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Publication numberUS3284947 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 15, 1966
Filing dateMay 17, 1965
Priority dateMay 17, 1965
Publication numberUS 3284947 A, US 3284947A, US-A-3284947, US3284947 A, US3284947A
InventorsDahl Frank L
Original AssigneeDahl Frank L
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Adjustable doll having degassed malleable core
US 3284947 A
Images(4)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

NOV. 15, 1966 DAHL 3,284,947

ADJUSTABLE DOLL HAVING DEGASSED MALLEABLE CORE Filed May 17, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.

Nov. 15 1966 F. L. DAHL 3,284,947

ADJUSTABLE DOLL HAVING DEGASSED MALLEABLE CORE Filed May 17, 1965 4 heets-Sheet 2 FIG. 4

IN VEN TOR.

Nov. 15, 1966 F. DAHL 3,284,947

ADJUSTABLE DOLL HAVING DEGASSED MALLEABLE CORE Filed May 17, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG.7

1N VENTOR.

Nov. 15, 1966 F. L. DAHL ADJUSTABLE DOLL HAVING DEGASSED MALLEABLE CORE Filed May 17, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG 3A INVENTOR.

United States Patent 3,284,947 ADJUSTABLE DOLL HAVING DEGASSED MALLEABLE CORE Frank L. Ball], 5248 W. 119th Place, Inglewood, Calif. Filed May 17, 1965, Ser. No. 456,222 13 Claims. (Cl. 46156) This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending patent application Serial Number 297,748, filed July 26, 1963, now abandoned.

Generally speaking, the present invention relates to the doll or manikin art and, more particulanly, pertains to a doll or manikin construction simulating the appearance of some type of living creature, such as a human being, an animal, or any other desired type of creature, even of a completely artificial conception and not corresponding to anything known on earth, and having one or more movable elements or portions such as movable arm-simulating and/or leg-simulating portions and, in some cases, a movable head-simulating portion (or any desired type of movable portions) whereby to make it possible to move any of said movable portions from one position to another and to remain there. This makes it possible to cause the doll or manikin to assume a variety of different postures, usually simulating corresponding different postures or positions of corresponding real portions of the body of a living creature which is simulated in appearance by the doll or manikin.

In other words, one major purpose of the novel doll or manikin construction of the present invention is to make it possible for the parts thereof, which simulate corresponding normally movable portions of the creature which is simulated by the doll, to move or be effectively articulated for movement in a substantially lifelike or completely natural manner.

The outer portions of the doll or manikin are preferahly formed of a relatively soft, lightweight, low density relatively compressible and easily deflectable material which may comprise rubber, plastic, or any other suitable material, and which is supposed to simulate the fiesh of the living creature simulated by the doll or manikin.

It will readily be understood that it will be quite possible to move various portions, such as arm-simulating or leg-simulating portions or a head-simulating portion of such an outer body-defining means of compressible resilient rubber or plastic material or the like, by manually applying force to the limb or other portion of the doll or manikin which is to be deflected into a desired position. However, upon removing ones hand from the portion of the doll or manikin which has been forcibly deflected it would normally tend to return to its previous position because of the elastic or resilient characteristic of said flesh-simulating outer body-defining means, thus defeating the purpose of the present invention.

Therefore, the present invention includes, positioned within the above-mentioned flesh-simulating outer bodydefining means, an interior skeleton-simulating structural supporting framework means having one or more relatively movable substantially rigid portions interconnected by one or more relatively yieldably deformable jointsimulating means, preferably at locations substantially corresponding to the locations of real joints of a corresponding living creature which is simulated by the doll or manikin.

Each of said joint-simulating means includes a deformable portion of a readily deformable and yieldable low strength material adapted to be easily bent or twisted into a new position in response to the external application of force thereto in excess of a predetermined magni- "tude which is normally of a relatively small value such 3,284,947 Patented Nov. 15, 1966 ice as to be easily applied thereto by a persons fingers. This makes it possible to merely grasp an arm-simulating or leg-simulating portion of the doll or manikin and to move it into a desired new position from its previous position and to then release it. It will then stay in the new position because of the fact that the deformable portion of said joint-simulating means has had stresses developed in it in excess of its yield point by the manual bending force applied thereto (which need only be of very low value), thus causing the deformable portion to yieldably bend or deform into the desired new position and to remain there until again bent or deformed into some other position subsequently.

Thus it will be understood that each such joint-simulating means (which may be few or many) may be readily respositioned or effectively moved in a manner simulating natural movements of corresponding real body parts simulated by the doll or manikin, and the portions of the doll or manikin so moved as a result thereof will remain in the new positions until subsequently manually repositioned by the person possessing the doll.

It should be noted that, in one preferred form of the invention, each of said joint-simulating means may also effectively include or comprise any of a variety of different types of degree-of-freedom-limiting and constraining means which effectively constrain the forcible deforming movement of said joint-simulating means in one or more pre-determined allowed ways with respect to the remainder of the skeleton-simulating framework means in a manner simulating an allowed movement of a corresponding real joint of a corresponding real skeleton. In other words, for example, a joint-simulating means of the doll which simulates a conventional human knee joint, for example, would, in this preferred form of the invention, have such a constraining means which would prevent the knee joint-simulating means from effectively bending in a lateral direction or from side-to-side which, of course, is a non-allowed or disallowed type of move ment of a real knee joint of a real human skeleton. This same principle may be applied with respect to the various other joint-simulating means in this preferred form of the doll, thus providing a doll or manikin which very closely simulates in appearance a human being, an animal, or the like, and which has movable limb and/or head portions which are capable of being deflected in a lifelike or relatively natural manner only and which will stay in the deflected relationships until repositioned by the subsequent manual application of force.

