating material will be coarser. At this point the encapsulating of the color-providing substance with hydrophilic polymeric material is complete.

If it is desirable to make the capsular material, as produced above, hard, more heat resistant and insoluble in water, it can be treated, for examplewith a well-known gelatin hardener, e.g., formaldehyde and the like. If desired, after hardening and drying, the agglomerate mass of capsules may be comminuted to form fine granules of any desired size.`

An illustrative method .of making capsules of two hydrophilic polymeric materials such as gelatin and gum arabic comprises forming two compatible sols by dispersing hydrophilic materials such as gum arabic and gelatin in water, mixng the two aqueous sols together and then emulsfying therein the water-immiscible organic liquid and color-providing substance or emulsifying the organic liquid and color-providing substance in one of the sols first and then mixng the emulsion with the second sol. The pH of the emulsion so formed, if necessary, maybe adjusted so that the ions of the two materials, e.g., gum arabic and gelatin have different electric charge. Deposition of a complex of hydrophilic materials around microscopc nuclei or droplets of the water-immiscible organic liquid 'containing a color-providing substance i achieved by dlution with water and/ or changing the pH of the mixture. All of the foregoing steps are carried out at temperatures above the gelation or solidification point of the hydrophilic polymeric material. Gelatin is achieved as previously described, that is, by cooling the complex encapsulating material below its gelation or solidification temperature.

More detailed descriptions of preparing minute capsules by emulsion techniques as illustrated above may be found in a number of patents. For example, U.S. Patents 2,800,4S7 and 2,800,458 disclose mixtures for making minute oil-containing capsules. The droplet of enclosed oil may have Suspended or dissolved therein a dye or dye intermediate. U.S. Patent 2,907,682 discloses methods for encapsulating adhesive materials as well as methods for encapsulating solvents or vehicles for said adhesive materials. U.S. Patent 2,932,5 82 discloses methods for encapsulating liquid solvents or vehicles for printing or making materials. U.S. Patent 2,953,454 discloses a method for encapsulating a color-forming material whose electromagnetic absorption characteristics may be reversibly changed by diiferent applied electromagnetic radiations. U.S. Patent 2,971,916 discloses a method for making capsules containing a magnetic material. The encapsulation of other materials has also been disclosed in a number of the above patents.

Another encapsulation method known -to the art comprises feeding or extrudng a film-forming encapsulating material in viscous liquid form into a nozzle where it forms a membrane over the nozzle's orifice and introducing into such membrane through a tube leading to the orifice a filler material, eg., color-providing substance. In one embodment the film-surrounded filler separates into minute capsules by gravitational and surface tension forces. In another embodiment the film-surrounded filler is ejected from the nozzle by centrifugal force. In each case the minute capsules so formed are dropped or flung into a suitable bath to cause hardening or setting of the encapsulating film-forming material. More detailed descriptions of making capsules according to the above techniques may be found, for example in U.S. Patent 2,275,154, Chemical and Engineering News, July 13, 1959, page 44, and Design News, June 20, 1960.

The permeability of fiuids through the capsule walls may be decreased by providing the outer wall or surface of the capsules with a thin continuous coating of suitable material, preferably a metal such as, for example, aluminum. One process for coating each capsule with a thin continuous film or layer of a metal or metal-hearing compound, e.g., metal oxide, or other material, e.g., Teflon (trademark of E. I. du Pont for tetrauoroethylene polymers), involves vacuum deposition. The step of vacuum depositing may involve either thermally evaporating or cathode sputtering at pressures below about 100 microns of mercury and usually within the range of from 0.1 to 100 microns of mercury and depositing the vaporized material as a thin continuous coating upon the outer wall of the capsules. When the vacuum deposition is efiected by thermal evaporation, pressures below 10 microns are usually employed. The temperature employed, in any case, is dependent upon the material being evaporated and pressure. When the vacuum deposition is etfected by cathode sputtering, voltages of the order of 5 to 10 kilowatts, and pressures of from 10 to microns of mercury are common.

Among the large number of metals or metallic materials capable of being vacuum deposited upon the outermost surfaces of capsules, mention may be made of, for example, aluminum, silver, Zinc, magnesium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, nickel, iron, tin, platinum, palladium and the like. Metal oxides such as aluminum oxde, tin oxide and other metal-containing compounds may also be employed as the capsule coating. Organic materials such as certain polymeric materials, e.g., Teflon, may also be vacuum deposited upon the capsules. The

thickness of the vacuum-deposited coating may be varied or controlled, suitable thicknesses generally being within the range of 0.1 to 1 micron. Thicker coatings, for example, between l and 10 microns may be deposited especially when maximum impermeability is desired. It should be pointed out that the capsule wall coating may comprise one or more materials. For instance, the coating may comprise a single metal or an alloy or it may comprse two or more distinct layers of diflerent metals such as, for example, a first layer comprisng copper and a second layer overcoated on said first layer comprising aluminum.

FIGURES 1 and 2 illustrate an apparatus for evaporating a material 20 onto capsules 22. Material 20, for example, is a metal in the form of a coating upon a wire ganze. Capsules 22 are contained within a cylindrcal glass jar 24, one end of which is closed at 26 and the other end of which is provided with an open mouth 28. Gauze 20 is supported by a mounting arm 30 extending through mouth 28 and carried by a standard 32. Jar 24 rests upon a pair of rollers 34 and 36, the ends of which are journaled in hearing mounts 38 and 40. A motor 42 is provided for rotating rollers 34 and 36 through gearing 37 in order to cause rotation of jar 24, which is prevented from moving longitudinally by circular flanges 44 at the ends of the rollers. As shown, electrical leads 46 and 48 are connected to the opposite extremities of ganze 20 in order to transmit a suitable electric current through the gauze from a power supply (not shown). In operation, a sufiicient current is transmitted by leads 46 and 48 through ganze 20 for generating sufiicient heat to cause rapid evaporation of the coating of ganze 20. At the same time, motor 42 causes rotaton of rollers 34 and 36 so that capsules 22 are continuously agitated by movement of the inner surfaces, of jar 24 as well as a plurality of ribs 50 projecting inwardly from the inner surfaces of :the jar. The apparatus, including jar 24, is mounted on a base plate 52 and enclosed by such means as a glass cylinder 54 and a cover plate 56. O-ring gaskets 57 hermetically seal glass cylinder 54 between base plate 52 and cover plate 56. A pump (not shown) continuously exhausts the region defined by base plate 52, glass cylinder 54 and cover plate 56 through a condut 60. capsules 22 as a result, become coated with a thin continuous coating of the metal which initially was part of gauze 20.

Instead of employing a metal coated wire gauze, there may be employed one or more metal-containing crucibles suitably heated such as by resistance or induction. The crucible may be composed of carbon or .tantalum or some other material or materials well-known to the art.

