Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3282668 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 1, 1966
Filing dateJul 2, 1962
Priority dateJul 13, 1961
Also published asDE1286682B
Publication numberUS 3282668 A, US 3282668A, US-A-3282668, US3282668 A, US3282668A
InventorsMabru Marcel
Original AssigneeSaint Gobain
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for the production of fibers from organic or inorganic thermoplastic materials
US 3282668 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

M. MABRU 3, APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FIBERS FROM ORGANIC Nov. 1, 1966 OR INORGANIC THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 2, 1962 INVENTOR MAEC'E'L M451U ATTORNEY Nov. 1, 1966 M. MABRU 3,282,668

APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FIBERS FROM ORGANIC OR INORGANIC THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS Filed July 2, 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR M4zc54 Mnaeu ATTORNEY 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 M. MABRU Nov. 1, 1966 v APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FIBERS FROM ORGANIC OR INORGANIC THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS Filed July 2, 1962 3,282,668 APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FIBERS FRGM ORGANIC (3R INORGANIC THERMO- PLASTIC MATERIALS Marcel Mabru, Paris, France, assignor to Compagnie de Saint-Gohain, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, a corporation of France Filed July 2, 1962, Ser. No. 207,115 Claims priority, application France, July 13, 1961, 867,892 9 Claims. (Cl. 6512) The present invention relates to amethod of and apparatus for the production of fibers from organic or inorganic thermoplastic materials, for example, from glass.

In French Patent No. 1,009,288, issued the assignee of the instant application, is described a process which consists in subjecting a thread of material to the action of gas jets forming a sheaf surrounding the thread. These jets do not engage the thread, and their axes present an inclination with respect to the axis of the thread without intersecting this axis, and are disposed or recline along a closed line surrounding the thread, this closed line being itself out of contact with the thread and located at a level corresponding to the constricted zone of the sheaf. In said patent, the axes of the jets may be arranged according to the generatrices of a hyperboloid particularly a hyperboloid of revolution.

It is the object of the present invention to improve on this mode of procedure as well as devices for executing this novel method.

According to one characteristic of the invention, the thread of material, before being subjected to the action of gas jets, is heated, without the material coming into contact with the source of heat, to give it a carefully controlled temperature before its entrance into the zone of action of the gas jets. This heating may be effected particularly by radiation, induction, or dielectric losses. The invention provides particularly for the attainment of a more intense heating of the material before it penetrates the zone of action of the gas jets.

The invention also provides for the introduction of preheated air inside the gas jets. This can be efiected by conducting preheated air or fluid into a zone upstream of the devices which produce the gas jets. Also, in accordance with the invention, heating may be done in the zone situated upstream of the devices for forming the gas jets. It has been established that the induction of air, thus heated, into the gas jets has the effect of improving, to a marked degree, the manufacture of the fibers.

According to another characteristic of the invention, the thread of thermoplastic material is subjected to the action of several groups of gas jets, each group forming a sheaf surrounding the thread of material. The axes of these jets are preferably, as indicated above, directed along the generatrices of a hyperboloid of revolution, these different hyperboloids having their circular throats in parallel planes. may be constituted of relatively cold gases such as steam or hot air, or of high temperature gas issuing from a preliminary combustion in a combustion chamber and escaping at high speed through expansion orifices.

The gas jets may be or diiterent pressures from one group to another, a fact which allows for regulation of the action of the gas currents on the material, and particularly for better regulation of the drawing-out effect. They may likewise be produced in different directions from one group to another, and particularly in opposite directions in order to obtain especially energetic drawingout actions.

The invention provides, according to another characteristic, for subjecting the material in the plastic state to a The invention contemplates that these gas jets ited States Patent ICC heating action, immediately after having undergone the I Below are described, by way of example and not by way of limitation, several forms of execution of the devices according to the invention.

In this description reference is made to the attached drawings, wherein FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view of the first embodiment of the invention, more particularly designed for the production of fibers from inorganic thermoplastic materials such as glass;

FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view of a variant of the device shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a plan view of the pre-heating device in the form of a dielectric heater;

FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view of another embodiment of the invention which features several groups of gas jets;

FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of still another embodiment in which the spinning nozzle, from which the thread of material comes, discharges in the vicinity of the gas jets; and

FIG. 6 is a vertical sectional view of another embodiment of the invention particularly designed for the production of fibers from organic materials.