It will be understood that a doll or manikin of the above-simulated type provides an ideal top for a child since it can be moved into a great variety of different body positions greatly extending the pleasurable aspects of the toy for a child playing with same and also lending itself to the provision of a variety of different types of articles of wearing apparel for the doll so that the child can dress it in a variety of different ways or can have it apparently doing or performing a variety of different thingsall of this being enhanced to a great degree by reason of the lifelike movements of the various body portions of the doll or manikin and the repositioning feature thereof as referred to hereinabove and as described in greater detail hereinafter.

Also, it should be noted that the doll or manikin may lend itself to various other types of use, such as providing lifelike figures for use in displaying clothing or for use by artists, photographers, cinematographers, or the like, and in the latter case may be employed for producing a series of filmed frames of the doll or manikin in successively different positions whereby to produce an apparently animated motion picture. Indeed, the novel doll or manikin of the present invention may be employed for a great variety of purposes wherever such a movable element doll of the character defined above would be advantageous.

Additionally, it should be noted that the adjustable doll of the present invention, is one preferred exemplary form thereof, may have the readily deformable, yieldable and bendable material comprising one or more -of the jointsimulating means interconnecting various portions of the doll, such as limbs with respect to the body, such as the head and neck with respect to a rigid shoulder portion, and such as the spine interconnecting the rigid shoulder portion and the rigid pelvis portion, all made of a metallic material, such as an extremely low strength wire or the like which has been effectively out-gassed or degassed so as to remove from the pores thereof all previous gases and vapors which may have been occluded in said pores, after which the pores of said yieldable or deformable portion are effectively sealed so as to prevent the re-entry into said pores thereof of any undesirable gases or vapors which have been found to greatly increase the fatigability of such material and to shorten the useful optimum life thereof by increasing brittleness and lowering the permissible number of fiexions of the material before it fails sealing same with a suitable exterior sealant coating, or

the out-gassing or degassing may be further enhanced by heating the yieldably deformable wire or joint material before the application thereto of the exterior sealant coating material,

A further advantage of one exemplary form of the present invention is the virtually complete elimination of tension in any of the joint-simulating means which might normally be subjected to considerable amounts of such tension when the joint-simulating means is bent very substantially from one position to another. This tensionrelieving feature may comprise the provision of what might be termed tension-relieving means taking the form of a rigid socket-defining means on at least one side of a corresponding joint-simulating means and slidably receiving therein a corresponding portion of the bendable or yieldable wire element which is to be bent so that it may slide with respect to said socket-defining means when the joint-simulating'means is bent to a very substantial degree, resulting in a major displacement which would normally create tension in said yieldably bendable and deformable wire element, but which does not do so because of the presence of the novel tension-relieving means of the present invention, which allows the relative sliding movement of the bendable element with respect to said rigid socket-defining means to virtually completely eliminate any such tension. This is extremely important because it maximizes joint life since at no time is there any unrelieved tension or stress in the yieldably deformable element of any particular joint-simulating means, as is the case in virtually all prior art dolls or manikins having the most nearly similar prior art structures.

With the above points in mind, it is an object of the present invention to provide a novel doll or manikin of the character referred to above, in any of the generic and/or specific aspects referred to above, either individ ually or in combination, and which is of a construction such as to make it possible to manually reposition various portions thereof, which will remain in repositioned relationship until subsequently manually again repositioned.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a novel doll ormanikin of the character referred to above which is of extremely simple, inexpensive, fool-proof, easy-to-reposition, rugged construction adapted for lowcost, large-scale mass production, such as to be conducive to widespread dissemination and use thereof.

Further objects are implicit in the detailed description which follows hereinafter (which is to be considered as exemplary of, but not specifically limiting the present invention) and said objects will be apparent to persons skilled in the art after a careful study of the detailed description which follows hereinafter.

For the purpose of clarifying the nature of the present invention, several exemplary embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the hereinbelow-described figures of the accompanying three sheets of drawings and are described in detail hereinafter.

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one exemplary embodiment of the present invention with certain portions thereof being shown in full elevation and with certain portions being broken away and being shown in section.

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary view similar to a part of FIG. 1. However, in this fragmentary view a portion of the flesh-simulating outer body-defining means is shown in phantom only, while a portion of the interior skeletonsimulating structural supporting framework means is shown fragmentarily, partly in section and partly in elevation, in order to clarify the structural details thereof, it being understood that the showing of FIG. '2 is exemplary of the remainder of the doll or manikin of FIG. 1.

FIG. 2A is a greatly enlarged, fragmentary view, taken substantially along the plane indicated by the arrows 2A 2A of FIG. 2 with the flesh-simulating outer-body-defining means removed for reasons of drawing simplicity. This view is to be considered as exemplary of any or all of the yieldably deformable and bendable Wire elements which make the various joint-simulating means manually movable from one position to another and illustrates an exemplary form thereof wherein the metallic material (effectively comprising a core) has been effectively outgassed or degassed and then effectively sealed with an exterior sealant coating to protect said metallic core from any vapors or gases which might unfavorably affect the functional operating characteristics of the corresponding joint-simulating means or the length of its useful functioning life.

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary view, partly in elevation and partly in section, showing a typical arm-simulating portion of a doll or manikin wherein the illustrated jointsimulating means is slightly modified from the showing of the first form of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 in that it includes degrees-of-freedom-limiting and constraining means for constraining movement of the oint-simulating means in certain ways which correspond to allowed movements of a corresponding real elbow joint of a real arm of, a human being. Of course, it should be understood that this type of constraining means for the joint-simulating means may be employed throughout a complete manikin of the general type shown in FIG. 1 or may be employed just for certain desired joint-simullating means, as desired.