Another method for producing a thin continuous metallic coating on capsule walls involves so-called "cathode sputtering. When an electrical discharge is passed between electrodes under low gas pressure, the cathode electrode is slowly disintegrated under bombardment by ionized gas molecules. The disintegrated material leaves the cathode surface and is condensed on capsules provided around the cathode. Likewise, other apparatus` for carrying out the process wherein the capsules are moved past a source of vacuum evaporated metal while being held in a circumferential path by centrifugal force is illustrated, for example, in U.S. Patent 2,846,971. In addition to apparatus of the above-mentioned type, there may also be employed apparatus wherein the capsules are coated by allowing them to freely fall through vapors of the metal provided by one or more sources. One, such apparatus is illustrated, for example, in U.S. Patent 2,374,331.

Another process for coating each capsule with a thin continuous metallic film or layer involves plating techniques such as electroplating. Since the capsule walls are non-metallic, the outer surface must be made conductive before plating. This may be achieved by vacuum depositing a very thin coating of a conductive metal,

e.g., copper, upon the outer capsule wall as described above or a shellac or lacquer with a suspension of a conductive material such as a conductive metal powder, e.g., bronze powder, or graphte can be sprayed or dusted on the outer capsule walls. capsules provided with a conductive surface may be plated with a continuous metallic coating of a suitable thickness, e.g., 0.1 to l micron, by any one of the many appropriate electroplating techniques Well known to the art.

It should be mentioned that the thin continuous capsule coating of a metal or other material -in addition to imparting increased impermeability to the capsule wall may also serve some other purpose or role such as, for example, for light reflectivity, for reaction with the nucleus material etc.

One particular applicability of the capsules of the prescnt invention is in certain products or -assemblages useful in photographic transfer reversal processes capable of producing a color print. In processes for forming color images by transfer techniques, an imagewise distribution of one or more color-providing substances is formed in urexposed parts of a negative photosensitive element having one or more .light-sensitive. portions having silver halide therein and transferred to an image-receiving element. The imagewise distribution of each .color-providing substanoe so transfer-red and deposited upon the imagereceiving element arranged in superposed relation to the negative photosensitive element colors the image-receiving element a predetermined color to provide therein a monochromat-ic or multichromatic image comprising one or more positive images of negative 'latent color images formed by the exposure of said photosensitive element. Among the techniques for carrying out a transfer process in color, mention may be made of, for example, (a) the processes disclosed and claimed in the copending application of Howard G. Rogers, Serial No. 748,42 1, filed July 14, 1958, whereindye developers (i.e., compounds which contain in the same molecule both the chromephoric system of a dye and also a silver hal ide developing function) are the color-.providing substances or colorforming components; (b) the processes disclosed in U.S. Patent 2,774,668 and copending applications Serial No. 565,135, filed February 13, 1956, Serial No. 748,42l, previously cited, now -U.S. Patent No. 2,983,606, and Serial No. 613,69 1, -filed October 3, 1956 wherein complete dyes of suitable colors and of a nature having a coupling group or function and which are able to couple with silver halide developers in oxidized condition are the color-providing substances; (c) the processes disclosed and claimed in U.S. Patents Nos. 2,647,049, 2,661,293, 2,698,244, 2,698- 798 and 2,802,735 wherein color coupling techniques are utilized which comprise, at least in part, reacting one or more developing agents and one or more color formers to provide a positive color image in a superposed imagereceving layer; and (d) the processes disclosed in the copending application of Howard G. Rogers, Serial No.

825,359, filed July 6, 1959, now U.S. Patent No. 3,l85,- i

567, wherein the color-providing substances employed are initially immobile or nondiifusible but which are rendered dilfusible in unexposed areas of the photosensitive layer by reaction 'with unreacted or unexhausted silver halide developing agent. Such color-providing substances are hereirafter referred to as "reducible dyes."

The expression "color-providing substance" as `used herein is intended to include all types of reagents'which may be utilized to produce a color image, and such reagents may initially possess the desired color or may undergo a reaction to -give 'the desired color. In a preferred embod-iment, the color-providing substances are dye developers, that is, complete dyes which have a silver halide developing function as disclosed, for example, in the co& pending application of Howard G. Rogers, Serial No. 748,421 The use of color formers or couplers which react with the oxidation product of color developers to produce a dye, and therefore dye in-termed-iates, is also 8; contemplated within the term color-providing substance." The use of complete dyes per seas color-forming substances is also within the scope of this invention; ,The nature of these and other color-providing substances will be referred to in more det-ailhereinafter.`

It has been found that color-providing substances such as mentioned above utilized to provide color images may be encapsulated or contained within a shell-like coating of a film-forming polymeric material. The nucleus of such capsules may comprise a color-providing substanca in substantially solid form which is, for example, solubilized by the processing composition or the nucleus may comprise a suitable l-iqui'd solvent or medium in which a color-providing substance is dissolved or Suspended. In order to prevent loss of the nucleus liquid and/ or to retard or prevent undesirable environmental materials from reacting with the nucleus materials, the outer surfaces of the capsule wall are coated With a thin continuous film such as, for example, of aluminum or silver. These capsules may be utilized in the photosensitive element, for example, in or behind the ,silver halide emulsion. Preferably, a coating or layer `of the capsules containing a color-providing substance, eg., a dye developer, is placed behind the silver halide emulsion, i.e., on the side of the emulsion adapted to be located most distant from the photographed subject when the emulsion `is exposed and most distant from the image-receiving element when in superposed relationship therewith. Placing such capsule layer or stratum behind the emulsion has the'advantage of providing incrcased contrast in the positive image.

When employing a layer or stratum of capsules which contain, for example, a dye developer, reducible dye or complete dye in' the preferred manner, i.e., behind the silver halide emulsion, it has been found that the effective emulsion speed can be substantially increased by having the outer surfaces or portions of such capsules provided witha thin coating such as of a suitable metal adapted to reflect light of all visible wave lengths incident upon it. The increase in effective emulsion speed is apparently* due to the fact that previously the colored dye would ordinani- 'ly absorb light Whereas now the reflecting coating utilizes some of the otherwise Wasted light to increase the absorption of light in theemulsion when it is exposed. Thus the emulsion is effect-ively more sensitive since the exposure depends on the absorption of light.

In its broadest aspect, the emulsion speed of a photosensitive element may be increased by employing a lightreecting environment, either difiuse or specular reflecting, behind a silver halide emulsion, but in front of the colorproviding substance. This broad concept is Conveniently carried out by the employment of a photosensitive element which comprises a support carrying thereon a photosensitive layer or stratum comprising -a l iqu-id-permeable material, for example, gelatin or other waterand alkalpermeable carrier having silver halide therein, and a layer comprising a profusion of minute capsules behind the photo-sensitive layer, said capsules compr'sing a wall or shell-like coating of a film-formin-g polymeric material surrounding a nucleus containing a predetermined colorproviding substance such as, for example, a dye developer, the outer surfaces of said capsules having a suitable lightreflecting coating. In the present -invention there is thus employed capsules having the outer surfaces of the capsule wall coated with a thin, light-reflecting film or layer such as, for example, of silver or aluminum which not only increases the effective emulsion speed bu-t also increases` the impermeability of the capsule walls so as. to prevent loss of encapsulated liquidmaterial or to exclude environmental substances such as moisture, oxygen or the like 'from contact with the encapsulated materials. The minute capsules may be formed by .processes such as previously mentioned. The thin contimous lightreflecting coating may be applied to the capsule walls by any one of several methods such as, for example, spraying, electroplating, vapor deposition and the like as heretofore described.

