US 3282317 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 1, 1966 v. F. ZAHODIAKIN 3,282,317
RECEPTAGLE MECHANICALLY FUSED IN PLACE Filed Feb. 15, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 D INVENTOR. VICTOR F.ZAHODAKIN F161 1 16.6. ATTORNEY Nov. 1, 1966 v. F. ZAHODIAKIN RECEPTACLE MECHANICALLY FUSED IN PLACE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 15, 1965 INVENTOR. VICTOR F. ZAHODIAKIN ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,282,317 RECEPTACLE MECHANICALLY FUSED IN PLACE Victor F. Zahodialkin, Summit, N.J.; Tania Zahodiakin, administratrix of said Victor F. Zahodiakin, deceased Filed Feb. 15, 1965, Ser. No. 436,415 9 Claims. (Cl. 15141.73)
This is a continuation-in-part of application Serial No. 371,974, filed June 2, 1964, and now abandoned.
This invention relates to an improved receptacle and particularly to a receptacle mechanicallyfused to a basal member.
While a great variety of elements can be bonded to basal members, the present disclosure arbitrarily adopts as a specific element a receptacle having a general char acterization of a hollow internally threaded nut. In its broad aspect, the invention proposes permanent attachment of a receptacle to a basal member, here shown as a metallic plate, providing a structure and method of assembly by which the receptacle is held securely against any anticipated operating torque, and against any pushout force likely to be encountered in use, regardless of multiplicity of repetitious operations of use. It is also to be immediately noted that the invention avoids need for prefabrication drilling or piercing of holes in the basal member, or staking, welding, upsetting of skirts or nuts, coining operations, application of adhesives or rivets, or other time-consuming modes of attachment in place.
Broadly considered, the invention is directed to an assembly of receptacle and basal member which will not be affected by impact, rough usage, excessive temperatures, atmospheric conditions, fatigue, high frequency vibration, or other commonly or possibly encountered circumstances of detrimental or disrupting character in use.
A feature of the invention is an improved structure and method accomplishing a very secure attachment of a receptacle projecting at one surface only of a basal member and presenting a flush condition at the other surface of said member.
An essential consideration of the invention resides in the attachment of the receptacle to the basal member being made at the interior of the receptacle and in such manner that the basal member is juxtaposed against the entire end surface of the receptacle.
Important amongst objects of the invention, is provision of a neck leading to the internal screw-threads of the receptacle which constitutes a close-fitting guide for the bolt which will prevent cross-threading, but instead, obtains coaxial approach of the bolt to the receptacle screw threads.
Outstanding amongst objects of the invention, is the provision of a neck projecting from a basal member into a receptacle with permanent interengagement by which the neck functions to prevent the receptacle from shifting laterally, from shifting axially or escaping, and from rotating.
An object directed to one embodiment of the invention is the provision of adversely tapered serrations between the receptacle and basal member neck for preventing the lateral shifting, axial escape of the receptacle from the basal member and for preventing rotation of said receptacle on said member.
Other specific forms of the invention contemplate use with a receptacle wherein the serrations or splines are parallel to the axis and a circular undercut or groove is provided for preventing withdrawal of the receptacle axially.
In the drawings FIGURE 1 is a plan of a portion of a basal member with a receptacle secured thereon in accordance with the present invention, said receptacle functioning in the arbitrarily selected showing, as having characterization of a nut and receiving a screw-theaded bolt therein;
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIGURE 3 is an elevation of a receptacle in an initial stage of manufacture;
FIGURE 4 shows one mode of completing the receptacle from initial stage of FIG. 3 to a final stage of receptacle formation of FIG. 2;
FIGURE 5 is a modified showing of another mode of manufacture of a receptacle having the final configuration of the receptacle of FIG. 2;
FIGURE 6 is a plan of the serrating die used in the showing of FIG. 5;
FIGURE 7 is a partial sectional view similar to FIG. 2, showing another receptacle, final formation whereof is accomplished as part of the operation of mounting the receptacle in place on the basal member;
FIGURE 8 is a plan similar to FIG. 1, and here showing a modified construction of a receptacle mounted on a basal member;
FIGURE 9 is a cross-section on line 9-9 of FIG. 8, looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 10 is a plan of only the receptacle of the modification of FIGS. 8 and 9;
FIGURE 11 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 11-11 of FIG. 10;
FIGURE 12 is a sectional view of a machine showing the modified construction of receptacle of FIGS. 89 and a basal member neck in process of transformation and assembly.
