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Publication numberUS3287135 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 22, 1966
Filing dateSep 25, 1964
Priority dateDec 20, 1963
Also published asDE1303798B, DE1303798C2
Publication numberUS 3287135 A, US 3287135A, US-A-3287135, US3287135 A, US3287135A
InventorsAnderson Albert E, Rees William W
Original AssigneeEastman Kodak Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Antifoggants for silver halide emulsions on a linear polyester support
US 3287135 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 3,287,135 ANTIFOGGANTS FOR SILVER HALIDE EMUL- SIONS ON A LINEAR POLYESTER SUPPORT Albert E. Anderson and William W. Rees, Rochester,

N.Y., assignors to Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey No Drawing. Filed Sept. 25, 1964, Ser. No. 399,394 9 Claims. (Cl. 96-87) This application is a continuation-in-part of our copending application Serial No. 332,258, filed December 20, 1963, and now abandoned.

This invention relates to photographic elements, and more particularly to photographic silver halide emulsions coated on polyester film base, which emulsions are protected against fog caused by contaminants in the film base.

As employed herein, fog refers to silver salt reduced during development of photographic emulsions in areas where no exposure is given, and the terms fog inhibiting agent and antifoggant refer to a compound added to an emulsion which tends to inhibit'spontane'ous growth "of fog during prolonged storage. Fog tends to increase with r time and temperature in storage conditions; it iscommon,

practice to make accelerated tests of the stability of photographic emulsions by storage at elevated temperatures. It is, of course, desirable to have emulsions as stable as possible under conditions of high temperature.

As is known, polyester films have good physical properties, such as excellent dimensional stability, which render such films highly useful as supports for photographic silver halide emulsions. However, polyester films, commonly contain various side reaction products which may be formed during synthesis of the polyester as well as catalyst residue. Some or all of these constituents may serve to fog emulsions coated on polyester supports, particularly at low humidity, even though a barrier layer such as a conventional subbing layer is interposed between the support and the emulsion coating. The fog caused by the contaminant or contaminants in polyester film is not satisfactorily inhibited by conventional fog inhibiting agents. It therefore appears desirable to provide photographic elements comprising silver halide emulsions coated on polyester supports, which emulsions do not tend to fog.

One object of our invention is to provide photographic elements comprising photographic silver halide emulsion coated on polyester film base, which emulsion is protected against fogging caused by contaminants in the film base. Another object of our invention is to provide fog inhibiting agents for photographic silver halide emulsions which prevent fogging of the emulsion when coated on the polyester film base. Other objects of our invention will appear herein. V

These and other objects of our invention are accomplished by providing a polyester film base having a photographic silver halide emulsion thereon containing as an antifoggant a compound selected from the group consisting of parabanic acid, hydantoin and compounds having the following general formula:

3,287,135 Patented Nov. 22, 1966 'ice wherein Z represents the atoms required to complete a heterocyclic ring, such as R and R each are selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, :propyl, butyl, amyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl, substituted alkyl, such as carboxyethyl, sulfopropyl or sulfobutyl, aryl, such as phenyl or naphthyl, and substituted aryl, such as benzyl; and monoacyl and diacyl derivatives of compounds having the above general formula, such as the monoand di-acetyl, propionyl, butyryl, valeryl, caprylyl, capryl and lauryl derivatives of such compounds; Typical specific useful compounds having the above general formula include urazole, 4-phenyl urazole, l-phenyl urazole, 4-ethyl urazole, maleic'acid hydrazide and phthalic acid hydrazide. The structural formula of the monoacyl and diacyl derivatives of compounds having the above general formula is not known; specific useful examples of such compounds are diacetyl derivatives of urazole and 4-phenyl urazole. A method for preparing the latter compounds is described in Chemical Abstracts, vol. 50, page 12033.

We have found that the emulsions of the photographic elements of our invention are effectively protected against the fogging caused by the contaminants present in polyester film base, and that the sensitometric characteristics of the emulsions are not adversely affected by the fog inhibiting agents of the invention.

Our invention will be further illustrated by the following examples. In these examples, silver bromoiodide emulsions were coated on a poly(ethylene terephalate) film support which contained catalyst residue and acidic by-products (believed to include acidic aldehyde compounds). For comparative purposes, the same emulsion was also coated on cellulose triacetate film base and tested. Fog inhibiting agents were incorporated in the emulsions and the stabilizing action was determined by expos ing the samples when fresh and after incubation for one Week at F. and 15% relative humidity, and developing for the time indicated in the following developer:

Grams Methyl p-aminophenol sulfate 2.2 Hydroquinone 8.8 Anhydrous sodium sulfate 72.0 Anhydrous sodium carbonate 48.0 Potassium bromide 4.0

Water to 1.0 liter.