A further Understanding of the inventive concepts herein may be gained by reference to the drawings. For purposes of Simplicity the drawings will be described in connection with the use of dye developers, although other dyes such as reducible dyes, complete dyes and the like can also be employed in a like manner. One embodiment of a photographic film unit or assembly useful in carrying out a one-step photographic process for the formation of an image of an indivdual color is illustrated in FIG. 3. In FIG. 3 there is shown a film unit making use of a positive sheet material or image-receiving element 70 comprsng an image-receiving layer of opaque or transparent material which is liquid-permeable and dyeable from alkaline solutions and which has been illustrated for the purposes of Simplicity as a single sheet, for example, of paper. However, the positive element 70 may comprise a support upon which at least one liquid-permeable and dyeable layer is mounted.

The film unit also employs a negative sheet material or photosensitive element 72 comprising a support 74 of paper or film base material upon which there is mounted, in the order or sequence named, a layer 76 comprising a profusion of minute capsules in substantial contiguity, said capsules containing a dye such as a dye developer and having the outer surfaces thereof provided with a thin, light-reflecting coating and a conventional photosensitive layer 78 of silver halide. As previously noted, the use of a reecting layer behind a silver halide emulsion layer but in front of a dye layer makes available otherwise wasted light for absorption by the emulson while minimizing -the absorption by the dye of light needed for exposure.

As shown in FIG. 3 the photosensitive element 2 and the image-receiving element 70, for the purpose of positive image formation, are adapted to be placed in superposed relation and are arranged so that the photosensitive layer -or stratum 7 8ris next to the image-receiving element 70.

Also, in the film unit of FIG. 3 a rupturable container 80, adapted to carry an alkaline solution or liquid processing composition, is shown positioned transversely of and adhered to the image-receiving element 70. If desired, the container 80 maybe adhered to the photosensitive element 72. container 80 is of a length approximating the width of the film unit and is constructed to carry sufiicient liquid to efl ect negative image formation in an exposed image area of the photosensitive layer 78 and positive image formaton in the corresponding image area of image-receiving element 70. In use, the container 80 is adapted to be positioned between the image-receiving element and the photosensitive element so t-hat it will be adjacent the edges of the corresponding image areas of these elements which a re 'to be processed by the liquid contents of the container. When the film unit is of the roll film type, a pluralty of containers are employed, one for each corresponding pair of successive image areas in the photosensitive and imagereceiving elements. The nature and Construction of rupturable containers such as that shown in FIG. 3 are well understood in the art; see, for example, U.S. Patents 2,S43,181 and 2,634,886.

Support 74 of the photosensitive element 72 may be transparent or opaque and may comprise Organic plastics, particularly those employed as film base materials, and may also comprise paper. Specific examples of the support materials comprise cellulose esters such as cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate and the like, certain nylon-type plastics and baryta paper.

The photosensitive silver halide layer used herein is provided by silver halide emulsons of the conventional character and is coated onto layer 76 after the latter has dried. Emulsions of suitable sensitivity range are chosen to meet the particular requrements of use to which the photosensitive element will be put. The silver halide is in all instances used in a waterand alkali-permeable carrier material such as gelatin, although other waterand alkali-permeable materials known to the art, may be substituted.

As heretofore mentioned, the image-receiving material of the positive element 70 includes any material dyeable by the dyes employed, preferably from alkaline liquid. The positive element 70 may, as shown, comprise -a single sheet of permeable material or it may comprise, as shown in FIG. 4, a support which carries a layer or a stratum of a permeable image-receivng material. An example of such s imbibition paper or baryta paper or conventional film base material upon which a permeable stratum is coated. As a further example, the imageor print-receiving element may comprise a paper support subcoated with a substantially water-impermeable material such as a cellulose ester, i.e., cellulose acetate and the like, and having a stratum of a permeable and dyeable material coated over the subcoat.

Image-receiving materials of a dyeable nature, in addition to those already named, include gelatin; nylon, such as N-methoxymethyl polyhexamethylene adipamde; partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate, such as that commercially available under the trade name of Vinylite MA-28-18 'from B-akeli te Division, Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Co.; polyvinyl alcohol with or without plasticizers; mixtures of polyvinyl alcohol and N-polyvinylpyrrolidone, such as dsclosed in the copending application, Sen'al No. 700,28l, filed December 3, 1957, now U.S. Patent No. 3,003,872; regenerated cellulose, sodium algnate, cellulose esters,.such as methyl cellulose, or other cellulose derivatives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or hydroxyethyl cellulose; mixtures of such materials where they are compatible; and other materials of a similar nature such as are well known in the alt. Where the image-receiving material named tends to be dissolved by alkali, it may be used by suitable crosslinking to preserve its film-forming ability. The imagereceiving material may contain agents to mordant or otherwise fix the dye transferred thereto.

It will be appa rent that, by appropriate selection of the imag -receiving material :from among the suitable known opaque and transparent materials, it is possible to obtain either a color positive reflection print or a colored positive transparency.

The liquid processing composition employed in ca rrying out the invention comprises at least an aqueous alkaline liquid of sufiicient alkalinity to permit the developer to perform its developing function and in certain instances may also contain a conventional black and white developer dissolved therein. While sodium hydroxide is in general the preferred alkali used in the processing liquid, other alkaline material may be employed, for example potassium or lithium hydroxide, sodium or potassium carbonate, and diethylamine. If the liquid processing composition is to be applied in a relatively thin, uniform layer, it may also include a viscosity-increasing compound constituting -film-forming material of the type which, when spread over a water-absorbent base, will form a rela-tively 'firm and stable film. A preferredfilmforming material is a high molecular weight polymer such as a polymeric, waterxsoluble ether inert to an alkali solution, as, for example, a hydroxyethyl cellulose or sodium canboxymethyl cellulose. Other film-forming materials or thickening agents whose ability to increase viscosity is substantially unaifected when left in solution for a long period of time may also be used.

In practice, the negative material or photosensitive element is preferably-exposed from the emulsion side. Following the exposure of the photosensitive element 72 to a desired subject, the processing of the unit for transfer image formatior proceeds by rupturing the container and capsules and spreading the alkalineprocessing composition between the photosensitive element 12 and the image-receiving element 70. The processing liquid migrates or permeates into the separate alkali-permeable layers of the photosensitive element. During the permeation into the capsul'ar layer 76, unreacted dye contained in this layer is dissolved in the processing liquid and is transported to the photosensitive layer 78. As the process proceeds, the latent silver halide image is developed, and as a result of the development, the dye in the exposed areas is immobilized. At least :a portion of the mobile dye in the unexposed areas is imbbed to a superposed image-receiving element 70 to create thereon a positive dye image.

