US 3279132 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J- H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE Oct. 18, 1966 14 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 1, 1963 INVENTOR. JOHN H. SLAYTER BY MAHONE); MILLER a RAMBO M ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1966 J, H, SLAYTER PLANTMANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE l4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 1, 1963 INVENTOR. JOHN h. .S'LAYTER Y, MILLER 8RAMBO BY MAHONE WWW ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING: STRUCTURE l4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 1, 1963 F/G l3 INVENTOR. JOHN H. SLA YTER BY MAIEO NE )1 MILLER 8 RAMBO ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE 14 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed March 1, 1963 INVENTOR. JOHN H. .SLAYTEI? BY MAHBOWEY, MILLER 8 RAMBO 7 M ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed March 1, 1963 l4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR. JOHN H SLAYTEA? BY MAHgl/EY, MILLER a RAMBO ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE l4 Sheets$heet 6 Filed March 1, 1963 FIG. /6
INVENTOR. JOHN H. sun rm Y, MILLER a RAMBO w.
MA HBOYN E Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER 3,279,132
PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed March 1, 1965 14 Sheets-Sheet 7 INVENTOR. 6/ 6/ JOHN H SLAYTEI? 7 AQ/ b n MAHBg/EY, MILLER a RAMBO u if yw ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE l4 Sheets$heet 8 Filed March 1, 1963 INVENTOR. JOHN H. SLAYTER BY MAHONE Y, MILLER 8 RAMBO %4 7 ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BU ILDING STRUCTURE 14 Sheets-Sheet 9 Filed March 1, 1963 FIG 24 WEE/6 0 INVENTOR JOHN H. SLA YTER BY MAHO/VEY M/LLER & RAMBO FIG 25 ATTORNEYS Cct. 18, 1966 SLAYTER I 3,279,132
PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDI NG STRUCTURE Filed March 1, 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet 11 INVENTOR. JOHN H. .SLAYTER BY MAHONE Y, MILL ER 8 RAMBO A TTORNE Y5 Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed March 1, 1965 14 Sheets-Sheet 12 6 w N4 M w H w MW] 1. mm 4 8 64 3 7 V V6 FIG. 34
INVENTOR. JOHN H. .SLAYTER M M a m H M W WW M M Oct. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE l4 Sheets-Sheet 15 Filed March 1, 1963 INVENTOR JOHN H. SLAYTER LEI? 8 RA B0 A T TORIVEYS BY MAHOA/EY, MIL BYW FIG: 38
0a. 18, 1966 J. H. SLAYTER 3,279,132
PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed March 1, 1963 I 14 Sheets-Sheet 14 FIG: 40
INVENTOR. JOHN H. .SLA YTER' BY MAgeNE'), MILLER BRA/M50 AT ORA/5K9 United States Patent 3,279,132 PLANT-MANUFACTURED BUILDING STRUCTURE John H. Slayter, Newark, Ohio, assignor to Richardson Homes Corporation, a corporation of Indiana Filed Mar. 1, 1963, Ser. No. 262,148 7 Claims. (Cl. 52-73) This application is a continuation-in-part of copending application Serial No. 160,984, filed December 21, 1961, which issued as Patent No. 3,156,018 on November 10,
This invention relates to a Plant-Manufactured Building Structure. It has to do, more particularly, with a modular or segmentized building structure formed of prebuilt cooperating assembled transverse sections or modules, with the structure of the assembled transverse sections or modules to be used in such a building structure, and with the prebuilt transverse trusses used in the formation of such building sections. It also relates to novel details of structure incorporated in the trusses, building sections, and the completely assembled building structure.
In general, this invention like the one disclosed in said patent embodies a modular building structure made up of a plurality of transverse modules or sections which can be disposed in cooperative relationship, drawn together and clamped together with weathertight joints between the modules or sections. The modules or sections rest upon and are supported upon a plurality of longitudinally extending main supporting beams upon which they slide when drawn into cooperative clamped relationship as indicated above. Each of the sections or modules includes a plurality of basic truss units which extend transversely of the sections and which are structurally connected together. According to this present invention, each of these basic truss units is a composite unit which includes a pair of supporting outer or side columns, a pair of inwardly extending cantilever type truss arms which serve to support the roof deck, and which may support ceiling panels, which meet midway of the columns, and a floor joist beam or truss portion which is connected to the lower ends of the columns. All connections between floor joist, columns and roof truss arms are of the rigid type. Thus, the composite truss unit of this invention is a continuous, closed framework, wherein the frame members are disposed in angular relationship with their adjacent ends rigidly connected together and are free of any angular bracing or struts thereby making it possible to provide standard or common transverse sectional contours in the building sections or modules manufactured therewith as compared to the unusual transverse sectional contours of modules constructed with the trusses of my said patent which follow the moment curves and include necessary bracing and struts. This arrangement according to the present invention is such that the roof loads cause the cantilever arms to act not only in compression but applies a bending force, which in turn creates a moment which is transmitted through the rigid connections to the side wall columns and in turn to the floor joists. The floor joist is loaded, therefore, not only in tension by this transmitted load but is in turn subjected to an upward bending moment that is exactly reverse to the downward bending moment created by static floor loading. Each floor joist rests on the main supporting beams, preferably two parallel beams, and the entire composite truss unit is supported thereby. The floor joist or truss portion rests on the beams in such a manner that there is a projecting overhang outwardly of the respective beams. Therefore, roof loads acting on the cantilever truss arms and floor loads acting on the joist beams tend to create opposing bending moments in the plane of the truss unit which result in a type of structural loading known as reverse bending, the favorable result of 3,279,132 Patented Oct. 118, 1966 "ice which is the decided decrease in structure deflection at the same static loading than would be possible if the floor truss were supported at its outer ends or if the structure joints were not rigidly connected. Also, according to this present invention, all wall structures, partitions, etc. are so designed and connected with the truss units by slip joints so as to permit flexing of the truss units without any damage to the wall structures. The truss units can, therefore, be of metal, such as steel, and need not be sufliciently heavy to be rigid but can be of relatively light construction even though they have considerable flexibility. Also, the relative flexing between the truss units and associated walls will take care of the diiference in contraction and expansion of the trusses as compared with the wall structures which are of different materials.