FIG. 3A is a view very similar to FIG. 1, but illustrates the type of arrangement shown fragmentarily in FIG. 3, including degrees-of-freedom-limiting and constraining means for constraining movement of the joint-simulating means in certain ways which correspond to allowed movements of a real arm of a real human being. Of course, it is to be understood that the other arm has a similar degrees-of-freedom-limiting and constraining means at the elbow joint.

FIG. 4 is a further view, this time with the entire arm portion in full longitudinal central plane section rather than partly in section and partly in elevation as shown in FIG. 3, and illustrates the modified type of joint-simulating means of FIG, 3 when in a different position simulating a straight arm relationship. This view also clearly illustrates the fact that the elbow-simulating joint means cannot bend backward since the constraining means prevents this, thus providing a type of allowed movement as shown in FIG. 3 generally similar to that of an elbow joint of a real human skeleton,

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary, partly broken-away, perspective view illustrating a slightly modified portion of the skeleton-simulating means of the first form of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 and, for this purpose, shows just the upper body or torso-simulating part of said skeleton-simulating framework means providing for effective rigid connection and junction of an upper cervicalspine-simulating skeletal portion of said framework means, a lower dorsal and lumbar spine-simulating skeletal portion of said framework means, and two laterally directed shoulder-joint-sirnulating portions of said skeletal framework means adapted to be connected outwardly thereof to rigid arm-bone-simulating skeletal portions of said framework means (not shown). This view is primarily to illustrate a slight modification of the spine-simulating skeletal portions of said framework means as shown in FIG. 5

.- and also is primarily to illustrate a typical one of an exemplary type of junction means for joining together skeletal-portion-simulating parts of said framework means (which may previously have been completely separate elements). In this connection, it should be noted that one or more of such junction means may be employed wherever such junctions are desirable throughout the structure of the skeleton-simulating framework means.

FIG. 6 is an exploded view merely illustrating the exemplary junction means of FIG. 5 in pro-engagement exploded relationship.

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a slightly modified form of the invention wherein the flesh-simulating outer bodydefining means (which may be of the type clearly shown in FIG. 1) is illustrated only in phantom in order to show the structure of the skeleton-simulating framework means with greater clarity. Said skeleton-simulating framework means, in this figure, is of an integral type and includes slightly modified rigid or long bone-simulating portions thereof and manually directionally controllably bendable joint-simulating portions or means thereof of a slightly modified type from that shown in the earlier forms of the invention.

Generally speaking, a first exemplary form of the invention, illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, comprises a movable element doll or manikin, indicated generally at 11, which includes an interior skeleton-simulating structural supporting framework means, indicated generally at 12, and which has a plurality of portions simulating skeletal portions of different body parts such as the arm-simulating skeletal portions 12A (which are four in number although only three are shown in FIG. 1), the hand-simulating skeletal portions 12HA (which are two in number although only one is shown in FIG. 1), the leg-simulating skeletal portions 12L (which are four in number although only two are shown in FIG. 1), the foot-simulating skeletal portions 12F (which are two in number although only one is shown in FIG. 1), the torso-simulating (or spine-simulating) skeletal portion 12T, the head-simulating skeletal portion 12H, a skeletal portion effectively comprising rigid shoulder junction means 125] and a skeletal portion comprising rigid pelvis junction means 12PI. Of course, it should be understood that the left leg of the doll or manikin 11 is provided with a similar leg-simulating skeletal portion to that shown at 12L as being carried within the right leg of the doll or manikin 11. Said portions simulating different skeletal portions of dilferent body parts may be said to comprise a plurality of relatively rigid bone-simulating members effectively connected together by corresponding jointsimulating means such as the two shoulder joint simulating means 135, the two elbow joint-simulating means 13E, the two wrist joint-simulating means 13W (only one of which is shown in FIG. 1), the neck-simulating joint means 13N, the two hip joint-simulating means 13H, the two knee joint-simulating means 13K, and the two ankle jointsimulating means 13A (only one of which is shown in FIG. 1). Of course, it should be understood that the knee and ankle of the left leg of the doll or manikin are provided with similar knee joint-simulating means 13K and 13A substantially identical to those shown as being carried at the knee and ankle, respectively, of the right leg of the doll or manikin in FIG. 1. In other words, the left leg of the doll or manikin is similar to the right leg thereof as shown in interior detail in FIG. 1. It is also true that the left forearm of the doll or manikin is similar in construction to the right forearm shown in interior detail in FIG. 1. It should also be noted that the spinesimulating skeletal portion 12T may in a sense, in certain forms of the invention, be considered to be another one of the joint-simulating means of limited flexibility allowing a limited degree of bending movement in a manner at least partially simulating the action of a real spine. Also, it should be noted that the spine-simulating skeletal portion or means 12T may be torsionally twisted, as may the neck-joint-simulating means generally designated at 13N by reason of the fact that said spine-simulating means 12T comprises a plurality (three in the example illustrated) of laterally spaced, longitudinal, relatively yieldably deformable and bendable members 1ST which may be said to have longitudinal directional components which are substantially parallel, said directional components comprising, in the example illustrated, a vertical longitudinal line connecting opposite ends of each of said members 1ST at their junctions with the relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion 128] (which simulates the rigid bony shoulder portion of a skeleton) and with the relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion 12PJ (which simulates the rigid pelvis portion of a skeleton). In other words, in the example illustrated, said so-called longitudinal directional components are very nearly, in each case, the longitudinal axis of the corresponding longitudinal member 1ST unless they are substantially bent. Also, the above-mentioned relative twisting movement of the neck-joint-simulating means 13N with respect to the above-mentioned rigid skeleton-simulating portion 128] simulating the rigid body shoulder portion of a skeleton is permitted by reason of the fact that said neck-jointsimulating means 13N comprises a plurality (in the example illustrated, two) of laterally spaced, longitudinal, relatively yieldably deformable and bendable members 15N, each of which have longitudinal directional components which are substantially parallel and which are of a nature similar to those described in some detail above with respect to the corresponding yieldably deformable and bendable members 1ST of the spine-simulating means 12T. It should be noted that said neck-joint-simulating means 13N is provided at the upper end thereof with and terminally connects to another relatively rigid skeletonsimulating portion 12H, which simulates the rigid bony portion of a head, and is provided at the bottom with and terminally connected to the previously mentioned rigid skeleton-simulating portion simulating the rigid bony shoulder portion of a skeleton.

