US 3279136 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 18, 1966 J. E. SMITH UMBRELLA PILE ANCHOR 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 2'7, 1963 Oct. 18, 1966 J. E. SMITH 3,279,136
UMBRELLA FILE ANCHOR Filed June 27, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 40 Iw/E/vme. -2 clnspse $14014,
Oct. 18, 1966 J. SMITH 3,279,136
UMBRELLA FILE ANCHOR Filed June 27, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Inn-wrat- UZSPER $44,714,
fire/#02 Oct. 18, 1966 J. E. SMITH UMBRELLA PILE ANCHOR 5 sheets Sheet 5 Filed June 27, 1963 fill/EMMA? Clasps? $114,714,
United States Patent f 3,279,136 UMBRELLA PILE ANCHOR Jasper E. Smith, Ventura, Califl, assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Filed June 27, 1963, Ser. No. 291,221 9 Claims. (Cl. 52-164) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
This invent-ion relates generally to structural piles and specifically to an umbrella pile anchor that may be utilized either as a bearing pile or as an anchor for mooring purposes.
In some harbor installations, employment of anchors and piles in a normal manner is impractical or unduly expensive. Dragging of anchors during placement of moorings or afterwards may be objectionable or unacceptable; space restrictions may prohibit placement of spread type moorings; or the bedrock may be too deep to provide bearing support for conventional bearing or stake piles, or too shallow to permit suffi-cient embedment. To overcome these problems, a device has been conceived and designed that could be driven into the ground like a pile then its lower portion opened like an inverted umbrella. The objective was to obtain high capacities and in resistance to uplift without dragging of anchors, utilizing large areas, requiring great depths of embedment, or requiring contact with an impenetrable bottom.
Two designs that meet the specified criteria were developed. Each offers advantages in specific situations. Differences in the two designs are evident by the accessories required for their emplacement, the configuration and mechanical functioning of the individual elements and their distinct principles of operation. The first design has been disclosed in the co-pending application, Ser. No. 291,590, filed in the names of Kingston M. Bowman and of Jasper E. Smith on June 28, 1963. This application covers the second design.
The principal object of this invention is to provide an umbrella pile anchor that may be driven without the need for external casings.
Another object of this invention is to provide an umbrella anchor portion wherein the fiukes may be locked during the initial driving operation and then may be unlocked for opening and extension into the holding soil.
Other objects, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatical elevation of the invention shown in locked driving condition;
FIG. 2 is a similar view showing the flukes unlocked;
FIG. 3 is a similar view showing the flukes opening;
FIG. 4 is a similar view showing the umbrella pile anchor in service as a mooring apparatus anchor;
FIG. 5 is an elevation of the device ready for transport or storage;
FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the device as shown in FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is an elevation, partly in cross-section, showing upper details of the invention;
FIG. 8 is a similar view to FIG. 7 showing certain details of operation;
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of the umbrella anchor showing details of construction;
FIG. 10 is an elevation, partly in cross-section, showing lower details of the invention;
FIG. 11 is a similar view to FIG. 10 showing certain details of operation;
Patented Oct. 18, 1966 FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional elevation of the lower part of the invention showing the finkcs in open position;
FIG. 13 an exploded view of the lower part of the device;
FIG. 14 is a cross-section taken on the line 14-14 of FIG. 10;
FIG. 15 is a cross-section taken on the line 1515 of FIG. 10; and
FIG. 16 is a cross-section taken on the line 16-16 of FIG. 10.
With reference to FIGS. 1 to 5, inclusive, the umbrella pile anchor 20 comprises generally the anchor portion 22, two concentrically disposed follower tubes, outer fol-lower tube 24 and inner follower tube 26, a pair of locking cables 28, and a heavy chain 30.
The anchor portion 22 consists of a tubular frame 32; an inner, movable cross-runner 34; pivoted fiukes 36; and pivoted fluke braces 38.
As best shown in FIGS. 9, 10, 12 and 13 the tubular frame 32, which is. the main supporting element of the improved umbrella pile anchor, is a composite or builtup structure comprising a basic tubular element 33 having a heavy annular reinforcing band 40 around its upper portion for receiving the impact transmitted by the outer follower tube 24. In the interior of the upper end of tubular element 33, chain link connection pad 41 is welded in place after the insertion of the cross-runner 34. Spaced upwardly from the lower end of element 33, transverse external plate 42 is welded which plate serves as a support for the vertically extending generally triangular-shaped stiifeners and fluke rests 43. These stififeners 43 are externally curved to conform to the shape of the main fluke element 45 and also serve as rests or stops therefor when the fi-ukes 36 are in driving position.