Integral multilayer photosensitive elements or assem- -blages for use in multilayer diffusion transfer processes are also applicable to the concepts of the present ,invention. Two suitable assemblages are illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5. -Broadly, such multilayer assemblages comprise at least two selectively sensit-ized photosensitive strata superposed on a single support and are processed, simultaneously and without separation, with a single common image-receiving element. One suitable arrangement comprises a support carrying a red-sensitive silver halide emulsion stratum, 'a green-sensitive silver halide emulsion stratum and a blue-sensitive silver halide emulsion stratum, said emulsions having associated therewith respectively a cyan dye, a magenta dye and a yellow dye. After the foregoing strata are photoexposed, a layer of alkaline aqueous solution may be spread between the assemblage and image-recei-ving element. The various dyes, e.'g., dye developers, react With exposed portions of *the silver halide emulsions with which they are associated. Portions of the dye so reacted are immobilized and portions of the dye remaining unreacted migrate through the .various layers of the assemblage and the layer of alkaline aqueous solution to the printor imagereceiv ing element where 'they form a multicolored print.

In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4, the dyes, that is, the yellow dye developer and magenta dye developer,

are disposed, in separate liquid permeable layers behind the photosensitive silver halide stratum with which they are associated. The cyan dye developer 'is encapsulated within light-refiect ive capsules and a layer or coating of suc-h capsules is disposed behind the red-sensitive silver halide emulsion. -In this embodiment, the color providing substances are thus located on the side of the emulsion which is most distant from the photographed subject when the emulsion is exposed and also most distant from the image-receiving element when in superposed relationship therewith.

FIG. 4 illustrates an assemblage comprising, in sequence, a support 92, a layer 94 comprising a profusion of minute capsules in substantial contig-uity, said capsules containing a cyan dye developer and having the outer surfaces -thereof provided with a thin, light-reflecting coating, a red-sensitive silver halide emulsion layer 96, a magenta dye developer layer 98, a green-sensitive silver halide emulsion layer -100, a yellow dye developer layer 102, and a blue-sensitive silver halide emuslion layer 104. A processing composition 106 in the form of an aqueous alkaline solution is spread in a thin layer between photosensitive element `90 and image-receiving element 108 illustrated as a support 110 having a dyeable layer 112 thereon. FIG. 5 illustrates an assemblage '120 comprising, in sequence, a support 122, a layer 124 comprising a profusion of minute capsules in substantal contiguity, said capsules containing a cyan dye developer and having the outer surfaces thereof provided with a thin, light-refiecting coating, a red-sensitive silver halide emulsion 126, a green-sensitive silver halide emulsion stratum 128 containing a magenta dye developer, a yellew filter stratum 130, and a blue-sensitive silver halide emulsion stratum 132 having dispersed therein a yellow dye developer.

Yellow filter layer -is provided for attenuat-ing light of wave lengtbs that must be prevented from affecting layers '124 and 128. Thus, filter layer 130 filters a'ctnic light in the 'blue region of the spectrum. Auramine or' colloidal silver are examples :of suitable blue absorbin'g filters. The silver may be incorporated in gelatin, while auramine may be incorporated 'in cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate. Interlayers or spacer layers (not shown), which, for example, are composed of gelatin, may be employed, 'for instance, between layers 126 and 128 to confine the developing action of the dye developers to the respective emulsion layers with which they are originally associated. Such control or spacer layers may also be used in assemblages such as illustrated in FIG. 3. The components or elements shown in FIGS. 4 `and 5 are of compositions similar to those described in connection with FIG. 3.

In practice, the photosensitive elements of FIGS; 4 and 5 are processed when an aqueous alkaline solution is supplied between the photosensitive element` and the image-receiving element -so as to permeate all the layers of the` assemblage and solubilize the dye developer theren. green-sensitive emulsion and blue-sensitive emulsion are diiferentially developed by cyan dye developer, magenta dye developer and yellow dye developer respectively, which, in consequence, become immobilized, more specifically nsolubilzed. On the other hand, the unexhausted or unreacted cyan dye developer, magenta dye developer and yellow dye `developer are free to migrate in the solution to the image-receiving element where` they form a multicolor print.

Another process for obtaining transfer images contemplates the use, behind the photosensitive layer, of a single layer comprising a profuse random dispersion of at least two sets of capsules having the outer surfaces there'of provided with a thin light-reflecting coating, said capsules containing t-herewithin suitable dye developers. One suitable photographic assemblage or element of this type is illustrated in FIG. 6 and compri-ses, in sequence, a support 142, a layer 144 comprsing in substantial contiguity a profusion of randomly dispersed capsules having the outer surfaces thereof 'provided with athin, light-reflecting coating, -one set or type of capsules 'containing a yellow dye developer, one type containing a magenta dye developer and one type containing a cyan dye developer, and a suitably sensitized silver halide emulsion layer 146. The processing of this photosensitive element is as previously described.

The color-providing substance is ar Organic compound and is a dye or a dye intermediate such as a color coupler which is preferably soluble in alkali solutions. In a preferred em'bodiment, the color-providing substance is a complete dye and preferably a dye developer, i.e., a complete dye which contains in the 'same molecule both the chromophoric system of a dye and also a silver halide developing function. By "a silver halide developing function" is meant a -grouping adapted to develop exposed silver halide. A preferred silver halide developing function is a hydroquinonyl group. Other suitable developing functions include`o-dihydroxyphenyl and oand p-amino- 'substituted hydroxyphenyl groups. veloping function includes a benzenoid developing function. Preferred dye systems are azo and anthraquinone dye systems.

The dye developers are prefera-bly `selected for their ability to provide colors that are useful in carrying out subtractive color photography, ie., cyan, magenta and yellow. It should be noted that it is within the scope of t-his invention to use mixtures of dye developers to obtain a desired color, eg., black. Thus, it i-s to be understood that the expression color" as used he ren is intended to include the use of a plurality of colors to obtain black, as well as the use of a single black dye developer.

As the process proceeds, the red-sensitive emulsion,

In general, the de-.

As examples of suitable dye developers, mention may be made of 2 naphthylazohydroquinone, 1 phenyl 3- methyl 4 [p (2',5' dihydroxyphenethyl) phenyl- -azoJ-S-pyrazolone and phenylazohydroquinone, for yellow; Z-hydroxynaphthylazohydroquinone, 2-[p-(2',5'-dihydroxyphenethyl) phenylazo] 4 methoxy 1 naphthol and 1-amino-4-phenylazo-2-naphthol, for magenta; 1,4 bis (2',5' dihydroxyanilino) anthraquinone, 1,4- bis [B (2',5' dihydroxyphenyl) ethylamino] anthraquinone and 1,4-bis-[/3-(2',5'-dihydroxyphenyl)-propylaminoJ-anthraquinone, for cyan.

Examples of representative dye developers are given in the previously mentioned application of Howard G. Rogers, Serial No. 748,421.