In the accompanying drawings, one embodiment of this building structure and examples of units and structures used therein are illustrated, but it is to be understood that details of all these structures may be varied as to appearance and materials without departing from basic principles of my invention.
In these drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a general perspective view of an assembled building structure, for example, a house, which embodies units or structures of this invention.
FIGURE 2 is an elevational view of a composite transverse truss unit which includes roof truss arms, side columns and floor joist portions.
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged detail of the connection of adjacent roof truss arms at the roof ridge or peak.
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged transverse sectional view taken along line 44 of FIGURE 3 through a roof truss arm of the truss.
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged detail in elevation of the corner connection between the upper end of a side column and the outer end of a roof truss arm.
.FIGURE 6 is a vertical sectional view taken along line 6-6 of FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged detail in elevation showing the connection of the lower end of a side column and the outer end of a floor joist.
FIGURE 8 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken along line 88 of FIGURE 7 through one of the side columns of the truss.
FIGURE 9 is an enlarged detail in side elevation of a beam splice which may be used in the floor joist or root truss arm of the composite truss.
FIGURE 9a is a transverse sectional view taken along line 9w9a of FIGURE 9 through the beam splice.
FIGURE 10 is a perspective view of one of the ends of the building with walls partly broken away to show one of the building sections or modules.
FIGURE 11 is a schematic view showing a possible interior wall arrangement in the building of this invention.
FIGURE 12 is a horizontal sectional view taken on I FIGURE 13 is an enlargement of the extreme corner I portion of the structure of FIGURE 12.
FIGURE 14 is an enlarged transverse vertical sectional view through the end of the building showing the end wall slip joint and associated slip joint between the end wall and the roof truss arm of the truss as well as details of the roof overhang on the end of the building.
FIGURE 15 is a vertical sectional view showing details of the roof overhang at the side of the building.
FIGURE 16 is a vertical sectional view taken along line 16-16 of FIGURE 10 of the slip joint between the end wall and the associated floor joist of the building.
FIGURE 17 is a perspective view, partly broken away,
showing the slip joint of the juncture of an interior wall with an end wall.
FIGURE 18 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken along line 18-18 of FIGURE 17.
FIGURE 19 is a perspective view illustrating the slip joint at the juncture of an interior wall with a side wall.
FIGURE 20 is a horizontal sectional view taken along line 20-20 of FIGURE 19.
FIGURE 21 is a perspective view of an interior wall that runs transversely of the trusses of a section and showing how a slip joint is provided between the wall and the roof truss arms of the trusses.
FIGURE 22 is a vertical sectioinal view taken along line 22-22 of FIGURE 21.
FIGURE 23 is a transverse sectional view taken along line 23-23 of FIGURE 22 through a roof truss arm and associated roof and ceiling panels.
FIGURE 24 is a vertical sectional view showing an interior wall that extends parallel to a roof truss arm and the slip joint between it and the roof truss arm.
FIGURE 25 is a sectional view showing a slip joint between the floor and an interior wall.
FIGURE 26 is a vertical sectional view taken along line 26-26 of FIGURE 24 through the roof truss arms and an associated wall extending transversely of the buildmg.
FIGURE 27 is a detail in vertical cross section showing the slip joint connection between an interior wall and roof truss arms between which it is disposed.
FIGURE 28 is a perspective view showing the main supporting beams for supporting the building in position for receiving the building sections.
FIGURE 29 is a transverse vertical sectional view taken along line 29-29 of FIGURE 28 through a main supporting beams and associated beam-supporting pier but showing in addition a floor joist.
FIGURE 30 is a vertical sectional View taken along line 30-30 of FIGURE 29.
FIGURE 31 is a vertical sectional view showing a modified roof cap.
FIGURE 32 is a vertical sectional view showing one type of ridge cap used on the roof.
FIGURE 33 is a view similar to FIGURE 32 but showing a cap used at the joints between roof panels.