It is obvious from a careful examination of FIG. 1 that the arrangement is such that both relative bending of the neck-joint-simulating means 13N and the spinesimulating means 13T and also relative twisting or torsional deflection thereof can occur, in the latter case being torsionally defiectable or deformable, in the case of the neck-joint-simulating means 13N by a substantial degree of opposite bending of the two deformable members 15N of the neck-joint-simulating means 13N rather than by reason of pure torsion of either one thereof and, in the case of torsion of the spine-simulating means 12T, such movement will be effected primarily by opposite bending of the two outermost members 1ST, with a minimal amount of individual torsion therein, and with the central member acting primarily as the vertical axis of rotation. This provides a much superior type of neckjoint-simulating means and spine-simulating means, for torsional movement particularly, although they are also superior for bending movement too, as compared to the most nearly similar prior art constructions.

The doll or manikin 11 also comprises a flesh-simulating outer-body defining means which is generally indicated by the reference numeral 14 and which is shown as comprising a relatively lightweight, low density, compressible, elastic, resilient, deflectable rubber material although it may be made of plastic, various other elastomers, or various other functionally equivalent materials, either of a foam type with a sealed skin surface or of a non-foam typethe main requirement being that it be relatively soft and flesh-like.

It should be noted that the flesh-simulating outer-bodydefining means 14 is preferably of molded construction molded in suitable mold or die means around the interior skeleton-simulating structural supporting framework means 12 so as to provide a finished lifelike doll or manikin such as is illustrated fragmentarily in FIG. 1 and wherein none of the skeleton-simulating structural supporting framework means 12 will be visible from the exterior of the doll or manikin 1 1. 4

In said exemplary first form of the invention illustated in FIGS. 1 and 2, said relatively rigid bone-simulating members 12A, 12L, 12S], 12F], 12H, etc., are made of any suitable rigid material such as a rigid plastic, metal, wood, or any other suitable material having adequate rigidity to prevent manual deformation thereof during movement of the joint-simulating means and, also, preferably of a character such as to be unaffected by the casting or molding operation comprising the formation of the flesh-simulating outer body defining means 14 around the complete skeleton-simulating framework means 12.

In said exemplary first form of the invention, each of said joint-simulating means 138, 13E, 13N, 13H, 13W, 13A, 13K, and 12T is shown as having a deformable portion 158, 15E, 15N, 15H, 15W, 15A, 15T, and 15K respectively, comprising a low strength (or low yield point) metallic material such as lead, solder, or various similar materials which are usually characterized by relatively high values of ductility and/ or malleability and which are characterized by a minimum brittleness and fatigability. However, various other functionally equivalent materials capable of low-force beyond-yield-point deformation by force manually applied to the corresponding limb or body part may be employed in lieu thereof.

It will be noted that when any such body part such as either entire arm, or the forearm thereof, or such as either leg or the power portion thereof, or the head portion of the manikin is to be deflected from one position to another in which it is desired to have it remain, it is only necessary to manually grasp the part to be deflected and to apply a small amount of manual force thereto in the desired direction or in the desired manner which will cause deformation of the corresponding joint-simulating means 13, 13E, 13N, 13H, 13W, 13A, 12T, or 13K so that the body part will assume the desired position and will be held there by reason of the fact that said joint-simulating means has exceeded its yield point. However, preferably, all surface portions of the fleshsimulating outer body defining means 14 will be of an elastic nature as are corresponding parts of a real persons body. Thus the composite structure provides the desired real body-simulating characteristics.

It should also be noted that the torso-simulating skeletal part 12T is of a character such as to resist lateral bending to a very substantial degree but such as to allow a limited degree of forward and/or backward bending thereof if desired in a manner simulating to a desired extent forward and backward bending movement of a human spine.

In the exemplary first form of the invention illustrated, the flesh-simulating outer body defining means 14 may be an elastomeric, rubber, plastic, or other suitable material capable of being cast at very low temperature usually by the application to, and mixture therewith, of a suitable catalyst so that the molding process will not involve temperatures elevated to a degree such as to undesirably affect the joint-simulating means 138, 13E, 13N, 13H, '13W, 13A, 12T and 13Kparticularly in those forms thereof where they may be made of lead, solder, or various similar usually deformed metallic materials which are also usually characterized by low melting point temperatures. However, in other forms of the invention where such low melting points are not involved, the flesh-simulating outer body-defining means .14 may be molded, cast, or formed in various otherways, some of which may involve higher temperatures.