Speeds were measured in terms of 30/E where E is the exposure, at 0.85 density units above fog. The results of these tests are tabulated in the following tables.

TAB LE 1 1 wk. at 120 F./ Dev. Rela- Net 15% Eli. Support Antifoggant Time tive Gamma Fog Speed Rela- N et tive Fog Speed Cellulose Acetate 3 100 2.8 0. 04 132 0. 14 6 118 2. 7 0. 05 135 0. 16 Polyethylene Terephthalate-. 3 118 2. 7 0.07 1. 38 a 6 135 2. 65 0. 09 2. 24 Do Urazole 3 105 2. 9 0. 06 129 0. 05 6 129 2. 85 0. O8 159 0. 08 Do Hydantoin 1 3 112 2. 7 0. 05 138 0. 44 6 141 2. 7 0. 07 126 0.92 Do Parabanic acid 3 115 2. 75 0. 05 120 0.73 6 141 2. 7 0. 08 1. 53

As may be seen in the foregoing table, urazole subaflFected other sensitometric characteristics of the emulstantially eliminates fog caused by the contammants sion. Tl'llS is illustrated in Table 3.

TABLE 8 1 wk. at 120 F./15% R.H. Support Antifoggant Dev. Relative Gamma Net Fog Time Speed Relative Net Fog Speed Cellulose Acetate. 3 100 3. 0. 0. 10 6' 129 2. 85 0. 07 0. 12 Polyethylene Terephtha1ate.. 3 118 2. 7 0. 11 0. 87

6' 148 2. 0. l4 1. 85 Do 3.5 g. 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-1,3, 3 129 2. 5 0. 20 1. 06 3a,7-tetrazaindene. 6 159 2. 3 0. 27 1. 96 Do 0.6 g. 6nitr0benzimidazole- 3 44 3. 05 0. 02 0. 08 6 2. 95 0. 04 0. 81

present in polyester film base and hydantoin and parabainic acid substantially reduce such fog. It is also shown that these antifoggants function without substantially altering other sensitometric characteristics of the emulsion.

As may be seen in Table 3 above the tetrazaindene compound (which functions as a strong antifoggant in was coated on polyester film base,.and fi-nitrobenzimidab As may be seen in the above table, rurazole and 4-substituted urazole compounds substantially eliminate fog caused by contaminants in polyester film base without adversely affecting other sensitometric characteristics of the emulsion. The results in Table 2 are based on a development time of 6 minutes.

The highly unexpected nature of our invention is shown by the fact that many conventional antifoggants were incorporated in emulsions which were coated on polyester film base, but that such antitoggants utterly failed to eliminate fogging of the emulsion caused by contaminants in the polyester film base, or adversely ole, while reducing fog, was unacceptable since it substantially lowered the speed of the emulsion.

In another series of examples,;a coarse grain silver bromoiodide gelatin emulsion of the type used for screen X-ray materials was prepared and divided into several- Test compounds were added to separate porportions. tions of this emulsion in the concentrations shown in the following table. Each portion was coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film support (Kodak Estar). A sample of each coating was exposed on an Eastman 1B sensitometer and processed for 6 minutes in Kodak. De-

veloper D-l9b. Separate samples of each coating were incubated and processed in a similar manner. The following results were obtained:

TABLE 4 1 wk. Incuba- Fresh tion 120 F., Antiioggant, 0.01 RH. Support mole/mole Ag Rel. Fog Rel. Fog Speed Speed Cellulose Acetate" 0. 04 129 0. 07 Estar 115 0.08 1.84 Do Maleic acid hydra- 118 0. 08 132 0.11

Z1 8. Do Phthalic acid hy- 118 0. 05 159 0. 18

drazide. Do Diacetyl derivative 82 0.05 115 0. 17

ofurazole. Do Diacetyl derivative 107 0.06 0.21

of 4-phenyl urazole. Do 4-phenyl urazole- 102 0. 06 112 0.11 Urazole 0. 09 148 0. 10 Phthalimide 115 0. 0 1. 98 126 0. 2. 00 110 0. 58

As may be seen in the above table, the compounds in accordance with the invention eifectively reduced fog caused by contaminants in the polyester film base, whereas phthalimide, which is closely related to the compounds of the invention, completely failed to reduce such fog.