In the specific embodiment of the invention illustrated in said drawings, and directing attention initially to FIGS. v1 and 2, part of a basal member 20 is shown which may be any desired article, such as a metallic plate for use in aircraft manufacture. A juxtaposed plate 21 to be secured thereto, as by a bolt 22, is shown in FIG. 2. The receptacle '23 of the present invention functions in this showing as a nut, being provided with internal screwthreads 24 next to what may be termed for identification purposes, the upper body portion end 25 of said receptacle. The lower end of said receptacle is in the form of a downwardly open 'bottom rim 26, and since it is larger than the upper body portion end 25 there is an intervening flare 27 integral with both. The receptacle 23, for sturdiness and economy of material and for keeping weight to a minimum, is a body of revolution, whereby the upper body portion end 25 is a cylinder of less diameter than the bottom cylindrical rim 26, and the flare 27 is of frusto-conical formation. The internal screwthreads 24 extend downwardly through the upper end portion 25 and flare 27 to the larger internal bore or cavity 28 of the rim 26. Said receptacle therefore provides a continuous internal bore from top to bottom but having difierent diameters at various parts thereof.
The receptacle is made in an initial condition on an automatic cold heading machine (not shown) in the form, for instance, shown in FIG. 3, the screw threads being cut as a separate operation. It will be noted that in the initial formation of the receptacle, shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the exterior rim 26 is bell-shaped, that is, slopes downwardly outwardly. Also as initially formed, the interior walls of the bell-shaped rim have serrations 29 longitudinally thereof with the inward crests of the serrations parallel to the receptacle axis, but with the valleys of the serrations sloping and parallel to the most contiguous portion of the tapering rim. Thus the bottom ends of the serrations are radially deeper than the radial depth of the serrations at the upper end of the rim adjacent to the flare. In other words, the serrations 29 taper longitudinally and in longitudinal section along the peaks thereof in a radial plane approximately resemble a thin long right triangle. The receptacle 23 thus formed may be directly assembled on the basal member 20 in suitable machine.
However, in one mode of assembly, the receptacle may be further prepared for use by next compressing the tapered rim 26 so that its exterior becomes a true cylinder, and in so doing, the interior of the rim becomes tapered with the bottom serrated end opening of the rim having a less diameter than the interior diameter at the top of the serrated bore or cavity. Such an adversely tapered serrated interior of a receptacle rim is shown in the completed assembly of FIG. 2.
It is to be understood that from standpoint of production of a receptacle with adversely tapered serrations, other methods of manufacture may be employed. For instance, in FIG. a receptacle 23a is shown which in initial formation has been made with a hollow true cylindrical rim 26a, rather than originally bell-shape, so that it may be directly received in a hollow die 32. For subsequent stripping purposes, the lower cavity 33 of the die 32 receiving the cylindrical rim 26a of the receptacle may be tapered very slightly to a larger bottom opening than its upper diameter, as indicated by angle T. After the receptacle is placed in said die 32, a serrated plunger 35 is driven into the open end of the receptacle rim, compressing and shaping the metal of said rim into external serrations of the die thereby producing internal serrations 34! in the rim. Since the compression i most severe next to the open bottom edge of said rim, adversely tapered serrations result around the inner face of said rim.
Another rim formation is shown in FIG. 7, wherein the rim 26b was initially of exterior bell-shape as was the case with the receptacle of FIG. 3. In this instance, however, the interior of the rim is formed initially with serrations 29b of equal depth throughout the length of each, the serrations then being parallel to the receptacle axis. Thereafter the rim is compressed as by the apparatus of FIG. 4, the result being a rim that is externally a true cylinder and then has equal-depth interior serrations 2% having adverse taper.
In retrospect, I have found from experiments that where space permits, metal being drawn will form a pcripheral bulge or wave at the exterior of a drawn neck when a small radius of curvature is employed at the forward periphery of the drawing die. Heretofore such a bulge has been a detriment and every possible effort has been made to avoid it in drawing of metal, and to overcome this problem the large radii of rounding at the forward end of the die has been used. But according to my invention more fully described below, I purposely employ a small radius of curvature at the forward peripheral edge of the die, and choose and employ the other dimensional parameters operative therewith to accomplish a beneficial result. By virtue of the small radius of curvature of the die, use of proportionately dimensioned piercing punch, dies and marginal metal, a wave or bulge of metal builds up, progressively increasing in volume during drawing of the neck from the flat and pierced metal constituting the basal member. Creation of such a bulge causes it to exert pressure both axially and radially. A feature of the present invention is to encourage the wave or bulge of the drawn :metal by giving it a place to go, namely, into a peripheral V-groove in the receptacle, and to there serve a useful purpose of permanently interlocking with the receptacle preventing the same from axial escape from the basal member.