It should be noted that, in one preferred exemplary form of the invention, the low-strength metallic material, such as lead, solder, or the like, comprising the various deformable portions, such as shown at 155, 15E, 15N, 15H, 15W, 15A, '15T, and 15K of the corresponding limbjoint-simulati-ng means, neck-joint-simulating mean-s, and spine-simulating means (which, in effect, might be said to be the functional equivalent of a plurality of joints or an elongated joint means) may all be protected from deterioration and fatiga'bility, so as to maximize the useful operating life of each of said joint-simulating means, by out-gassing or degassing the metallic material thereof, such as by subjecting same to a vacuum and, in certain cases, heating same, and by then effectively applying thereto a suitable sealant means 'whereby to comprise an effectively sealed exterior surface over said. metallic bendable material and adapted toprevent the entry into the pores thereof, and the occlusion in the pores of said metallic material, of undesirable gases and vapors which might undesirably affect the operating life and the optimum yieldably deformable and bendable characteristics of said bendable metal material whereby to maximize the optimum functional joint life of each of the joint-simulating means. In other words, it is a fact that the surface of the metallic yieldably deformable material has minute pores which normally have occluded or contained therein certain gases and vapors, such as air, water vapor, or various other gases or vapors to which said metallic material has been subjected. It has further been found that the structural characteristics of metallic material and, in particular, the fatigability thereof may be seriously affected by such occluded gases or vapors. Such gases or vapors may attack the metallic material of such yieldably bendable joint-simulating means in a chemical sense and/or in a metallurgical sense, whereby to produce effective deterioration of the fatigue characteristics (the number of times the material can be bent before it becomes fatigued to the point of failure), thus greatly reducing the useful life of the adjustable doll :by reason of early failure thus greatly reducing the useful life of the adjustable doll by reason of early failure of one or more of the joint-simulating means.

For purposes of illustration, one such yieldably deformable wire-like member 15N of the two similar yieldably deformable wire-like members comprising the neckjoint-simulati-ng means 13N is shown in enlarged, crosssectional form in FIG. 2A and should be taken as representative of the remainder of such a yieldably deformable and bendable member throughout the doll in this particular preferred exemplary form having such out-gassing, degassing, and surface sealed protection for said benda-ble members.

As illustrated in FIG. 2A, it will be noted that the member 15N (which is now designated by an arrow in view of the additional specific part numbers used in this figure) comprises an inner metallic portion, of a substantially cylindrical form generally simulating a wire, of yieldably deformable metallic material and specifically designated by the reference numeral 15M. It should be understood that it is subjected to a vacuum, in certain cases in the presence of heat, whereby to remove any gases or vapors which may initially be occluded or contained wtihin surface pores (not shown) of said metallic material 15M, immediately after which the surface sealant coating 15C is applied to the exterior surface of the out-gassed or degassed metallic material 15M whereby to comprise an effectively sealed exterior surface coating 15C which completely seals the openings (not shown) into the surface pores (not shown) of the metallic material 15M whereby to prevent the re-entry thereinto of any undesirable gases or vapors whereby to maximize the optirnum functional joint life of each of the so treated jointsimulating means for the reasons described above.

It should be noted that the surface sealant sealing coating 15C may comprise a thin coating of sealant material applied at the time that the out-gassing or degassing operation is performed, or may comprise an inner surface of the flesh-simulating outer-body-defining means 14 which, as pointed out above, may be rubber, plastic, or the like, and which may be of a character adapted to effectively seal the exterior pores of the out-gassed or degassed metallic material 15M.

It should also be noted that one preferred exemplary form of the invention may include tension-relieving means adjacent to, and/or effectively comprising a part of, at least certain of the joint-simulating means which may be subjected to substantial tension when a major displacement thereof is manually effected. Usually, in this particular preferred form of the invention, virtually all of the limb-joint-simulating means will be provided with such tension-relieving means and, in certain forms of the invention, all of the joint-simulating means will be provided with such tension-relieving means. In this connection, it should be noted that each such tension-relieving joint-simulating means will have the deformable portion thereof made of the metallic low-strength bendable wirelike material slidably received wti hin a socket-defining recess means carried within a rigid bone-simulating means positioned on at least one side of said joint-simulating means.

The above-mentioned novel tension-relieving feature of the present invention is best illustrated for exemplary purposes in FIG. 2, although it should be understood that it may be applied to any or all of the various joint-sim-u lating means. As shown in FIG. 2, the limb-joint-sim-ulating means 135, which actually simulates a shoulder joint, has the deformable wire-like portion of yield-able metallic material 158 slidably received within a rigid bonesimulating socket-defining recess means R formed in the inner end of the rigid bone-simulating means 12A, which actually simulates the left upper arm bone of the doll in FIG. 2.

It will be noted that the combination of the free end of said yieldably deformable metallic wire-like member 155 slidably positioned within the socket-defining recess means R together effectively define an exemplary one of the hereinbefore-mentioned tension-relieving means operable to prevent tension stresses in said deformable portion 158 of said limb-joint-simulating means 138 when deformed and bent from a first position to a second position very substantially displaced from said first position. This, of course, maximizes the useful operating life of the joint 138 by reason of the tensionstress elimination characteristics of the joint-simulating means 138. As pointed out before, any or all of the joint-simulating means may be so constructed and, additionally, it should be noted that the wire-like yieldably deformable material need not terminate in the socket-defining recess means R but may extend completely through the rigid bone-simulating means and the "tension-relieving feature will still be present, and this variation from the showing of FIG. 2 is intended to be included and comprehended herein. Indeed, such an arrangement is illustrated with respect to the hip joint 13H in FIG. 2.