In the illustrated embodiments the exit orifices '1 of the gases direct the gas jets which have been described above. The axes of these orifices may be arranged along the generatrices of a hyperboloid of revolution. As indicated in the sectional view by both solid and dotted lines, these orifices are directed downwardly as well as tangentially with respect to the central opening through which the thread of material passes.

- In the form of execution of FIG. 1, the thread of material 2 flows from a spinner nozzle 3. Before passing into the zone where it is subjected to the action of gas jets proceeding from orifices 1, the thread travels along the axis of a conduit 4, the wall 5 of which is in proximity to an electrical resistance heater 6, and wall 5 is of refractory material to effect the heating of the thread by radiation.

The thread of material 2 then traverses a conical part 16, the wall 8 of which also effects heating of the thread by radiation of the heat liberated by an electrical resistance 9.

Thus, with the thread 2 raised to a suitable temperature, which may be easily regulated by adjusting the intensity of the current in resistances 6 and 9, it enters the zone of the gas jets proceeding from orifices 1. These orifices are supplied with gas by annular chamber 10, itself in communication by passages 11, 11a with combustion chambers 12, 12a, which are supplied in the usual way of mixing chambers 14, 14a through grids or grilles 13, 13a.

In the variation shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, heating of the thread of-material 2 is accomplished by dielectric losses through the passage thereof between two electrodes 18, 18a producing a high-frequency field. In FIG. 2, 19 shows an annular burner which heats the air passing into conduit 4 and which is induced by the gas jets acting on the thread of material, which issue from orifices 1 in communication with annular chamber 10.

The preceding devices comprise a passage 17 for circulation of a cooling fluid, which is provided in the body where the orifices 1 are provided, so as to avoid raising said body to a temperature which is too high. They also comprise an annular gas burner 20 whose flames are directed parallel to the axis of symmetry of the gas jets, i.e., in a vertical direction, and which act on the fibers which are formed by jets to re-heat them. Finally, a crown 21, placed concentrically and externally of burner 20, blows a cold or relatively cold gas, such as steam or hot air. This gas may allow deviation of the flames coming from burner 20 by induction, and may cause them to accompany the fibers during their drawing-out. These gases may also facilitate the evacuation of the fibers or effect a completion of the drawing-out operation.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the device comprises a first group of orifices 22 supplied by a crown 23 communicating through passage 24 with a combustion chamber 25, this first group forming a sheaf of gas jets surrounding the thread of material. It comprises also a second group of orifices 26-27 supplied by a crown 28 communicating by a passage 29 with a combustion chamber 30. This second group of orifices forms two sheafs of gas jets also surrounding the thread of material.

The orifices of these groups may be directed in the same or different directions from one group to another any may possibly be at different pressures and/or temperatures. Of course, the orifices 22, 26 and 27 are arranged downwardly and tangentially as are the orifices 1 shown in FIG. 1.

In FIG. 4, 31 represents a gas burner in the shape of a crown or annulus provided with outlet orifices 32 directing flames toward the thread of material, and outlet orifices 33 directing the flames in a direction substantially parallel to said thread. An annular passage 34 is also provided, through which passes a relatively cold fluid, for example, steam or hot air, which leave through orifices 35, which are directed in parallel to the thread of material.

In the embodiments which have been described above, the spinning nozzle producing the thread of material is provided above the device. FIG. 5 shows a device according to which the orifice of spinning nozzle 36 empties near orifices 1. The latter are supplied with whirling gas jets as described in connection with the arrangement shown in FIG. 1. Like parts in FIG. 5 are designated by the same numerals as in FIG. 1.

FIG. 6 shows an embodiment according to the invention for the production of fibers from organic thermoplastic materials. The material is brought in the melted state through passage 37 up to the vicinity of orifices 1, through which is discharged a cold or relatively cold gas such as steam, hot air, etc. An annular crown 38 may be provided outwardly of orifices 1, to direct a current of cold or relatively cold fluid such as hot air or steam through orifices 39 in order to facilitate the evacuation of the fibers or to assure a completion of the drawing-out operation. The outer orifices 39 extend in a direction substantially parallel to the thread of material passing through conduit 37.