FIGURE, 34 is a vertical sectional view taken along line 34-34 of FIGURE 33.
FIGURE 35 is a vertical sectional view of another form of .connector for connecting adjacent trusses of adjacent building sections.
FIGURE 36 is a horizontal lines 36-36 of FIGURE 35.
FIGURE 37 is a vertical sectional view similar to FIGURE 14 but illustrating how a nailing strip can be used on the roof truss arms of the metal truss.
FIGURE 38 is a sectional view illustrating the use of nailing strips on the side column and also illustrating somewhat different associated wall structures.
sectional view taken along FIGURE 39 is a vertical sectional view showing a differentv arrangementof the roof truss arm structure of associated trusses.
FIGURE 40 is a perspective view of a building section mounted on a trailer for transport.
With reference to the drawings,there is illustrated generally in FIGURE 1 a building structure embodying principles and structure of this invention. The buifding structure shown is of the type used as a house or residence but it is to be understood that this is merely one example of a building which can be built according to this invention. The illustrated building structure consists of a plurality of transverse modules or sections which are identical in basic structure but which may vary from each other in exterior design and finish and in interior design and finish. Also, the interiors of the various sections may have built-in equipment which varies from section to section. For example, usually one of the sections is a utility core or section which will contain kitchen, bathroom and heating and/ or air conditioning equipment. This section may be located relative to the other sections as desired. Other sections may have living room furniture built in and still other sections may have bedroom furniture built in. Thus, there may be wide variation in regard to the relationship and to the equipment of the various sections.
In the example illustrated, the house is shown as consisting of a plurality of main transverse modules or sections 41 and 42 and a pair of transverse terminal or end sections 43, but it is. obviousv that the number of main sections could be varied. Each of the end sections 43 forming a building structure, although similar in structure to the main sections 41 and 42, are provided with end walls 44,.as best shown in FIGURE 1. The specific structure of the end wall will be more fully explained hereinafter. The supporting framework members of the sections are designed primarily to be fabricated from lightweight structural steel shapes. Wall, roof and floor sheathings or coverings which may be fabricated or formed from various well-known building materials such as wood, synthetic substances or metals, or any combination thereof, are secured to the respective elements of the framework to resist racking or twisting of the building structure without the addition of the conventional diagonal bracing members. Weathertight seals are formed between the several sections or modules when joined together, either by the compressive force exerted between adjacent sections holding opposed edge portions in contacting engagement, the particular arrangement of the sheathing or external covering members, or by additional sealing members that are readily attachable to the structure itself. The support for the entire building is shown as consisting of the pair of longitudinally extending, main supporting beams 45 and 46 which are disposed in parallel relationship. Additional details as to the structure of the beams 45 and 46 as well as connection with the building structure and foundation members will be described in subsequent paragraphs.
Each transverse section or module is constructed with a plurality of basic truss units, indicated generally by the numeral 47, which form the structural framework thereof. -A complete truss unit 47 is illustrated in FIGURE 2 and includes a floor joist 48, a pair of side columns 49 secured to the outer ends of the joist, and a pair of inwardly extending, cantilever-type roof truss arms 50 attached to the upper ends of the side columns. In the present embodiment, the floor joist 48, as well as the cantilever roof truss arms 50, are fabricated from two or more beam sections. The several beam sections are rigidly connected to each other in an end-to-end relationship to form a beam or truss of the desired length. The utilization of relatively short beam sections is primarily an economic factor as it reduces the cost of manufacture of the building and it is readily apparent that a unitary beam of the required length may be utilized. To further reduce the cos-t of manufacture, each member of a truss unit 47 is fabricated from a C-shaped channel beam of the general form shown in FIGURE 4 including web and flange portions with each of the flange portions having the marginal edge thereof turned inwardly forming a flange lip disposed parallel to the web portion. This particular shape of channel permits the flange and web portions thereof to be rolled or otherwise formed from a relatively thin sheet of material while retaining the strength of a heavier beam. The weight of each truss unit is also minimized for a predetermined load-carrying capacity which results in a reduction of the total weight of a complete building.
To obtain the desired structural characteristics, all 1 be securely and rigidly limiting of deflection is accomplished through the phenomenon known as reverse bending, which is created in all members concerned by vitrue of the rigidily connected joints and the supporting of the floor members at a point other than at the extreme ends. Were either of these essential requirements eliminated, the reverse bending phenomenon would not be achieved and much stiffer and consequently heavier steel sections would be required to achieve the same deflection limits. Increasing or decreasing the load on each truss unit will cause the truss unit to flex in a vertical plane. FIGURES 3 through 9a illustrate the various methods of obtaining rigid joints between the several members of the truss unit.
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged detail of the connection between the roof truss arms 50 at the center of the building or the roof ridge. The adjacent ends of the truss arms 50 are angularly cut and shaped to fit in an end-contacting relationship to form a sloped roof and are subsequently welded together. Additional stiffening or reinforcing of the truss arms 50 at the ridge is provided by the insertion of a flat plate 51 into the channel of each arm at the adjacent ends thereof. The plates 51 are welded to the truss arms 50, as indicated in FIGURE 4, along the edges in contact with the flange and web portions.