It should be noted that, in said exemplary first form of the invention, the deformable solder or lead material forming the bendable portion 155, 15E, .15N, 15H, 15W, 15A, 1ST, and 15K of each of the joint-simulating means may extend a short distance into the adjacent rigid long bone-simulating skeletal member such as those shown at 12A in the arms of the doll or manikin, or many extend completely through said rigid long bone simulating skeletal members in the manner of the leg bonesimulating skeletal members 12L shown in FIG. 2. Either or both arrangements may be employed either inclusive-1y or in combination, as illustrated in FIG. 2.

FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate, in fragmentary form, a slight modification of the invention, with particular reference to any of the joint-simulating means designated at 138, 13E, 13N, 13H, 13W, 13A, and 13K in the first form of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. It should be clearly noted that the single elbow joint-simulating means 13E shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 is exemplary of any or all of the joint-simulating means of a complete doll or manikin such as that shown at 11 in FIG. 1.

In this modified form of the invention, similar parts are indicated "by similar reference numerals, primed, however.

It will be noted that the elbow joint-simulating means 13E of FIGS. 3 and 4 includes what might be termed degrees-of-freedomlimiting and constraining means for constraining the forcible deforming movement of the joint-simulating means 13E in one or more predetermined allowed ways with respect to the remainder of the arm-simulating portions 12A of the skeleton-simulating framework means in a manner simulating allowed movement of a corresponding real elbow joint of a corresponding real skeleton. In other words, movement of the type illustrated by a comparison of FIGS. 3 and 4 is allowed, while oppositely directed movement beyond the limits shown in FIG. 4 and also transversely directed movement with respect to that shown in FIG. 3 are non-allowed or disallowed by said constraining means which is generally designated by the reference numeral 16, and which, in this exemplary form of the invention, comprises opposed abutting portions 17 of the longitudinal stiffening sleeves comprising the stiffened armbone-simulating skeletal portions 12A and opposed cutout portions 18 on the opposite side thereof whereby to define and comprise said previously mentioned constraint means 16 which will allow the type of relative movement clearly shown by comparing FIGS. 4 and 3. In this connection, it will readily be understood that when the forearm portion moves upwardly from the position shown in FIG. 4 into the position shown in FIG. 3, the opposed cutout portions 18 merely move toward each other while the bendable or deformable solder material 15E merely bends. However, when the forearm portion is moved downwardly from the position shown in FIG. 3 into the position shown in FIG. 4 (accompanied by the bending of deformable solder material 15E), no further movement is possible because the abutting portions 17 come into end-to-end abutment as is clearly shown in FIG. 4. This is also true with respect to lateral movement since said abutting portions are always in contact in a lateral direction and prevent such lateral bending movement. This same type of constraint means 16 may be appropriately oriented in each different joint-simulating means to provide the proper allowable type of bending or deforming movement thereof.

A complete doll or mannequin 11, having a constraining means 16 at each elbow joint I13E' similar to the one shown in partially bent configuration in FIG. 3 and in straight configuration in FIG. 4, is illustrated in FIG. 3A, which otherwise is of the same construction as illustrated in FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view illustrating a slight modification of the torso or spine-simulating portion 12T of the skeleton-simulating framework means 12 of the first form of the invention as shown in FIG. 1. In this view said spine-simulating skeletal framework means portion is indicated by the reference numeral 12T and a neck joint-simulating means of modified bendable ribbon construction is designated by the reference numeral 13N". -Each of said elements is functionally equivalent in a very general way to the corresponding elements 121 and 13N of FIG. 1. This is also true of the shoulder joint-simulating means, which are designated by the reference numerals 13S" in FIG. 5, and of the bendabl portions 155" thereof.

FIG. also illustrates the provision of modified shoulder junction means, such as indicated generally at 12SJ', for firmly fastening together the four portions of the skeleton-simulating framework means shown fragmentarily in FIG. 5. This makes it possible for the various skeletal portions to actually comprise a plurality of individual elements and to be firmly fastened together in the desired relationship by one or more junction means of the type indicated at 128] in FIG. 5 in assembled fastened relationship with respect to said skeleton-simu- =lating framework means portions; said junction means 12SJ' being shown before such assembly in an exploded relationship in FIG. 6.

It will be noted that said exemplary junction means 125] includes a bottom portion 19 and a top portion 20 adapted to be firmly joined together by fastening means 21 with the various framework portions firmly clamped therebetween and lying in the corresponding grooved recesses best shown at 22 in FIG. 6. i

While the above describes one typical arrangement embodying a junction means of the type shown at 125] in FIGS. 5 and 6, it should be noted that, in certain forms of the invention, the skeleton-simulating framework means portions shown fragmentarily in FIG. 5, may be connected clear through the junction means or at least one pair such as the element shown at12T" and 13N may be so connected, if desired.

FIG. 7 illustrates a further slight modification of the invention wherein the doll or manikin is indicated generally by the reference numeral 11" and is shown as simulating the appearance of .a dog rather than a human being. Of course, this is merely exemplary of the fact that the doll or manikin may simulate the appearance of virtually any type of original object. In this modification, similar parts are indicated by similar reference numerals, triply primed, however.

It wll be noted that the skeleton-simulating framework means 12", in this modification, is shown as being of integral construction with all portions thereof integrally connected. Furthermore, in this modification, the relative rigid bone-simulating members, such as shown at 12A' and 12L" are effectively stiffened in a different manner from the arrangement shown in the first form of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. In this modification each of said rigid long bone simulating elements such as shown at 12A and IZL' comprises an effectively stiffened portion of the skeleton-simulating framework means indicated generally at 12", with said stiffening being provided by reason of the fact that each of said portions is of substantially cruciform cross-sectional configuration imparting great stiffness thereto.