It is also contemplated to use dye developers initially in the form of a hydrolyzable derivative particularly in the form of a hydrolyzable ester or salt and wherein said hydrolyzable derivative is subjected to hydrolysis conditions during processing. Such hydrolyzable dye developers are dye developers containing a grouping removable by hydrolysis, which group renders the dye developer substantially less mobile and/or less soluble until such grouping is removed by alkaline hydrolysis.

A more detailed discussion relating to hydrolyzable dye developers is set forth in the copending application of Land et al., Serial No. 669542, filed July 2, 1957, now abandoned, the subject matter of which has been incorporated in Serial No. 194,'359, filed May 14, 1962 (now U.S. Patent No. 3,230,082, issued January 18, 1966).

In addition to dye developers of the above-mentioned types, it is also contemplated to utilize dye developers with temporarily shifted absorptio'n characteristics such as set forth in the copending application of Howard G. Rogers, Serial No. 789,080, filed January 26, 1959.

The expression temporarily shifted, as used above, is intended to signify color-providing substances, the spectral absorption bands of which are located at wave lengths which exhibit less absor-pton, with respect to the ultimate image dye, within the sensitivity range of associated photosensitive silver halide for at least the time interval necessary to accomplish photoexposre of the respective photosensitive silver halide. Such color-providing substances are subject ed to non-reversible Shift of the color-providing substances' absorption characteristics subsequent to photoexposure.

In addition to dye developers as described above, other color-providing substances may be employed to create colored positive images. As examples of other color-providing substances, mention may be made of the dyes of the type described in U.S. Patent 2,774,6 68 and the other patentsand copending applications heretofore referred to. Dyes which are particularly suited for reacting with an oxidation product of 'a developer are found in those having an open position -on a ring, which position is para to a hydroxyl or an amino group, or those dyes having a reactive methylene group. Many suitable dyes coming within the classification are found among the azo, pyrazolone and triphenyl methane dyes, specific examples of which comprise the following waterand alkali-soluble dyes such as Fast Crimson 6Bl (CI 57) for magenta; Fast Wool Yellow (CI 636) for yellow; Alphazurine 2G (CI 712) and Pontacyl Green SX Extra (CI 737) for. cyan; and Polychrome Blue-Black (CI 201) and Rayon Black GSP (commercially available from E. I. du Pont) for black; as well as the water-insoluble but alkali-soluble dyes such as 1,S-dihydroxynaphthalene-4-azobenzene for magenta and Benzene Azo Resorcinol (CI 23) for yellow; When utilizing dyes of the above type, nondiffusing or substantially immobile silver halide` developers are preferably employed so -as to keep -the developer out of the image-receiving element. Dyes which are rendered nondiffusible by the imagewise exhaustion of alkali, as disclosed in the copending application of Edwin H. Land, Serial No. 640,821, filed February 18,

1957, now abandoned, are also useful in practicing this invention. The inventive concepts herein set forth are also adaptable for the formaton of colored images in conjunction with the photographic products and screen processes described and claimed in U.S. Patent 2,968,554, issued January 17, 1961 to Edwin H. Land. In this patent, at least two selectively sensitized silver halide emulsions are arranged in the form of a screen and the encapsulated color-providing substances, 'as in multilayer elements, are placed behind the photosensitive emulsion with which they are associated.

It should be noted that it is within the scope of this invention to utilize in multicolor diusion transfer processes, one or more of the above described color-providing substances in a single photosensitive element. For example, in certain instances t may be desirable to employ dye developers with temporarily shifted characteristics in association with blue-sensitive and green-sensitive capsules, together with another class of dye developers or color-providing substance.

In a preferred embodiment, an auxiliary or accelerating developing agent is used in combination with dye developer. Thus, the liquid process-ing composition may contain an auxiliary or accelerating developing agent. A preferred accelerating developing agent is a 3-pyrazolidone developing agent and preferably 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone which is available under -the trade name Phenidone from Ilford Limited. It is also contemplated to employ a plurality of -auxiliary or accelerating developing agents, such as a 3-pyrazolidonedeveloping agent and a benzenoid developing agent, as disclosed and claimed in the copending application of Howard G. Rogers and Harriet W. Lutes, Serial No. 654,781, filed April 24, 1957, now U.S. Patent No. 3,039,869. As examples of suitable combnations of auxiliary developing agents, mention may be made of l-phenyl-3-pyraz-olidone in combination with p-benzylaminophenol and of l-phenyl- 3-pyrazolidone in combination with 2,5-bis-ethylenimino hydroquinone. Such auxiliary developing agents may be employed in the liquid processing composition or they, may be initially incorpor ated, at least in part, in the silver halide sensitized capsule containing the dye developers.

As stated above, it has heretofore been proposed to form color images by a difiusion-transfer process utilizing color-providing substances such as, for example, dye developers. In processes of this type, a photosensitive. element containing a color-providing substance and a silver halide emulsion is exposed and wetted by a liquid processing composition, for example, by irnmersing, coating, spraying, flowing, etc., in the dark; and the exposed photosensitive element is superposed prior to, during or after wettin g on a sheetlike support element which may be utilized as an image-receiving element. In a preferred embodiment, the liquid processing composition is applied to the photosensitive elemen-t in a substantially uniform layer as the photosensitive element is brought into superposed relationship with an image-receiving element. The liquid processing composition permeates the emulsion to initiate development of the latent image contained therein. The color-providing substance is immobilized or precipitated in exposed areas as a consequence of the development of the latent image. In unexposed and partially exposed areas of the emulsion, the color-providing substance is unreacted and difusible and thus provides an imagewise distribution of diffusible, unreacted color-providing substance dissolved in the liquid processing composition as a function of the point-to-point degree of exposure -of the silver halide emulsion. At least part of this imagewise distribution of unreacted color-formingsubstance is transferred, by imbibition, to a superposed image-receivin g layer or element. Under certain conditions, the layer of the liquid processing composition may` be utilized as the image-receiving layer. There is then produced on or in the image-receiving element a reversed or positive color image of the developed image. The

image-receiving element may contain agents adapted -to mordant or otherwise fix the positive color image. If the color of the transferred color-providing substance is affected by changes in the pI-I of the image-receiving element, this pH may be adjusted in accordance with wellknown techniques to provide a pH afiording the desired color. The desired positive image is revealed by strippin g the image-receiving element from the photosensitive element at the end of a suitable mbibition period.

In prior diffusion-transfer processes, the photosensitive elements comprised at least one silver halide emulsion layer and at least one color-providing substanca which could be present in the emulsion layer or in a layer on or behind the emulsion. The layers employed in such elements generally consist of a contnuous gelled colloid film in .which the silver halide and/or color-providingsubstance is dispersed, that is, the dispersed material constitutes discrete inclusions or a discontinuous phase within the continuous colloid phase.