A typical rigid joint between a roof truss arm 50 and a side column 49 is illustrated in FIGURES 5 and 6. A cap plate 52 is first welded to the upper marginal end of the side column 49 and the roof truss arm 50 is then set on the cap plate and welded thereto. The upper end of the column 49 is accordingly angularly cut in conformity with the slope of the roof truss. A pair of flanged reinforcing members 53 are also positioned within the roof truss arm 50 at the marginal end thereof adjacent the side column 49. The flanged reinforcing members 53 form continuations of the flanges of the side column 49 and are welded rigidly in position with the flanges thereof aligned with and parallel to the flange lips of the truss arms 50. An extremely rigid, lightweight joint is thus formed with the truss members being reinforced as to racking or twisting forces. The roof truss arms 50 do not extend outwardly from the side columns 49 to form a supporting structure for the eaves as in conventional constructions and, as will be subsequently explained, the eaves are integrally formed with the roof sheathing in a novel and economically fabricated construction.
Each side column 49 is also rigidly secured to the extreme end of a floor joist beam 48 and the details of this joint are clearly illustrated in FIGURES 7 and 8. Welded to the extreme end of the floor joist is an end cap 54 and a reinforcing plate 55 is welded to each of the flange portions thereof to provide suflicient strength at the marginal end of the joist. The side column 49 is then welded to the end cap 54 and the reinforcing plates 55. An additional pair of reinforcing plates 56 are welded in the interior of the side column 49 in spaced, parallel relationship forming continuations of the flanges of the floor joist beam 48 to increase the resistance of the column to racking or twisting forces.
The method of joining or splicing two of the relatively short beams from which the long members of a truss unit 47 are fabricated, such as a truss arm 50, is illustrated in FIGURES 9 and 9a. The two beams are placed in end-contacting relationship and a spline 57 fabricated from a similarly formed but proportionally smaller sized C-shaped channel is inserted within the channel of the beam. The relatively short spline 57 extends a distance to each side of the joint and is rigidly fastened to the beams, by welding, for example. The joint between the two beams is also welded together.
The complete truss unit 47 thus formed is a substantially rigid structure capable of supporting the static and dynamic loads for which it was designed. These design forces include the dead weight of the building materials and the normal furniture loads and also wind, snow, or other natural forces. The truss units 47 are disposed in a generally vertical plane extending transversely of the longitudinal beams 45 and 46 and are preferably positioned thereon in such a manner that the floor joist beam 48 will be supported intermediate the ends thereof, as best shown in FIGURE 2. The position of the beams 45 and 46 relative to the floor joist beam 48 is determined by design requirements of the specific structural beam section to minimize deflection as well as stress through the achievement of reverse bending in the floor beam section. Although the stress in the floor joist 48 is substantially reduced by the preferred location of the supporting beams 45 and 46, it may be necessary to increase the size of the floor joist 48 relative to the side columns 49 and the roof truss arms 50 to provide a truss unit 47 capable of supporting the maximum design load.
Each transverse section or module is fabricated from a plurality of the basic truss units 47 disposed in spaced parallel relationship. A completed module, such as 41 or 42, is shown in FIGURE 40 and a partially constructed end module 43 is illustrated in FIGURE 10 on an enlarged scale to clearly indicate the method of construction. The truss units 47 are uniformly spaced in standard units, such as 4 ft., and each module may be of a length such as 8 or 12 ft. which are a multiple of the basic spacing. The module illustrated in FIGURE 40 is of the 12 ft. width and utilizes six of the truss units. A single truss unit 47 is disposed at each of the transverse edges of the module with the channel opening inwardly thereof. Thus, only the web portions of the channel members of the end trusses will be visible in a completely assembled module. The remaining four trusses 47 are disposed in pairs intermediate the end trusses in which the web portions of two adjacent truss units are in contacting engagement. The positioning of the truss units in pairs is clearly shown in FIGURE 10. The transverse edges of each module adapted to be positioned centrally of a building structure are only provided with one truss unit 47 as the module positioned adjacent thereto will provide the additional truss unit. When the two modules are positioned in assembled relationship, the adjacent end truss units will also be positioned with the web portion thereof in contacting engagement. Each module will, therefore, be a self-contained, self-supporting building unit which may be readily combined with other modules of the same basic form. The interior arrangement of the modules is completely independent of the module as the truss units are self-supporting and do not require additional support members to be positioned between the floor joist and roof truss arms.