I claim:

1. In an apparatus of the class described, a fiber drawing device having a circular opening therein, a passage for a freely dropping thread of viscous thermoplastic material above said opening, said device having below said opening a plurality of downwardly and tangentially directed orifices of small cross-section in non-intersecting relation to the thread through which is adapted to be discharged jets of hot gaseous fluid to impart rapid rotary movement to the thread, and means for heating said pas sage to maintain said thread at a predetermined tempera-' ture prior to the action thereon by the gaseous fluid, the preheated air in said passage surrounding the falling 4 thread adapted to be induced to follow the falling thread by the drawing action of the gas jets which act upon both the falling thread and the body of preheated air surrounding it.

2. In an apparatus of the class described, a fiber drawing device having a circular opening therein,-a passage for a freely dropping thread of viscous thermoplastic material above said opening, said device having a plurality of downwardly and tangentially directed orifices of small cross-section in non-intersecting relation to the thread through which is adapted to be discharged jets of i a gaseous fluid to impart rapid rotary movement to the thread, and an annular chamber having openings below said orifices for directing hot gases or flames in a vertical direction concentric to said thread for re-heating the thread of viscous material after the action thereon by the gaseous fluid.

3. In an apparatus of the class described, a fiber drawing device having a circular opening therein, a substantially cylindrical passage for a freely dropping thread of viscous thermoplastic material above said opening terminating in a tapered outlet, said device having below said outlet a plurality of downwardly and tangentially directed orifices of small cross-section in non-intersecting relation to the thread through which is adapted to be discharged jets of hot gaseous fluid, said orifices being arranged along generatrices of a hyperboloid of revolution to discharge the jets of hot gases in the form of a sheaf surrounding the thread, to impart rapid rotary movement to the thread and means for heating said passage to transmit a critical amount of heat to said thread immeditely prior to the action thereon by the gaseous fluid. I

4. In an apparatus of the class described, a fiber drawing device having a circular opening therein, a passage for a freely dropping thread of viscous thermoplastic material above said opening, said device having a plurality of downwardly and tangentially directed orifices of small cross-section in non-intersecting relation to the thread through which is adapted to be discharged jets of a gaseous fluid to impart rapid rotary movement to the thread, an annular combustion chamber below said orifices directing hot gases in a vertical direction for re-heating the thread of viscous material after the action thereon by the gaseous fluid, and a second annular chamber concentric with said combustion chamber and disposed outwardly thereof to discharge a cooler'blast of gas than the hot gases or flames issuing from the combustion chamber.

5. In an apparatus of the class described, a fiber drawing device having a circular opening therein, a substantially cylindrical passage for a freely dropping thread of viscous thermoplastic material above said opening terminating in a tapered outlet, said device having below said outlet a plurality of downwardly and tangentially directed orifices of small cross-section in non-intersecting relation to the thread through which is adapted to be discharged jets =of hot gaseous fluid, said orifices being arranged in groups in a plurality of parallel planes with the orifices in each group being disposed along generatrices of a hyperboloid of revolution to discharge the jets of hot gases in concentric sheaves surrounding the thread to impart rapid rotary movement to the thread, and means for heating said passage to transmit a critical amount of heat to said thread immediately prior to the action thereon by the gaseous fluid.

6. An apparatus as set forth in claim 5 wherein the orifices in adjacent groups are disposed in different directions.

7. An apparatus as set forth in claim 5 wherein the orifices in adjacent groups are disposed in reversed tangential directions.

8. An apparatusas set forth in claim 5, including an annular combustion chamber for hot gases or flames and an annular blowing chamber for cooler gases outwardly of said combustion chamber and below said orifices, said combustion chamber having openings therein for discharging the hot gases toward the thread and vertically, and said blowing chamber having openings for discharging the cooler gases in a vertical direction.