In instances where the color-providing substances possess a color, undesirable light absorption by the colorproviding substance may resultin reducing the sensitivity of silver halide emulsions. Utilizing one or more colorproviding substances in layers behind photosensitive silver halide emulsion layers adds to the bulk or thickness of the photosensitive element. This is particularly so when multicolor prints are to be obtained from a single photosensitive element. i

It has been found that photosensitive elements with a minimum number of layers may be obtained, in addition to substantally reducing or eliminating the disadvantage of desensitization of the silver halide emulsion by colored color-providing substance associated therewith, by having said color-providing substance or substances encapsulated in a coating of an alkali-per-meable film-forming polymeric material such as, for example, gelatin and having.

the outermost wall of the capsules coated with silver halide. Thus, there may be provided a photosensitive element including a support and at least one layer or coating thereon comprising in substantial contiguity a profuse number of minute capsules of alkali-permeable film-form-- ing polymeric material containing therewithin a colorproviding substance, the outermost walls of the capsules being coated with silver halide. The silver halide coating 'may be appropriately sensitized. A capsular layer may comprise in substantial contiguity single or individual capsules which all contain the same color-providing substance, or it may comprise individual capsules some of which contain one color-providing substance and others of which contain other color-providing substances. For example, the capsular layer .may comprise capsules holding only a magenta dye developer; or the layer may comprise a mixture of capsules some of which hold a magenta dye developer, others of which *hold a cyan dye developer and still others of which.. hold a yellow dye developer. i

A capsular layer may also comprise a mixture .of individual capsules some of which contain color-providing substance and others of which contain a reagent or reactive material useful in the formation of the desired images and which reagent or reactive material is pre-ferably maintained or separated from contact with the color-providing substance until needed.

The color-providing substance per se, may be contained within the capsules and solubilized by an alkaline processing composition, or it may be dissolved or Suspended in a suitable liquid medium or vehiole within the capsule. The a liquid medium or vehicle employed within the capsule should not adversely afiect the encapsulating material, nor should it interfere in the formation of the colored print. When the encapsulating material is of a hydrophilic nature, the medium within the capsule, if employed, is preferably of water-immiscible liquid. suitable water-immiscible liquid mediums which may be employed are vegetable oils such as cottonseed oil, coconut oil, and castor oil; animal oils such as sperm oil and larti oil; petroleum tracthe heretofore described techniques photosensitive, the

outermost wall of the encapsulating material is irnpregnated or coated with appropriately scnsitized silver halide. This may be accomplished in many ways. For example, the silver halide may be Suspended in a suitable volatile vehicle and the capsules treated therewith. 'Upon evaporation or removal of the vehicle, the silver halide will -be imbedded in and 'around the outermost capsule wall. The silver halide coating may then be suitably sensitized. It is also possible to disperse silver halide in a suitable solution of a 'binder and coat the outermost capsule walls therewith, the binder such as, for example, gelatin, in this case being used to -aid the silver halide in adhering` to the capsule walls. Additionally, it is possible to chemically -plate silver onto or into the outermost capsule walls and then subject the silver coated capsules to the desired halogen vapors so as' to form a silver halide coating, which is thereafter suitably sensitized. Alternatvely the capsules may be coated with silver by well-known vapor deposition techniques such as, for example, vacuum'deposition, and therea fter subjected or treated with the desired halogen vapors to form a silver halide'coating around the outermost capsule walls. The appropriate sensitization of the silver halide coating with a photosensitizing agent such as a silver halide optcal sensitizing agent or a hypersensitizing agent may be accomplished by vacuum deposition techniques or other known methods.

The photosensitized capsules may be coated on a suitable support, e.g., paper, or layer, eg., previously coated capsular layer, by techniques which are -well known in the art, eg., by rollers, spray, -brushes or any of the commonly used methods, and then allowed to dry. The ,capsules when dry are adherent to the support or layer overcoated therewith and to each other in a film.

As mentioned previously, the capsular layer of a photosensitive element may comprise a mixture of individual capsules some of which are photosensitized with silver halide and which contain a color-providing substance and others of which are not photosensitized and which contain a reagent or reactive material useful in the formation of the desired images and which reagent or reactive material is preferably maintained or separated from contact with the color-providing substance. capsules of the latter type, i.e., non-photosensitive, may comprise, for example, gelatin capsules containing an auxiliary or accelerating developing agent such as 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone. These nonphotosensitized capsules may be produced by the methods described above except that the silver halide coating is omitted although such capsules may have a thin continuous coating such as of aluminum to render the capsules more impermeable.

Severa-l em bodiments wheren the silver halide coated capsules maybe utilized are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. References to dye developers in the description of these embodiments is intended to 'be illustrative only. While the preferred color-providing su-bstances are dye developers and the several embodiments are illustrated 'by the use of dye developers, it is to be understood that other types of color-providing substances may be employed.

One embodiment of a photographic film unit or assembly useful in carrying out a one-step photographic process -for the formation of an image of an individual color is illustrated in FIG. 7 ascomprising a photosensitive element 150, a print-receiving element 156 and a rupturable 1 7 i container 162 for holding a liquid processing fluid position. i

The photosenstive element 150 comprises a Convention- Ol' com- 'al paper or plastic fihn base or support 152 and a photo- ..sensitive layer 154 comprising, in substantial contiguity, a profusion of minute capsules of alkali-permeable filmforming polymeric material coated with silver halide approximately sensitized, said capsules containing a colorproviding substance such as a dye developer. As shown rin the particular embodiment depicted in FIG. 7, the

photosensitive element 150 is shown in a spread-apart relationship with -an image-receiving element 156 having mounted thereon a rupturable container 162 holding a processing composition. The image-receivingelement 156 comprises a dyeable material and may comprise a .single image-receiving layer or, -as shown, an image- `tween a' pair of rollers (not shown); and a layer of the -liquid processing composition is spread between the super- 'posed elements.

The processing composition permeates into the capsular photosensitized layer 154 to initiate development of the latent image in the exposed silver halide regions. In exposed silver halide areas, the dye developer, for example, carried by the capsules, will be reacted and become mmobilized. In unexposed areas, the dye developer will be mobile and will difuse to the superposed image-receiving element 156. After -a suitable imbibition period, the photosensitive element 150 and the imagereceiving element 156 are separated to reveal the positive colored image.

M-ultcolor images may 'be obtained using dye developers in diusion-transfer reversal processes by several techniques. One such process for obtaining multicolor transfer images utilizing dye developers er'nploys an integral multilayer photosensitive element wherein atle'ast two selectively sensitized photosensitive layers are superposed on a single support and are processed simultaneously and without separatiom with a single common image-receiving layer. A suitable arrangement of this type comprises a support carrying 'a red-sensitive silver halide layer, a greensensitive silver halide layer and a blue-sensitive silver halide layer, said layers having associated therewith, respectively, a cyan dye developer, a magenta dye developer and a yellow dye developer. Each dye developer is encapsulated within minute capsules of alkali-permeable 'polymeric materials, the outermost walls of said capsules being snitably sensitized with silver halide.