It will be noted that, in this modification, each of the jointasimulating means is effectively provided with said constraint means 16" of a modified type which allows bending in the desired direction and substantially prevents or inhibits bending in undesired directions by reason of its cross-sectional configuration or distribution of the bendable deformable material forming same. In other words, said constraint means 16" is effectively provided by the great width of said bendable material forming same which stiffens it in the width direction to a degree such as to substantially prevent bending in said direction, but which allows bending perpendicular thereto or across the narrow thickness direction of said bendable material comprising same, which is so positioned as to correspond to allowed movement of the corresponding real joint of the corresponding real skeleton.

In connection with the above it should be particularly noted that the lower portions 12A and 12L which correspond to the forearm portions 12A and the lower leg portions 12L of the human doll 11 of the first form of the invention shown in FIG. 1, but which effectively comprise paw portions of the dog manikin 11" shown in FIG. 7, are allowed, by said constraint means 16', to move primarily in a front-to-rear direction and vice versa but not transversely, while each of the two shoulder jointsimulating means 138' and the two hip joint-simulating means 13H' are allowed, by the corresponding constraint means 16", to move either transversely or forwardly by reason of the cross-sectional distribution of the bendable material thereof. I

It should also be noted that the neck joint-simulating portion 13N and the tail-simulating portion 23 are, by reason of their cross-sectional configuration, adapted for movement primarily in a front-to-rear plane and viceversa although they may be made narrow in a width direction, if desired, so that transverse movement thereof will also be permitted.

It should be noted that any or all of the various forms of the invention illustrated may have the yieldably deformable and bendable material forming the various jointsimulating means thereof effectively out-gassed or degassed and surface sealed in the manner illustrated in FIG. 2A and previously described hereinbefore in connection with the first form of the invention, and this is to be construed as being included and comprehended within the broad scope of the various forms of the invention illustrated although not individually and separately shown in cross section in connection with said modified forms of the invention for reasons of drawing simplicity. In particular, it should be noted that this feature is included in the modified form of the invention illustrated in FIG. 7.

It should be noted that, in those forms of the invention where the bendable joint-simulating means are made of lead or solder-like material which is relatively heavy, an absolute minimum of such material may be employed by using it only at the joint-simulating means interconnecting the rigid but relatively lightweight long bonesimulating elements. Furthermore, if desired, large-volume body portions of the doll or manikin may be made hollow by filling the interior of the flesh-simulating rubber, plastic, or elastomer means 14 with large-spacevolume hollow members in order to reduce the amount of rubber or plastic material 14 which must be cast around the skeleton-simulating framework means 12 and also in order to effectively lighten the entire device. Indeed, the device may be made so light by this procedure that it may actually become buoyant and capable of floating with respect to a body of water, if desired.

It should be understood that the figures and the specific description thereof set forth in this application are for the purpose of illustrating the present invention and are not to be construed as limiting the present invention to the precise and detailed specific structure shown in the figures and specifically described hereinbefore. Rather, the real invention is intended to include substantially equivalent constructions embodying the basic teachings and inventive concept of the present invention.

I claim:

1. An adjustable doll comprising: interior skeletonsimulating structural supporting framework means; a flesh-simulating outer-body-defining means effectively enclosing, enrobing, and being carried by and around said interior skeleton-simulating structural supporting frame work means in an exterior doll configuration simulating a desired appearance, said skeleton-simulating supporting framework means being provided with at least one relatively yieldably manually deformable and bendable integral lirnb-jointsimulating means connected to the remainder of said framework means at a desired limbjoint-simulating location, said integral limb-joint-simulating means being deflectable in a manner simulating articulation or movement of a real limb joint in response to the external application of manual force thereto in excess of a predetermined magnitude; said skeleton-simulating supporting framework means being also provided with a neck-joint-simulating means and a spine-simulating means, each comprising a plurality of laterally spaced, longitudinal, relatively yieldably manually deformable and bendable members having longitudinal directional components which are substantially parallel, said neckjoint-simulating means being provided at the upper end thereof with and terminally connecting to a first relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion simulating the rigid head bone portion of a skeleton and being provided at the bottom with and terminally connecting to a second relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion simulating the rigid bony shoulder portion of a skeleton, said spinesimulating means being connected at the top thereof to said second relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion and said spine-simulating means being provided at the bottom with and connecting to a third relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion simulating the rigid pelvis portion of a skeleton, said neck-joint-simulating means and said spine-simulating means being effectively bendable, respectively, between said first and second rigid skeleton-simulating portions and said second and third rigid skeleton-simulating portions, in two different manners simulating normal neck bending movement and normal spine bending movement, respectively, and, in addition, being effectively torsionally deformable therebetween for simulating head and neck twisting movements, and spine-twisting movements of a skeleton in a manner involving substantial relative bending of said plurality of deformable members rather than pure torsion thereof.

2. A doll as defined in claim 1, wherein each of said deformable members comprises a readily deformable and yieldable low strength degassed metal material having an effectively sealed exterior surface to prevent the entry into the pores thereof and the occlusion in said pores of gases whereby to maximize the optimum functional joint life thereof.

3. A doll as defined in claim 1, wherein said integral limb-joint-simulating means includes degree-of-freedomlimiting and constraining means for constraining the forcible deforming movement of said integral limb-jointsimulating means in predetermined allowed ways with respect to the remainder of the skeleton-simulating framework means.

4. A doll as defined in claim 1, wherein said integral limb-joint-simulating means includes degree-of-freedomlimiting and constraining means for cons-training the foreible deforming movement of said integral limb-joint-simulating means in predetermined allowed ways with respect to the remainder of the skeleton-simulating framework means in a manner simulating allowed movement of a corresponding real limb joint of a coresponding real skeleton.