Brace guide 50, a cruciform composite, as best shown in FIG. 13, is then inserted in the lower end of tubular element 33 and welded in place. As will be noted, the vertical plates 51 extending upwardly from horizontal base plate '52 are provided with notched slots 53 which slots are adapted to receive the inner pins of the pivoted fluke braces 38 and thus lock these braces in place when the flukes 36 are extended to holding position. A generally vertical triangular plate 54 extends downwardly from horizontal plate 52 which triangular plate serves as a support for the tip cover plates 55 which are welded, or otherwise suitably secured, to vertical plate 54, horizontal plate 52 and transverse plate 42. This structure results in an inverted pyramidal soil penetrating tip that is easily driven. Tubular element 33 is provided, intermediate its ends, with three series of quadrantal slots. The first series, near the top, comprise two slots 56 through which eyelet plates 60 of the cross-runner 34 protrude. A second series of slots '57, four in number, are provided for pivotal connection between the upper end of the flukes 36 and the cross-runner 34. A third series of elongated slots 58, also four in number, are provided for pivotal connection. of the fluke braces 38 between the flukes 36 and the brace guide 50.
Cross-runner 34, as best seen in FIG. 13, is a generally cruciform composite structure adapted to reciprocate in the tubular frame 32 through a limited range of movement. This structure comprises an upper portion 61 adapted to receive the impact of the inner follower tube 26 and to bear the eyelet plates 60; an intermediate portion 62 for providing the pivotal connections for the flukes 36; and a lower spacer portion 63 which, by coming into contact with the top of the br-acer guide 50, limits the downward movement of the cross-runner and hence the angular extension of the fiukes 36.
Flukes 36 consist of main curved plate element 45 with a centrally disposed stiffening bar 46 welded thereto. A plurality of hinge plates 47 are welded to the under surface of plate element 45 at the upper end of the fluke for pivotally connecting the fluke with the intermediate portion 62 of the cross-runner 34. These hinge plates 47 are provided with an oval slot 48 which allows limited movement of the fiukes with relation to the cross-runner 34. As will be appreciated later, this limited movement is required to insure that the fiukes are locked to tubular frame member 32. While not being called out specifically, it is to be understood that all pivoted joints are provided with the necessary pivot pins. A single fluke brace pivot plate 49 is welded to the central portion of the underside of fiuke plate element 45 for pivotal attachment of the outward end of the fluke brace 38. Alternatively for greater strength, these pivot plates 49 may be formed as an integral portion of fluke stiffening bar 46. In this event, the portion 49 would be inserted through a centrally disposed rectangular aperture cut in curved plate element 45. A pair of fluke wedge lock plates 64 are welded to the underside of plate element 45 at the outer or lower end thereof and are spaced to coincide with similar wedge lock plates 65 which are Welded to the lower ends of the stiffener-fluke rests 43. It will be noted that .the upper edge of fluke wedge lock 64 is inclined inwardly and upwardly, while the lower mating edge of the stiffener wedge lock 65 is inclined outwardly and downwardly. As will be explained more fully, these wedge locks cooperate to keep the fiukes closed on the tubular frame 32 during the initial driving operation.
Pivoted fluke braces 38 are pivoted to flukes 36 at brace pivot plate 49. These braces enter and move through slots 58 in tubular element 33 and their lower ends embrace their corresponding brace guide plates 51. Pin 66 is then inserted through the ends of the brace which in then passes through the notched slot 53 in the guide plate 51. The vertical length of this slot 53 in conjunction with the length of the brace 38 limits the outward movement of the fluke 36. As the anchor portion 22 may be later subjected to lifting action, Where the anchor is used for mooring purposes, the pressure of the soil on top of the fluke will force the lower pinned end of the brace into one or other of the notches in notched slot 53 which will then maintain the fluke in its extended position. Obviously, the notch utilized will depend on the extent to which the flukes have been opened during the driving operation.