Referring now to FIGURES 812, a basal member 75 is shown to which a juxtaposed plate or other second member 76 is to be secured as by a bolt '77. As in the previously discussed embodiment, the receptacle 78 of FIGS. 812 functions as a nut for said bolt and provides an internally screw-threaded upper portion 79 integral through agency of a flare 80 with a larger bottom rim 81. The iDL Ij I CiIflmferential wall of said rim 81 is provided with an annular series of serrations or splines 32 parallel to the receptacle axis, and, as before, the basal member has a neck 83 formed by a drawing process directly into the cavity within rim 81 and simultaneously with the drawing of the metal to form said neck, the metal is forced into said splines or serrations the result whereof is to keep the receptacle from rotating with respect to the neck.
In order to retain the receptacle from escape in an axial direction from said neck, an internal circumferential groove 84 concentric with the receptacle axis, is machined or otherwise provided in the interior surface of receptacle rim 81. Said groove 84 is, in general, V-shape, and as viewed in cross-section in FIGS. 8-12 is isosceles with its apex approximately 115, but other geometric types of angles may be employed. Also, as illustrated, the V-groove 84 interrupts all of the splines or serrations 82 and is considerably deeper than said splines. The distance of the V-groove inwardly from the rim edge is conformed to the predetermined natural distance, in direction of drawing of the metal, at which bulge 85 becomes maximum without involving injury or rupture in the thinner part of the drawn neck under the existing parameters. The progressively axially advanced bulge 85 along the neck 83 during drawing, therefore finds haven in the V groove, and as this represents a material increase of diameter of the neck thereat, the bulge interlocks in the receptacle V-groove 84 and positively and permanently prevents escape of the receptacle 78 in an axial direction from the basal member neck.
By virtue of the character and disposition of the V- groove 84, its sharply transverse facet most proximate to the rim edge, provides a ledge-like shoulder having a very considerable radial area directly in the path of any attempted withdrawal of the receptacle from the neck, and will withstand very strong forces which may be encountered tending to disrupt the retention of the receptacle on the basal member 75.
It seems desirable to explain the inter-relationship of the several parameters involved in properly carrying out the invention, Provision of proper and adequate volume capacity of spline or serration spacings and V-groove is necessary in comparison to the amount of metal supplied by the drawing and compression operations performed on the neck. These amounts for any particular size of receptacle, thickness of basal member, size of pierced hole, internal diameter of the rim, and volume capacity between splines and within the V-groove are subject to choice and calculation, and consequently the related diameter of male die 89 and radii of the forward rounded edge 90 of the male die 89 are critical parameters in relation to the others and to formation of a perfect interlocking of the neck with the receptacle.
Exemplary of specific dimensions, in inches, of one embodiment of the invention for a receptacle having internal diameter of rim of 0.406 applied to a basal member with thickness of 0.062" and a pierced hole of 0.172" diameter, the receptacle having 8 splines rectangular in cross-section each 0.140" long, 0.020" radial depth and 0.078 width, will be properly fabricated with use of a male die 0.316" in diameter with forward rounded edge radii of 0.021" in conjunction with a V-groove of angle located with its apex 0.097" from the end plane of the rim, and the diameter of the groove at its apex being 0.446". It is to be noted that the internal diameter of the rim 81 is insufficient to receive both the male die and the normal thickness of the metal of the basal member, which therefore necessitates a drawing of that metal in its introduction to produce the neck and a consequent production of bulge 85, a result of which is that the neck thereby has various outside diameters.
Fabrication process is carried out by placing the basal member 75 in proper location flatwise on top of holder 63 into which the receptacle 78 has been placed, punch 44 extending coaxially through the receptacle to the under side of said basal member. Combination male and female die 89 is brought into contact with the upper surface of the basal member and downwardly onto punch 44, thereupon piercing the hole in the basal member. The die then continues downwardly, bending and drawing the metal by proceeding through stages indicated by dotted line advancements F and G representing respectively depression of the margin of metal around the hole to a shallow conical shape followed progressively to a further bent and drawn position at a more angular relation to the general member area. Final downward movement of the male die 89 presses the metal forming the neck to its ultimate position shown in full lines in FIG. 12 with the bulge 85 seated in the prepared V-groove of the receptacle. It is to be understood that the movements just described are progressively continuous one after the other at high speed. At the said ultimate downward position of the die 89, a concave fillet 91, at the upper part of the die where die-head 92 projects radially, engages the juncture of basal member and neck, and presses the metal between the splines or serrations of the receptacle; this result being attained by forming the fillet with radii substantially equal to or larger than the thickness of the basal member metal.