A multilayer photosensitive element of the type just described is illustrated in FIG. 8 of the accompanying drawings and is depicted during processing. An exposed multilayer-photosensitive element 170 comprises a support 172; a photosensitive layer 174 comprising in substantial contiguty, a profusion of red-sensitized silver halide minute capsules of alkali-permeable polymeric material, said capsules containing a cyan dye' developer; a photosensitive layer 176 comprising in substantial contiguity, a profuson of green-sensitized silver halide minute capsules of alkali-permeable polymeric material,said capsules containing a magenta dye developer; and a photosensitive layer 178 comprising in substantial contiguity, a profusion of blue-sensitized ,silver halide minute capsules of alkali-permeable polymeric material, said capsules containing a yellow dye developer. Each photosensitive layer maybe separated from each other by suitable interlayers (not shown), for example, by a layer of gelatiu and/or polyvnyl alcohol. In certain instances it may be desirable to incorporate a yellow filter in front of the greensensitive layer, and such yellow filter may be incorporated in an interlayer. A yellow filter layer may be prepared using a pigment comprising a suspension of a benzidine -essing composition.

yellow, such as that commercially available under the name of Padding Yellow GL from Textile Colors Division, lnterchemical Corporation, Hawthome, NJ. However, where desirable, a yellow dye developer of the appropriate spectral characteristics and present in a state capable of functioning as a yellow filter may be employed. In such instances a separate yellow filter rn'ay be omitted.

Referring again to FIG. 8, a multilayer photosensitive element is shown in processing relatonship with an image-receiving element and a layer 186 of a proc- 'The image-receiving element 180 comprises a support 182 and -an irnage-receiving layer 184.

As noted in connection with FIG. 7, the liquid processing composition is effective to initiate development of the latent image in the respective exposed photosensitive layers. After a suitable imbibtion period, during which at least a portion of the dye developerassociated with ,unexposed areas of each of the photosensitive layers is transferred to the superposed im'age-receiving element 180, the latter element may be separated to reveal the positive multicolor image. o

Although the structure of the integral, multilayer photosensitive element has been illustrated as having photosensitive layers from top to bottom sensitized to blue, green and red portions of the spectrurn, respectively, it is to be understood that the order of these layers may vary in -accordance with well-known practices in the art.

The expression integral multilayer photosensitive elemen as used herein is intended to include photosensitive elements comprising at least two separate, superposed layers of photosensitive material, each layer being selectively sensitized to an appropriate portion of the spectrum, at least the inner layer or layers having associated therewith appropriate color-providing substances. The integral multilayer photosensitive element is intended to be processed without separation of the layers. The imagewise distribution of ditfusible color-torming substances present in each'layer as a result of the development of latent images therein is transferred to a single, common image-receiving element to provide the desired multicolor image.

As will be demonstrated hereinafter, the term layer is intended to include a stratum comprising a mixture of at least two' dilferently photosensitized capsular materials. Thus, such a stratum may comprise a mixture of two or more sets or types of minute capsules of alkalipermeable polymeric material, each set being suitably sensitized with silver halide and encasing or containing therewithin an appropriate color-providing substance. The term layer also contemplates a stratum comprising at least two sets of selectively sensitized minute photosensitized capsular materials arranged in the form of a photosensitive screen.

Another process for obtaining multicolor transfer im- -ages utilizing dye developers contemplates the use of 'a single photosensitive layer comprising a profuse random dispersion of at least two sets of selectively sensitized minute capsules of alkali-permeable polymeric material, said capsules containing therewithin a suitable 'dye developer. One suitable arrangement of this type comprises a support -carrying as a single layer red-sensitized minute capsules containing a cyan dye developer, green-sensitized minute capsules containing a magenta dye developer and blue-sensitized minute capsules containing a yellow dye developer, said capsules being profusely and randomly dispersed.

A photosensitive element of the type just described is illustrated in FIG. 9 of the accompanying dnawings and is depicted during processing. An exposed photosensitive element 190 comprises a support 192 and a photosensitive layer 194 comprising in substantial contiguity a profusion of randomly dispersed red-sensitized silver halide minute capsules of :alkali-permea ble polymeric material containing a cyan dye developer, green-sensitized 19 silver halide minute capsules of alkali-permeable polymeric material containing a magenta dye developer and blue-sensitized silver halide minute capsules of alkali-pe-rmeable polymeric material containing a yellow dye developer. As illustrated, photosensitive element 190 is in processing relationship with -an image-receiving element 196 and a layer 202 of a processing composition. The image-receiving element 196 comprises a support 198 and an mage-receiving layer 200. The processing of exposed photosensitive element '190 is as previously described.

Another technique for obtaining multicolor transfer.

images utilizing dye developers contemplates the use of a photosensitive layer comprising at least two sets of selectively sensitized minute capsules arranged in the form of a photosensitive screen. In such an embodiment each of the minute capsules has contained therewithin a suitable dye developer. In general, a suitable photosensitive screen comprises red-sensitized minute capsules containing acyan 'dye developer, green-sensitized minute capsules containing a magenta dye developer, and blue-sensitized minute capsules containing a yellow dye developer arranged in side-'by-side relationship in a screen pattern.

A photosensitive color screen element of the type just described is illustrated in FIG. of the accompanying drawings wherein the photo-sensitive element 210 comprises, respectvely, a support 212 and a photosensitive color screen layer 214 which comprises selectively exposable portions, that is, portions which comprise, respectively, red-, greenand `blue-sensitized silver halide minute capsules containing therewithin, respectively, cyan, magenta and yellow dye developers, preferably substantially uniformly distributed over the support such that a contiguous layer arrangement of individual selectively exposable portions have their respective exposure faces arranged in a side-by-side. screen pattern relationship and forming the exposure surface of photosensitive element 210. As shown, photosensitive element 210 is in processing relationship with an image-receiving element 216 and a processing composition 22/2. The image-receiving element 216 comprises a support 218 and an image-receiving layer 220. The processing of exposed photosensitive e1ement210 is -as previously described.

Moreover, the techniques of this invention may be utilzed in two-color processes as well as the three-color photographic processes illustrated in FIGS. 8, 9 and '10. Thus, for example, although photosensitive elements for three-color processes have been shown, photosensitive elements for use in two-color processes may be constructed and processed in a similar manner. For example, an integral multilayer photographic element suitable for two-color processes may have one layer of minute capsules sensitized to the blue. and green portions of the spectrun, said capsules containing an orange dye developer and another layer of minute capsules sensitized to the orange and red portions of the spectrum, said capsules containing a cyan dye develoyer. Obviously, the sensitivities of the layers or sets of minute capsules` may be selected in accordance with well-known photographic principle.

While the above assemblages have been described in connection with color processes involving the application of but one processing solution, it should be understood that they may :also be employed in processes involving the application of several processing compo sitions, as, for example, the multiple step processes set forth in the copending U.S. applications of Edwin H. Land, Serial No. 663,73 2, filed June 5, 1'957, now abandoned, and of Edwin H. Land et al., Serial No. 665,-807, filed June 14,` 1957, now abandOned the subject matter of which has been incorporated in Serial No. 298,53-9, filed July 30, 1963.