5. A doll as defined in claim 1, wherein said fleshsimulating outer-body-defining means comprises an elastomeric flesh-simulating material capable of being formed around said skeleton-simulating framework means without injury thereto.

6. A doll as defined in claim 1 wherein a rigid bonesimulating means including socket-defining recess means slidably receives said integral limb-joint-simulating means whereby to effectively define tension-relieving means operable to prevent tension stresses in said integral limbjoint-simulating means when deformed and bent from a first position to a second position substantially displaced from said first position.

7. An adjustable doll comprising: an interior skeletonsimulating structural supporting framework means having a plurality of portions simulating skeletal portions of different body parts; a flesh-simulating outer-body-defining means effectively enclosing, enrobing, and being carried by and around said interior skeleton-simulating structural supporting framework means in an exterior doll configuration simulating a desired appearance, said skeletonsimulating supporting framework means being provided with a plurality of relatively yieldably manually deformable and bendable integral limb-joint-simulating means at desired limb-joint-simulating locations, said skeletonsimulating framework means being provided with a plurality of relatively rigid, limb-bone-simulating members connected between said integral limb-joint-simulating means, each of said integral limb-joint-simulating means being deflectable in a manner simulating articulation or movement of a real limb joint in response to the external manual application of force thereto in excess of a predetermined magnitude, said skeleton-simulating supporting framework means being also provided with a neck-jointsimulating means and a spine-simulating means, each comprising a plurality of laterally spaced, longitudinal, relatively yieldably manually deformable and bendable members having longitudinal directional components which are substantially parallel, said neck-joint-simulating means being provided at the upper end thereof with and terminally connecting to a first relatively rigid skeletonsimulating portion simulating the rigid head bone portion of a skeleton and being provided at the bottom with and terminally connecting to a second relatively rigid skeletonsimulating portion simulating the rigid bony shoulder portion of a skeleton, said spine-simulating means being connected at the top thereof to said second relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion, and said spine-simulating means being provided at the bottom with and connecting to a third relatively rigid skeleton-simulating portion simulating the rigid pelvis portion of a skeleton, said neckjoint-simulating means and said spine-simulating means being effectively bendable, respectively, between said first and second n'gid skeleton-simulating portions and said second and third rigid skeleton-simulating portions, in two different manners simulating normal neck bending movement and normal spine bending movement, respectively, and, in addition, being effectively torsionally deformable therebetween for simulating head and neck twisting movements, and spine-twisting movements of a skeleton in a manner involving substantial relative bending of said plurality of deformable members rather than pure torsion thereof; each of said integral limb-jointsimulating means, said neck-joint-simulating means, and said spine-simulating means including a deformable wire portion of a readily deformable, yieldable and bendable low-strength degassed material having an effectively sealed exterior surface to prevent entry into the pores thereof and the occlusion in said pores thereof of gases whereby to maximize the optimum functional joint life thereof, at least one end portion of each adjacent pair of said rigid limb-bone-simulating members on each side of a corresponding integral limb-joint-simulating means being provided with socket-defining recess means slidably receiving a corresponding part of the corresponding one of said deformable Wire portions of said integral limb-jointsimulating means whereby to effectively define tensionrelieving means operable to prevent tension stresses in said deformable wire portion of said integral limb-jointsimulating means when deformed and bent from a first position to a second position substantially displaced from said first position.

8. A doll as defined in claim 7, wherein each of said integral limb-joint-simulating means includes degree-offreedom limiting and constraining means for constraining the forcible deforming movement of said integral limbjoint-simulating means in predetermined allowed ways with respect to the remainder of the skeleton-simulating framework means.

9. A doll as defined in claim 7, wherein said fleshsimulating outer-body-defining means comprises an elastomeric flesh-simulating low temperature casting material capable of being molded around said skeleton-simulating framework means at a temperature sufficiently low to avoid injury to any of said portions thereof.

10. A doll as defined in claim 7, wherein said rigid limb-bone-sirnulating members of said skeleton-simulating framework means comprise extensions of said bendable wire portions of said integral limb-joint-simulating means provided with and carrying in longitudinal relationship with respect thereto longitudinal stiffening means.

11. A doll as defined in claim 7, wherein said rigid limb-bone-simulating means of said skeleton-simulating framework means comprise integral extensions of said bendable wire portions of said integral limb-joint-simulating means provided with and carrying in'longitudinal sheathing relationship with respect thereto longitudinal stiffening sleeve means.

12. A doll as defined in claim 7, wherein said rigid limb-bone-simulating means of said skeleton-simulating framework means comprise integral extensions of said bendable wire portions of said integral limb-joint-simulating means provided with and carrying in longitudinal sheathing relationship with respect thereto longitudinal means allowing relative movement of adjacent stiffening sleeve means only in the'directions permitted by movement of said cut-out portions toward and away from each other.

13. A doll as defined in claim 7, wherein said rigid limb-bone-simulating members of said skeleton-simulating means and said rigid skeleton-simulating portions thereof are of a sizeonly slightly .smaller than said fleshsimulating outer-body-defining means for minimizing the volume of said flesh-simulating outer-body-defining means required to provide said exterior doll configuration simulating said desired appearance.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,059,338 11/1936 Goodsill 46156 X 2,095,198 10/1937 Reid 11761 X 2,134,974 11/1938 Hurwitz 46-162 X 2,228,766 1/ 1941 Johnson et al.

2,803,087 8/1957 Zalkind 461 FOREIGN PATENTS 139,412 11/1950 Australia.

RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Primary Examiner.

F. BARRY SHAY, Examiner.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification446/374, 223/68
International ClassificationA63H3/04, A63H3/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63H3/04
European ClassificationA63H3/04