9. In an apparatus of the class described, a fiber drawing device having a circular opening therein, a substantially cylindrical passage for a freely dropping thread of viscous thermoplastic material above said opening terminating in a tapered outlet, said device having below said outlet a plurality of downwardly and tangentially directed orifices of small cross-section in non-intersecting relation to the thread through which is adapted to be discharged jets of hot gaseous fluid, said orifices being arranged along generatrices of a hyperboloid of revolution to discharge the jets of hot gases in the form of a sheaf surrounding the thread to impart rapid rotary movement to the thread, means for heating said passage to transmit a critical amount of heat to said thread immediately prior to the action thereon by the gaseous fluid, an annular combeing provided with openings for discharging the gases therefrom in a vertical direction.

bustion chamber for hot gases or flames and an annular blowing chamber for cooler gases outwardly of said combustion chamber and below said orifices, said chambers References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,018,478 10/ 1935 Whittier -14 X 2,136,158 11/1938 Thomas 65-5 2,227,357 12/1940 Martin 65-16 2,814,832 12/1957 Stephens 65-5 2,956,304 10/ 1960 Batten et al 18-25 2,968,062 1/1961 Pr-obst et a1 18-2.5 2,991,507 7/1961 Levecque et a1. 65-8 3,013,299 4/1957 Owens 65-6 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,009,288 5/1952 France. 1,185,798 9/1959 France.

DONALL H. SYLVESTER, Primary Examiner.

MORRIS LIEBMAN, Examiner.

C. B. HAMBURG, R. L. LINDSAY, Assistant Examiners.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2018478 *Jan 16, 1933Oct 22, 1935Whittier Charles CMachine for making chemical asbestos
US2136158 *Feb 2, 1937Nov 8, 1938Standard Lime And Stone CompanMethod of blowing meineral wool
US2227357 *Oct 21, 1937Dec 31, 1940Owens Corning Fiberglass CorpProduction of fiber glass
US2814832 *May 4, 1953Dec 3, 1957Gustin Bacon Mfg CoProcess for producing superfine glass fibers
US2956304 *Dec 6, 1956Oct 18, 1960Vanadium Alloys Steel CompanyApparatus for atomizing molten metal
US2968062 *Mar 23, 1959Jan 17, 1961Federal Mogul Bower BearingsAtomizing nozzle and pouring cup assembly for the manufacture of metal powders
US2991507 *Jul 8, 1957Jul 11, 1961Saint GobainManufacture of fibers from thermoplastic materials such as glass
US3013299 *Apr 10, 1957Dec 19, 1961United States Gypsum CoMethod of and means for fiberization
FR1009288A * Title not available
FR1185798A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3418095 *Feb 12, 1968Dec 24, 1968Owens Corning Fiberglass CorpMethod and apparatus for producing fibers
US3543332 *Jun 28, 1968Dec 1, 1970Celanese CorpApparatus for producing fibrous structures
US3826598 *Jan 15, 1973Jul 30, 1974Nuclear Metals IncRotating gas jet apparatus for atomization of metal stream
US3912478 *Jun 17, 1974Oct 14, 1975Bell Telephone Labor IncMethods of introducing geometrical variations in optical fibers
US4028081 *Sep 28, 1976Jun 7, 1977Bell Telephone Laboratories, IncorporatedMethod for manufacturing helical optical fiber
US4185981 *Jul 12, 1978Jan 29, 1980Nippon Sheet Glass Co.,Ltd.Method for producing fibers from heat-softening materials
US4243400 *Nov 7, 1978Jan 6, 1981Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd.Apparatus for producing fibers from heat-softening materials
US4557742 *Jul 2, 1984Dec 10, 1985Polaroid CorporationPolarized optical fiber and method of forming same
US4713106 *Apr 18, 1986Dec 15, 1987Owens-Corning Fiberglas CorporationMethod and apparatus for conveying molten material
US5667749 *Aug 2, 1995Sep 16, 1997Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Method for the production of fibers and materials having enhanced characteristics
US5711970 *Aug 2, 1995Jan 27, 1998Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Apparatus for the production of fibers and materials having enhanced characteristics
US5807795 *Jun 2, 1997Sep 15, 1998Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Method for producing fibers and materials having enhanced characteristics
US5811178 *Nov 15, 1996Sep 22, 1998Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.High bulk nonwoven sorbent with fiber density gradient
US5913329 *Mar 19, 1997Jun 22, 1999Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.High temperature, high speed rotary valve
Classifications
U.S. Classification65/507, 425/7, 264/211.14, 264/DIG.190, 65/526, 264/103
International ClassificationC03B37/06, C03B5/02, D01D5/098, C03B37/09
Cooperative ClassificationC03B37/091, C03B37/09, C03B5/02, C03B37/06, Y10S264/19, D01D5/0985
European ClassificationC03B37/09C, C03B37/06, C03B5/02, C03B37/09, D01D5/098B