Throughout the specification and appended claims, the expression "positive image has been used. This expression should not be :interpreted in -a restrictive sense since 20 it is used primarily tor purposes of illustraton, in that it clefines the image produced on the image-carrying layer as being -reversed, in the positive-negative sense, with respect to the image in the photosensitive element. As an example of an alternative meaning for "positive image," assume that the photosensitive element is exposed to actinic light through a negative transparency. Inthis case, the latent image in the photosensitive element will be a `positive and the image produced on the image-carrying layer will be a negative. The expression "positive image is intended to cover such an image produced on the imagecarrying layer. V

Since ,certain changes may -be made in the above product and process ,without departing from `the `scope of the invention herein involved, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall -be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed is:

1. A photosensitive element useful foruthe formation of color images which comprises, in combination, a support and at least one layer thereon which comprises discrete microscopic capsules containing a dye developer enclosed a substantially continuous alkali-permeable polymeric inner layer and a separate substantially continuous silver halide outer layer. r

2. A photosensitive element as defined in claim 1 wherein said silver halide is optically `sensitized.

3.' A photosensitive element useful for the formation of color images which comprises, in combination, a support, and at least one layer thereon which comprises at least two portions of discrete microscopc capsules, the capsules forming each portion comprising a dye developer of a different color than the remaining portions/enclosed within a substantially continuous alkali-permeable. polymeric inner layer and a separate substantially continuous silver halide outer layer.

4. A photosensitive element as defined `in claim 3 wherein at least two of said portions are arranged in the form of a screen.

'5. `A photosensitive element as defined in claim G wherein at least two of said portions are arranged in separate superposed layers.

6. A photosensitive element as defined in claim 3 wherein the capsules forming one of said portions oomprses a yellow dye developer enclosed within a substantially continuous alkali-permeable polymeric inner layer and a substantially continuous blue-sensitive silver halide outer layer, the capsules forming one of said portions comprises a magenta dye developer enclosed within a substantially continuous alkali-permeable polymeric` inner layer and a substantially continuous green-sensitive silver halide outer layer, and the capsules forming one of said portions comprises a cyan dye developer enclosed within substantially continuous alka-li-permeable polymeric inner layer and a substantially continuous red-sensitivesilver halide outer layer.

7. A photosensitive element as defined in claim 1 wherein said ..alka-li-permeable polymerc, inner layer comprises gelatin. v

8. A process of` forming color transfer images` comprisng the steps of exposing a photosensitive element comprsing a support and at least one layer of 'discrete micro- =scopic capsules of alkali-permeable polymeric material containing .therewithin a color-providing substance, the outermost walls ofsaid capsules being coated with silver halide, developing the latent images present in said silver h-alde, ren-dering nondiflusable, as a function of said development, said color-providing substance associated with exposed silver halide whereby an imagewise distribution of diflusible color-providing substance is provided, and transferr-ing, by imbibition, `at least a portion of said imagewise distribution of difu-sible color-providing substance to a superposed image-receiving layer to provide a color, transfer image.

9. A process of forming multicolor-transfer images comprising the steps of exposing a photosensitive element comprising a support and at least one layer thereon comprising a mixtu re of a t least two portons of minute capsules of :alkali-permeable film-forming -polymeric material, each portion of said capsules having the outermost Walls thereof coated with silver halide and containing therewithin a dye .developer adapted to provide different colored dye transfer images during photographic processing, developing the latent images present in said silver halide, rendering nondlfusable, as a function of said development, said dye developer .as-sociated wit h exposed areas of said silver halide whereby imagewise distributions of dtfusi ble dye developers are provided, and transferring, by imbibition, at least a portion of said imagewise distributions of dye developer to a superposed image-receiving layer to form a multicolor transfer image.

:10. A process of -fiorming mul tcolor-transfer images comprising the steps of exposng a photosensitive element comprising a support and at least two superposed -layers thereon c-omprising minute capsules of alkali-permeable film-forming polymeric material having the outermost walls thereof coated with silver halide, said capsules of each layer containing therewithin a dye developer ada-pted to provide different colored dye transfer images during photographic processing, developing the latent images present in said silver halide, rendering nondififusable, as a function of said -development, said dye developer associated with exposed areas of said silver halide whereby imagewise distributions of dilfusible dye developer are provided, and transferring, 'by imbibition, at least a porrtion of said imagewise distributions of difiusible dye developer to .a superposed im'age-receivng layer to form a multicolor transfer image.

'11. A process of forming multicolor-transfer images which comprises, in combination, the steps of exposing a photosensitive element comprising -a support and at least one layer thereon which comprises .at least three portions of discrete microscopic capsules, the capsules forming one of said portions comprising a yellow dye developer enclosed within a substantially continuous gelatin polymeric inner layer and a substantially continuous blue-sensitive silver halide -outelayer, the capsules forming one of said portions comprising a magenta dye developer enclosed within a substantially continuous gelatin inner layer and a substantially continuous green-sensitive silver halide outer layer, and the capsules forming one of said portions comprising :a cyan dye developer enclosed within a substantially continuous gelatin inner layer 'and a substantially continuous red-sensitive silver halide outer layer; applying an aque'ous alkaline processing composition to said exposed photosensitive element; efiecting developnent of exposed silver halide; immobilizing said yellow, magenta and cyan dye developers, as a .result of development of associated exposed silver halide; forming an imagewse distribution of mobile yellow, magenta and cyan dye developer, in said .photosensitive element, as a function of the point-to-point degree of exposu re of said photosensitive element; and transferring, by imbibition, at least a portion of said imagewise distributions of dye developer to a superposed image-receiving layer to provide thereto a multicolor transfer image.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,6l8,553 1 1/195-2 Baines et al 96-97 2,774,668 12/1956 Rogers 96-29 2,800,457 7/-1957 Green et al 252-316 2,-969,33 1 1/ 1961 =Brynko et al 252-316 2,983,606 5/ 1961 Rogers 96-29 2,988,46l 6/ 1961 Eichel 117-122 2,997,390 8/ 1961 Land 96-29 3,001, 873 9/ 1961 Foris 96-29 3,015,561 1/196-2 Roger-s 96-29 3,016,30*8 1/1962 Macaulay 1 17-36.7 3,020,171 2/ 1962 Bakan et al 117-362 FOREIGN PATENTS ?21,880 4/ 1959 Australia.

OTHER REFERENCES Varden: "What's Ahead'l", Modern Photography, page 86, September 1958.

I. TRAVI-S BROWN, Acting Primary Exam'ner.

HAROLD N. BURSTEIN, NORMAN G. TORCHIN,

GERALD H. BJORGE, Exam-'ners.

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Referenced by
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US3443948 *Jul 12, 1965May 13, 1969Minnesota Mining & MfgPhotosensitive silver halide microcapsules
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Classifications
U.S. Classification430/138, 430/496, 430/510, 430/199
International ClassificationG03C1/00, G03C8/00, B01J13/20, G03C8/42, B01J13/22
Cooperative ClassificationG03C8/426, B01J13/22, G03C1/002
European ClassificationB01J13/22, G03C1/00M, G03C8/42M