With reference to FIGS. 7 and 8, the driving operation on the anchor portion 22 is accomplished by the outer and inner follower tubes 24 and 26. The upper end of outer tube 24 is supplied with a pair of external eyelet plates 67 which may be welded or otherwise suitably secured thereto. The lower end of this tube is supplied with cylindrical fittings 68 adapted to embrace the upper portion of tubular element 33 whereby driving force may be applied selectively to that element. As seen in FIGS. 7 and 8, another slightly larger cylindrical fitting 80 may be welded to the cylindrical fitting 68 so as to slip over reinforcing band 40 and properly align outer tube 24 with the tubular element 33 for the driving operation. Inner follower tube 26 is adapted to fit concentrically within outer tube 24 and is somewhat shorter in length. Reinforcing band 69 may be applied to the lower end portion of this inner follower tube in order to resist the driving impacts when applied to the cross-runner 34. Transverse holes 70 are formed in the upper ends of both follower tubes for the reception of transverse pin 71. Longitudinal slots 72 are formed. in the upper ends of both tubes 24 and 26 so as to accommodate the chain 30 under the driving hammer or hammer adapters. Locking cables 28 with their shackles 29 are provided to connect follower tube eyelets 67 with cross runner eyelets 60. Turnbuckles 31 may be supplied for tightening cables 28 and for ease in removing these cables when their function is completed.
In view of the fact that, in the driving operation, it will .be necessary to move the inner follower tube with relation to the outer tube and then drive both tubes simultaneously, two types of hammer head adapters 73 and 74 may be utilized. Type 73 is used when the driving operation is initiated and type 74 is used first to drive inner follower tube 26 down through tube 24 a matter of inches and then to again apply the driving force to both tubes.
In order to ascertain the extent to which the fiukes have been spread at any point during the driving operation, an indicator 75 may be provided as shown in FIG. 7. This indicator comprises a small eyelet 76 suitably secured externally of outer follower .tube 24. Indicating tension spring 77 is supported by this eyelet and connected to a cable 78 which cable passes through a small elongated slot 79 found in the wall of the outer tube. A corresponding slot, not shown, is cut in the wall of the inner tube and the cable continues downwardly in tubular element 33 until it is secured to one of the pins 66 which hold the lower ends of the fluke braces in their respective notched slots 53. As shown in FIG. 11, when the fiukes are unlocked and in driving position, pin 66 is at its lowest point and the spring 77 is stretched to its fullest extent. A suitable marker may be painted on the tube adjacent to the lower end of the stretched spring. As the flukes are driven outwardly, FIG. 12, pin 66 reaches the upper limit of the slot 53 and spring 77 has shortened correspondingly. This upper point may also be marked on the tube, having been previously calibrated. Thus, when the driving operation is being performed, full fiuke extension is indicated when the lower end of spring 77 reaches the upper mark.
FIGS. l4, l5 and 16 are included to illustrate the construction of the various parts of the anchor portion as used in the preferred embodiment here shown and de scribed. It is appreciated that various modifications of these parts could be effected to perform the same or similar functions.
OPERATION With reference to FIGS. 1, 7, and 10, the umbrella pile anchor is in position for initial driving. Outer follower tube 24 is pulled downwardly to and makes full contact with the upper portion of tubular element 33 by means of locking cables 28. Simultaneously cross-runner 34 is pulled upwardly to its fullest extent, thus locking the lower ends of the fiukes to the stiffener-fluke rests 43 by means of the wedge locks 64 and 65. The top of inner follower tube 26 is held approximately flush with the top of the outer tube by means of pin 71. Being somewhat shorter, the lower end of inner tube 24 is held upwardly clear of the upper driving portion 61 of the cross-runner 34. It is understood, of course, that chain 30 has been passed downwardly through the inner follower tube, is secured to the chain link connection pad 41, and its upper end has been placed in the follower tube slots 72. As the driving commences, the impact falls on the head of the outer follower tube and the driving force is transmitted to tubular element 33. Driving continues until the anchor portion 22 has been driven the desired depth into the ocean floor.