Although each of the truss units 47 is formed as a substantially rigid truss member, the truss units are designed to flex in a vertical plane when subjected to various loads. This type of design permits the utilization of lighter weight beam members for economic and weight advantages. As an example, when a truss unit 47 is subjected to its proportionate share of a static load, a uniform floor and roof load, for example, the floor joists 48 will be flexed downwardly at the outer ends thereof while the center portion will also be flexed downwardly. Simultaneously, the roof truss arms 50 will be subjected to bending stresses which results in a downward movement of the roof truss arms 50. The downward movement of the roof truss arms is further increased by the downward flexing of the floor joists 48. Preferably, the floor joists 48 are designed to have substantially less flexing when subjected to a maximum design load than are the roof trusses 50. This may be readily accomplished by utilizing a substantially larger member for the floor joist 48 as was previously suggested. When the roof truss arms 50 are subjected to a substantially uniform roof loading, the truss arms will be flexed downwardly as Well as lowered. The relatively larger movement of the roof truss arms 50 compared to the floor joist beam 48 is not of particular importance except for the general appearance of the building structure. It is generally immaterial to the occupant that the roof truss 50 is flexed downwardly unless overhead clearances should be decreased beyond a reasonable limit. However, extreme flexing of the floor joists 48 is undesirable and will be readily noticeable in the location and operation of appliances, as well as the appearance of other furniture items. Simultaneously with the flexing of the roof truss arms 50 and the floor joists 48 in a vertical plane, the side columns 49 will be observed to become inclined relative to their normal vertical position but the inclination is relatively small compared to the roof. By virtue of all rigidly connected joints, a static roof load results in a bending moment which is transmitted through the rigid joint between each roof truss arm 50 and the side column 49 and then through the rigid joint between it and the floor joist 48 to the floor joist itself. This transmitted moment opposes the moment created by the static loading of the floor joist itself, thus creating the structural phenomenon known as reverse bending. The analysis works equally as well in reverse with bending moments created by the static loading of the floor being transmitted the other direction equal and opposite through the side columns 49 to the roof truss arms 50, these moments being opposite to the moments created by the static loading of the roof. The result is that all members of the rigid structure are subjected to reverse bending conditions which allows them to assume much greater loads with less flexing or deflection than would be possible if the reverse bending phenomenon were not achieved. Two factors are absolutely essential to achieve this phenomenon. One is the rigidly connected joints of all members, and the second is the support of the entire trusses unit at a mathematically predetermined point a distance inward from the ends of the floor joist 48.
To quantitat ively illustrate the magnitude of the flexing movement referred to herein, a test model comprising a plurality of the truss units 47 was constructed and subjected to various load conditions. For one particular test condition, maximum design load, the floor joists 48 were subjected to a uniform loading of 65 pounds per square foot on an effective two ft. wide module. Simultaneously, the roof truss arms were subjected to a uniform loading of 24 pounds per square foot. In this test model, the floor joists 48 were fabricated in the form of C-shaped channels having a web of 8 inches and a flange of 3 inches from 10-gauge flat stock structural steel having a 33,000 p.s.i. yield point. The joists were 30 ft. in length. The roof truss arms 50 were similarly fabricated but from 12-gauge flat stock structural steel having a 50,000 p.s.i. yield point. The dimensions of the roof trusses were 6 inches for the web and 2 /2 inches for the flanges. The deflections noted in this test were that the floor joists 48 were flexed downwardly at the extreme ends thereof approximately /2 inch while the center portion of the floor beam was only flexed downwardly inch. The total downward movement of the roof truss arms 50 during this test was ascertained to be a maximum of 1% inches at the ridge thereof with the deflection of each arm decreasing toward the outer ends thereof connected to the side columns 49. Simultaneously, the upper ends of the side columns 49 were observed to have moved approximately inch horizontally outward from their normal position. It was noted that the deflection of the roof truss arms 50 relative to the floor joists 48 was extremely variable over the entire length of the truss unit with the maximum variation in deflection occurring at the center or roof ridge of the truss and decreasing to a minimum at the marginal ends thereof adjacent the side columns 49.
It is obvious the other test loads or loadings of a test model would result in variations of the deflections previously indicated. As an example, with non-uniform loadings it is possible to produce an upwardly directed deflection in the roof truss arms 50 as well as the outer ends of the floor joist beams 48. An example of such a deflection was observed when the roof truss arms 50 were subjected to a substantially less than normal loading as were the portions of the floor joists 48 extending outwardly from the respective support points. The center span of the floor joist 48, however, was subjected to the normal loading and was, therefore, the only portion of the truss unit experiencing a downward deflection.
Each of the modules includes several sheathing members as part of the structure which must necessarily be designed to accommodate the vertical flexing movement when subjected to variations of load. A suitable sheathing material is applied to the floor joists 48, the side columns 49 and the roof truss arms 50 to provide resistance to racking or twisting forces. The sheathing on the respective members of the truss units 47 must be of a type which will not be affected by a vertical flexing movement of the truss and will readily accommodate any bending that may occur in the associated truss member. The sheathing applied to the respective members of the truss units must be fabricated from suitable materials having the desired strength characteristics to resist racking. Also, it is necessary that all interior walls or partitions be movable relative to the truss units 47 and associated sheathings to prevent damage to the structures during flexure of the truss units. Since the truss units 47 are structurally self-supporting and are of the open-span type, the various interior walls may be of the free-standing or curtain-wall type which are not usually subjected to any verti cal loadings.