1. In combination, a flat sheet metal basal member and a receptacle constituted as a body of revolution about an axis, said receptacle at opposite ends having bores of different size, one smaller than the other, said bores meeting coaxially with an intervening flare, the smaller bore being screw threaded and the larger bore having longitudinal serrations projecting inwardly thereof toward the axis, said screw threads having major and minor diameters and said serrations having major and minor diameters, the minor diameter of the serrations being substantially larger than the major diameter of the screw threads, the end edge of said receptacle having said larger bore engaging against said flat basal member, a neck upstanding from said basal member within the larger bore of the receptacle therearound, and said serrations interlocked at the outer periphery of said neck, said basal member providing a hole therethrough coaxial to said bores commensurate with the major diameter of said screw threads for receiving and guiding a bolt therethrough to synchronize the threads of the bolt coaxially with the screw threads of said receptacle to screw thereinto.
2. A combination in accordance with claim 1, wherein said receptacle provides a rim and wherein said interlocking engagement comprises said serrations with said serrations extending longitudinally of said rim substantially the full height of the rim from said end edge, and wherein the internal diametric distance between opposite serrations progressively increases at planes transverse to the axis successively more remote from said end edge.
3. A combination in accordance with claim 2, wherein the radially most inward projections of the serrations have greater radial distance from the receptacle axis than the internal radius of said hollow neck, the difierence in length of radii being substantially less than the thickness of metal of said basal member, thereby effecting a compression of the metal to entirely fill the valleys of the serrations for the full length of said rim when applied therein.
4. A combination in accordance with claim 1, wherein the said guiding of the bolt in said hole of the basal member is with a sliding fit through said neck to synchronize the screw threads of the bolt coaxially with the screw threads of said receptacle, said receptacle having a rim providing said serrations longitudinally therein substantially full axial length of said rim constituting said interlocking engagement with said neck, different parts of the lengths of said serrations varying in radial distance from the rim axis.
5. A combination in accordance with claim 1, wherein the minor diameter of said serrations provides a greater radial depth of said serrations proximate to said end edge of said receptacle, and wherein said serrations taper to a lesser radial depth at more remote parts of the length of said serrations from said end edge.
6. A combination in accordance with claim 1, wherein said serrations provide said interlocking engagement against rotation, and wherein said receptacle provides an internal peripheral V groove in said larger bore, and said neck provides an annular bulge engaged in said V- groove, thereby retaining said receptacle from axial displacement from said basal member.
7. A combination in accordance with claim 6, wherein the radially outward edges of said serrations are parallel to the axis of the receptacle, and wherein said serrations are rectangular in cross-section and provide a valley be- I tween each pair of serrations.
8. A combination in accordance with claim 6, wherein there is only one V-groove in the receptacle and that V- groove is located intermediate of the lengths of the serrations and the diameter of the apex of said V-groove is greater than the said major diameter of the serrations.
9. A cylindrical receptacle having a screw threaded bore at one end and an integrally connected coaxial rim with a larger bore at the other end, said bores meeting coaxially with an intervening flare, said larger bore having a diameter greater than the major diameter of said threads, said larger bore having longitudinal serrations therein on the inner periphery of said rim, said serrations being triangular in section on a plane longitudinally of the axis with the edge of the peaks of the serrations sloping toward the axis and toward a point thereon outwardly beyond the other side of the basal member from said receptacle, in combination with a flat basal member having a hollow neck upstanding therefrom, said serrated rim of the receptacle being applied upon said neck, said serrations being embedded in said neck radially deeper at the ends next to the basal member than at the serration ends more remote from said basal member, thereby retaining said receptacle from axial escape and from rotation with respect to said basal member, the internal cylindrical surface of said neck having a diameter corresponding to the major diameter of the screw threads, thereby providing sliding entry for a bolt passing therethrough to coaxially engage said screw threaded bore of the receptacle, said basal member having a hole therethrough coaxial with and having a diameter corresponding to the diameter of said internal surface of said neck and admitting said bolt into said neck.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,738,915 12/1929 Mueller 285382.4 1,794,849 3/ 1931 Hagstedt 29523 2,165,621 7/1939 Donahue et a1. 2853 82.4 2,271,762 2/ 1942 Draper 295 12 2,290,619 7/1942 Rieger 295 12 2,771,207 11/ 1956 Ott 29243.52. 2,869,219 1/ 1959 Quinn 295 12 2,995,821 8/ 1961 Gordon 29509 3,000,420 9/ 1961 Spokes 15141.73 3,079,970 3/1963 Barry 1S141.73 3,119,435 1/ 1964 Greenman 29243.52 3,234,987 2/ 1966 Hentzi 151-4172 FOREIGN PATENTS 939,081 2/1956 Germany.
THOMAS F. CALLAGHAN, Primary Examiner.
M. PARSONS, JR., Assistant Examiner.