When this point is reached, with further reference to FIGS. 2, 8, and 11, pin 71 and locking cables 28 are removed. Hammer head adapter 73 is replaced with adapter 74. As driving commences again, the impact force is delivered to the inner follower tube alone which then, moving downwardly, first contacts the upper portion 61 of the cross-runner 64 and then drives it downwardly several inches. This downward movement of the cross-runner carries the fiukes downwardly, releases them from their wedge locks, and causes the lower fluke tips to protrude beyond the tip plates 55. At this point, hammer head adapter 74 is now in contact with both follower tubes and further driving force will be transmitted by both tubes.
As driving continues, the follower tubes and anchor structure are driven downwardly with the flukes opening, FIG. 3, until such depth is reached where the flukes are fully opened, as shown in FIGS. 4, 9, and 12. The curvature of fluke main element 45 is designed so that during this portion of the driving operation, as the flukes are being driven downwardly and outwardly, the entry of the flukes into the surrounding soil is facilitated.
In the event the device is to be used as an anchor for mooring purposes, the follower tubes may be removed completely and the anchor used as shown in FIG. 4. If the device is to be used as a bearing pile, the inner follower tube is removed; the chain is held vertically; and the outer follower tube is filled with concrete. The excess chain extending above the pile may be removed or utilized as desired.
While my invention has been described above in connection with piling or anchors adapted to a marine environment, it is not restricted to such use alone. Either type of structure could be used in construction on dry land. The anchors, particularly, could be very successfully used in guying high structures of any sort including high radio or microwave transmission towers in areas of constant high winds. Also, while the invention has been described on a basis of four flukes, any desired number of flukes could be utilized with convenient corresponding changes in the configurations of the tubular element 36 and the cross-runner 84.
Having thus described a preferred embodiment of my invention, I claim:
1. An umbrella pile anchor comprising, in combination:
an anchor portion supporting a plurality of extensible flukes;
an outer follower tube resting on the upper portion of said anchor portion; an inner follower tube concentrically located with re spect to said outer follower tube, said inner follower tube being initially secured in said outer tube with its lower end clear of said anchor portion; and
locking cables connecting said outer follower tube to said anchor portion whereby said umbrella pile anchor constitutes a rigid structure adapted to be driven to a desired depth in subterranean soil.
2. An umbrella pile anchor comprising, in combination:
an anchor assembly supporting a plurality of extensible means initially locking said fiukes to said anchor assembly;
an outer follower tube contacting an upper portion of said anchor assembly;
an inner follower tube concentrically encased in said outer follower tube, said inner follower tube being initially secured in said outer tube with its lower end clear of said anchor assembly; and
locking cables connecting said outer follower tube to said anchor assembly.
3. An umbrella pile anchor as claimed in claim 2 further characterized by having a massive chain secured to the upper portion of said anchor assembly, said chain leading upwardly through said inner follower tube and corresponding longitudinal slots formed in the upper ends of said outer and inner follower tube whereby said chain may be disposed free of the impacts of the pile driving force.
4. An umbrella pile anchor as claimed in claim 2 further characterized by having means for unlocking said ilukes from said anchor assembly.
5. An umbrella pile anchor adapted to be driven in a subterranean soil by the impacts of an externally applied driving force comprising, in combination:
an anchor assembly supporting a plurality of concavely-curved, extensible flukes, said fiukes being pivoted at their upper ends to said anchor assembly;
means initially locking said flukes to said anchor assemmeans for releasing said fluke locking means; and
concentrically disposed outer and inner follower tubes for transmitting the impacts of the driving force to said anchor assembly whereby said fiukes are forcibly extended by the impact effects of said driving force.
6. An umbrella pile anchor as claimed in. claim 5 further characterized by 'having indicator means associated with said outer follower tube and said fiukes for indicating the degree of extension of said fiukes.
7. An umbrella pile anchor as claimed in claim 5 wherein said anchor assembly comprises an outer tubular driving frame receiving the impacts of said driving force through said outer follower tube and an inner movable cross runner, capable of limited movement with respect to said tubular driving frame, said cross runner receiving the impacts of said driving force through said inner follower tube.
8. An umbrella pile anchor as claimed in claim 7 further characterized by having means to selectively apply the impacts of the driving force to (fiISt the outer fol-lower tube, then to the inner follower tube, and finally to both outer and inner follower tubes simultaneously.
9. An umbrella pile anchor as claimed in claim 7 further characterized by having locking means associated with said fiukes and said tubular frame for locking said flukes in an extended position.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS RICHARD W. COO'KE, 111., Primary Examiner.