The basic structure and constructional characteristics of a module and an end wall 44 are illustrated in FIG- URE 10. The module illustrated is an end module 43; however, the essential constructional characteristics would apply to either of the modules 41 and 42 adapted to be positioned centrally of the building structure. In FIG- URE 10, two truss units, indicated herein as trusses 47a and 47b for purposes of differentiation, are longitudinally disposed on the supporting beams 45 and 46 at the desiredbasic module spacing of four feet. A floor sheathing member 60 is then applied to the upper flange of the floor joist 48 as are sheathing members 61 and 62 to the exterior and interior flanges of the side columns 49 and a roof sheathing, denoted generally by the numeral 63, to the upper flanges of the roof truss arms 50. The various sheathings are rigidly secured to the respective truss members by any suitable fastening means such as self-tapping sheet metal screws or power driven screw nails. The
spacing of the fastening means is determined by the type of material utilized and the particular fasteners. Utilization of sheet metal material in the fabrication of the truss units permits the use of fasteners of this type which are readily applied by powered apparatus and equipment thus effecting a reduction in fabrication costs. A module is further built up by the addition of other pairs of truss units 47 to obtain a readily transportable unit having a width of eight or twelve feet. As indicated, the next truss unit 47c is positioned adjacent the truss unit 47a with the web portions thereof in contacting engagement. The truss units 47a and 470 are then rigidly secured together by suitable fastening means such as bolts 64. A plurality of bolts 64 are utilized substantially as indicated in FIG- URE 2. Preferably, the truss units are first assembled in pairs, such as 47a and 47b, with the sheathing secured thereto for economic assembly operations and thus form module subsections. Such a subsection will thus be fabri- I cated from standard length parts that are readily produced under mass manufacturing methods. A subsection 7 of four-foot width is also readily transferrable throughout a factory assembly plant. Although the sheathing may be applied to the subsection before assembly, there will be no difficulty encountered in fastening the subsections together as the bolts are applied only to the portions of the trusses which are readily accessible.
An end module 43 includes a vertically disposed wall 44 and an overhanging roof portion -or eave member.
The overhanging roof portion is preferably formed as a continuation or extension of the roof sheathing 63 applied to the end module 43 while the vertical wall 44 must be supported for movement relative to the associated truss units 47. The details of the construction of an end wall 44 and a roof overhang and the attachment thereof to the end module 43 is best illustrated in the FIGURES 10, 12, 13, 14, and 16. As indicated in the several figures, the end wall 44 is fabricated as a structurally rigid unit which must be vertically supported at the transverse edge of the end module 43. The roof overhang, although integrally formed with the roof sheathing 63 carried by the end module 43, represents additional weight that may excessively load the truss unit 47b disposed at the transverse edge of the module. Therefore, a truss unit 47d is disposed in a vertical plane adjacent to the truss unit 47b to support the wall 44 and carry the weight of the roof overhang. However, the web portions thereof are not in contacting engagement as are the adjacent pairs of truss units such as 47a and 470. A spacing member 65 is positioned between the webs of the adjacent channel members 47b and 47d which is of a thickness equal to the desired spacing between the trusses. The spacing member 65 may be an elongated strip of wood or similar noncompressible material extending around the periphery of the truss units adjacent the outer flanges thereof or a plurality of relatively short blocks. In addition, a washer 64a of the same thickness is positioned on each of the bolts 64 fastening the truss units 47b and 47d together so that the web portions will be maintained in parallel relationship. The web portions of the respective truss units 47b and 47d will form a slot or channel opening inwardly of the truss units and extending substantially around the periphery of the truss units.
The floor sheathing 60, which is secured to the upper flange of the truss unit 47b by any suitable fastening means such as screw nails 66, is formed from panels of structural materials capable of supporting the loads placed thereon as well as resisting the racking forces to which the structure may be subjected. The panels may be fabricated from inch thick plywood. An insulation sheathing 67 may also be applied to the lower flanges of the floor joists 48 to thermally insulate the floor of the building. The insulation sheathing 67 is for-med in panels which are secured to the truss unit 47b by screw nails 68. Any of the well-known rigid sheet insulation panels which are resistant to moisture may be utilized. It is readily apparent that other forms of insulation may also be utilized, such as replacing the insulation panels 67 with a skin member formed from metal, for example, and filling the space between the floor sheathing 60 and the skin member with a granular or nonrigid batting type of insulating material. The floor sheathing 60 and insulation panels 67 terminate at the web portion of the truss units and, in the case of the end modules, do not extend over the space between the truss units 47b and 47d.
The end wall 44 is fabricated as a rigid, self-supporting unit similar to the conventional structural walls having a plurality of vertically disposed studs 70 which are attached to a horizontally extending sole plate 71. Openings 72 and 73 may be integrally framed in the wall studding 70 to receive windows as desired. Additional openings of proper form may be provided for installation of doors. The sole plate 71 is supported on the upper flange of the floor joist of the truss unit 47d which truss unit will, therefore, support the entire end wall 44. The sole plate 71, however, is not rigidly secured to the truss unit 47d except at points immediately above the longitudinal beams 45 and 46. The end wall 44 is of substantially rigid construction and will, therefore, be incapable of flexing in a vertical plane, as is the truss unit 47d on which it is supported. Since the floor joist 48 of this truss is also rigidly supported at the longitudinal beams 45 and 46, there will be no relative movement of the sole plate 71 and the truss at this point thus eliminating the necessity 10 of a movable or slip joint at this location. Any suitable fastening means may be utilized, such as a bolt 74, extending through the upper flange of the truss unit 47d and the sole plate 71, as indicated in FIGURE 16.
It is necessary that the remaining marginal edge portions of the end wall 44 be connected by means of slip joints to the truss unit 47d and the sheathing members attached thereto to permit relative movement. An interior wall sheathing 75 is applied to the vertical studding members 70 to form an interior wall surface. The sheathing 75 may be formed from sheets of suitable building materials, such as plywood or composition Wood having a plastic surface, and is fastened to the studs 70 by a suitable fastening means, such as nails. The sheathing 75 is cut to such a length that the marginal edge portions thereof will extend a distance beyond the framing members 70 and 71 into channels formed by adjacently disposed portions of the truss units 47b and 47d, as illustrated in FIGURES 12, 14 and 16. The spacing between the truss units 47b and 47d is determined by the thickness of the sheathing 75 and must be adequate to permit relatively free sliding movement of the sheathing therebetween. The end walls may, therefore, move relative to the truss units without adverse distorting effects. It is readily apparent that the sheathing 75 will also serve to maintain the wall member 44 in a vertically upright position. An exterior sheathing 77 may also be applied to the vertical studs 70 in a similar manner. The exterior sheathing 77 is preferably formed from an insulating material consisting of rigid sheets to which. a protective and decorative siding 77a such as the clapboard type may be applied. The sheathing 77 extends downwardly from the sole plate 71 to at least an overlapping relationship with the bottom sheathing 67 to enclose the truss units and provide a weather-proof seal. A spacing member 78 of L-shaped cross section may be fastened tothe lower flange of the truss unit 47d, as illustrated in FIG- URE 16, to provide an additional bearing surface for movement of the wall member 44 and to aid in maintaining the wall in a vertical position. The spacing member 78 is not secured to the sheathing 77. A similar spacing member 78a is secured to the lower flange of the roof truss arm 50 of the truss unit 47d. A closure member 79 may then be secured to the exterior of the flange of truss unit 47d to completely seal the wall member 44. The closure member 79 would be fastened to the flange of the truss unit 47d by suitable means such as metal screws after the truss unit fastening bolts 64 have been installed.
An elongated strip of interior molding or trim 76, such as a quarter-round, may be nailed to the floor sheathing 60 adjacent the sheathing 75 to provide a more finished appearance and to eliminate the necessity of accurately cutting a smooth abutting joint along the marginal edge of the floor sheathing 60. It is to be understood that other floor surfacing or covering materials may be applied to the upper surface of the floor sheathing 60 to improve the appearance thereof. For example, hardwood flooring or composition tiles may be laid over the sheathing. In that instance, the quarter-round 76 would be disposed above the floor covering. With certain types of floor coverings, at the floor joints between adjacent building sections or modules it may be desirable to have corresponding joints in the floor covering with trim strips over the joints.
The slip joint structure of the end wall 44 with the longitudinal side walls of the building structure is best illustrated in FIGURES 12 and 13. The interior and exterior wall sheathing members 62 and 61 are applied to the interior and exterior flanges of the side column members 49 and fastened thereto by any suitable means, such as sheet metal screws or bolts. A plurality of side column spacer blocks or single elongated spacing members 80, similar in form and operation as the spacer blocks 78, 78a described in conjunction with the floor joist and roof truss arms, are fastened to the exterior flange of the end truss unit 47d. An extension 81 of the exterior sheathing 61 is also fastened to the side column of the end truss 47d forming an edge cover for the end wall 44. The extension 81 may be formed integrally with the wall siding 62. A protective and decorative clapboard siding 82 is also applied to the sheathing 62. Before securely fastening the clapboard siding 82 to either the side wall or the end wall, a preformed metal corner member 83 is fastened to the sheathing extension 21 to form a decorative and weathertight seal at the junction of the side and end wall members and permit movement of the end wall relative to the side wall. The corner member 83 (see FIGURE 13) is formed from a sheet metal With a pair of vertically extending channels 84 for receiving the clapboard siding and a pair of flange members disposed in contacting engagement with the respective wall sheathing 81 and 77. To permit relative movement of the end wall 44, the corner member 83 is only fastened to the sheathing extension 81. Thus, the clapboard siding applied to the end wall 44 may not only slide transversely relative to the corner member 83 but longitudinally thereof, along the clapboard receiving channels 84.
FIGURES 10, 14 and 15 illustrate the structure of the roof sheathing 63 and the construction of the roof overhang at the end walls and the longitudinal side walls. The roof sheathing 63 includes a substantially rigid sheet or panel 85 formed from a suitable material such as plywood, which may be readily fastened to the truss units 47 by metal screws or power-driven screw nails. The plywood panel 85 must be capable of resisting racking or twisting forces to which the building structure may be subjected. Also, the panel 85 may extend outwardly from the end wall members, as shown in FIGURE 14, or the longitudinal side walls, as shown in FIGURE 15, to form the structural member of the roof overhang or eave. A panel of insulation 86 of the type which may be fabricated in sheet form is placed over the roof sheathing 85. An external, protective metal skin or panel 87 is then placed over the top of the roof insulation and maintained in its proper position.
The roof sheathing 63 is formed in elongated sheets as shown in FIGURE which extend transversely of the section module. The roof sheathing panels are maintained in their respective positions by means of roof batten structures or seam caps 88. The roof batten structures 88 extend transversely of the building structure and are preferably positioned at the truss units 47. Each of the batten structures 88 includes one or more elongated bars 89 which are secured to the plywood panel 85 by means of a plurality of wood screws 90 or nails. The screw 90 extends through the batten and into the panel 85. The sides of the bar 89 are inclined upwardly and outwardly from the panel 85 forming a wedge structure to engage the insulation panels 86 and the roof skins 87 to retain them in an overlying relationship to the roof sheathing 85. For this purpose, the roof insulation panels 86 are preformed to have an inclined edge portion which cooperatively engages the inclined side of the bars 89. The roof skins 87, which are preferably fabricated from a sheet metal such as aluminum, are formed with a flanged edge portion which also engages the inclined side of the bar 89. The flanged edge portion includes a flange 91 inclined upwardly and outwardly similar to the inclined surface of the bar 89 and which terminates in a lip member 92. The lip member 92 is disposed in a plane parallel to the main body of the panel 87 in overlying relationshipthereto. The roof sheathing panels 86 and 87 will thus be maintained in position by the roof batten structures 88 without requiring the customary fastening means, such as nails, to be driven through each of the panels. The inclined surfaces or sides of the bars 89 prevent lifting of the panels 86 and 87 from the plywood panels 85 but do restrict movement thereof transversely of the building structure to accommodate thermal expansion.
In the assembly of the roof sheathing 63, the plywood panels are first positioned on the truss units 47 and secured to the flanges of the roof truss arms 50- by suitable fastening means. As best shown in FIGURE 23, the panels 85 terminate at the web portions of the truss units 47 so that the marginal edges of two adjacent panels will be in contacting engagement when the modules or the building structure are completely assembled. The panels 85 adjacent the end wall 44, however, extend a distance beyond the truss 47d to form the structural base for the overhang. The insulation panels 86 and the roof skins 87 are then placed on the plywood roof panels 85 and the roof batten bar 89 then placed between each of the insulation panels and roof skins and secured to the plywood panels 85. The roof batten structures are then completed by the assembly therewith of a seam cap member 93. The cap member 93 is fabricated from a metal similar to that utilized in the fabrication of the roof skins 87 and consists of an elongated strip having the marginal edges thereof rolled substantially as illustrated in FIGURE 14. Each of the rolled edges forms a channel for receiving the lip member 92 of the roof skins 87. The cap member 93 is readily assembled with the roof structure with-out the utilization of additional fastening means and is assembled therewith by merely slipping the member longitudinally of the bar 89 with the lip members 92 disposed within the respective channels of the cap member. The roof panels 87 which are locked in position by the cooperative inclined surfaces relative to the bar 89 also lock the cap member 93' to the bar by means of the lip members 92.
The roof insulation panels 86 and their associated roof skins 87 may be of any suitable width, the only limitation on width being that each insulation panel 86 and the overlying roof skin 87 must possess the required structural strength to prevent buckling when subjected to wind forces since the only fastening means is the bar 89 of the roof batten structure 88. In the present embodiment, each of the insulation panels 86 and its associated roof skin 87 is of a width equal to the basic four-foot spacing of the truss units 47. The roof overhang at the end section 43 will, of course, be of a different width, and substantially less than the four-foot standard width of the truss units 47 and thus require panels of less width. During the fabrication of each of the modules 41, 42 or 43, the roof sheathing 63 is also applied. At the end of each of the modules which are to be assembled to an adjacent module, the roof batten structure bars 89 would be attached to only one of the modules. For example, the modules, such as 41 or 42 which are designed to be positioned centrally of the building structure, would have a bar 89 attached to one transverse edge thereof but not to the other. The plywood panel 85 would terminate at the Web portion of a truss unit 47 and the bar 89 secured thereto with a por tion thereof overhanging the panel. A screw would, therefore, be displaced from the center line of the bar 89 so as to engage the panel 85 a distance inwardly of the marginal edge thereof as illustrated in FIGURE 2.3. The seam cap 93 would not be assembled therewith until the two adjacent modules are disposed in assembled relationship.
The illustrated embodiment of the building as represented in FIGURE 10 does not utilize a ridge cap or seal ing member extending longitudinally of the building structure at the ridge of the roof truss arms. If the ridge cap is deemed necessary such a cap may be constructed similar to the roof batten structures 88 previously described.
The roof overhang or eave structure is formed at the exterior transverse edge of each of the end modules 43. The overhang may be of any desired width or longitudinal extension from the end wall 44. In the present embodiment, it has been found desirable to utilize to one-half of that of the basic unit spacing of four feet a width equal