Further examples were conducted in which a medium grain silver bromoiodide emulsion was prepared and divided into several portions. Test compounds were added to separate portions of this emulsion in the concentrations shown in the following table. Each portion was coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film support (Kodak Esta-r). A sample of each coating was exposed on an Eastman l-B sensitometer and processed for 36 minutes in Kodak Developer DK-SO. Separate samples of each coating were incubated and processed in a similar manner. The following results were obtained:

The results in Table 5 show that 4-ethyl urazole was an effective inhibitor of fog caused by contaminants in the polyester film base, whereas the closely related compounds ethyl-3-ethyl carbamyl carbozoate and ethyl-3-(l-naphthyl)carbamyl carbozoate failed to reduce such fog.

The following example illustrates that cyclic hydrazides also will control the fog of incorporated coupler emulsions coated on a polyethylene terephthalate support.

A red sensitive sulfur-gold sensitized silver bromoiodide gelatin emulsion was prepared containing an incorporated phenolic cyan coupler of the type described in US. Patent 2,474,293. The emulsion was divided into two parts. Urazole was added to one part at a concentration of 3 g./mole of silver halide. The emulsions were coated on a cellulose acetate support and also on a polyethylene terephthalate support (Estar). A sample of each coating was exposed on an intensity scale sensitometer and color developed in the usual manner with the following results.

This invention is generally applicable to silver halide emulsions but is especially useful with silver bromoiodide emulsions, particularly with high speed bromoiodide emulsions. The special antifoggants of the invention are most useful in concentrations of from about 0.01 to about 5 g. per gram moleof silver halide in the emulsion. Optimum concentrations of fog inhibiting agent are about 0.05 to 3.5 g. per gram mole of silver halide.

The film supports employed in the photographic elements of the invention are the polyester film supports including the polymers composed of bi-functional dicarboxylic acids and glycol substituents, such as polyesters prepared from 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and terepht-halic acid. Especially useful film supports are poly(alkylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene terephthalate) being particularly suitable. In the manufacture of such polyester film supports, for example, by the method described in British Patents 578,079 or 740,381, various side reaction products are formed which remain in the film and act as contaminants which have a tendency to cause fog when photographic silver halide emulsions are coated thereover. Although several contaminants may be present in the polyester support which are detrimental to silver halide emulsions, it is believed that the most serious fogcausing contaminants areacidic compounds containing aldehyde groups. The invention is broadlyapplicable to emulsions coated on polyester film base which contain contaminants tending to cause fogging of silver halide emulsions. Polyester film suitable for photographic supports may be from about 1 to 15 mils thick, and preferably are about 2 to 11 mils thick.

The emulsion of the photographic element of the invention may contain conventional emulsion addenda, e.g., sensitizers, coating aids, ultraviolet absorbers and the like. While it is preferred to employ gelatin as the hydrophilic carrier for the present emulsions, any of the well known gelatin substitutes such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide, cellulosic materials and the like, and mixtures thereof, can also be used.

We have also found that fogging of emulsions coated on polyester supports may be prevented by incorporating the compounds described on page 2 in a layer, such as a gelatin colloid layer or a subbing layer, between the polyester support and the emulsion.

The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to preferred embodiments thereof but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention as described hereinabove and as defined in the appended claims.

We claim:

1. A photographic element comprising a silver halide emulsion coated on a linear polyester film support, which polyester contains contaminants which tend to cause fogging of the silver halide emulsion, said emulsion containing a fog-stabilizing quantity of a compound selected from the group consisting of hydantoin; parabanic acid; compounds having the following general formula:

wherein Z represents the atoms required to complete a heterocyclic ring, and R is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; and the monoacyl and diacyl derivatives of compounds having the above formula.

2. A photographic element comprising a light sensitive silver halide emulsion coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film support, said support containing contaminants which tend to cause fogging of the emulsion, said emulsion containing a stabilizing quantity of a compound selected from the group consisting of hydantoin; parabanic acid; compounds having the following general formula:

wherein Z represents the atoms required to complete a heterocyclic ring, and R is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; and the monoacyl' and diacyl derivatives of compounds having the above formula.

3. A photographic element omprising a light sensitive silver halide emulsion containing about 0.05- .0 g. urazole per gram mole of silver halide, said emulsion being coated on a poly (ethylene terephthalate) film support, which support contains contaminants which tend to cause fogging of the emulsion.

4. A photographic element comprising a light sensitive silver halide emulsion containing about 0.05-5 .0 g. 4-phenylurazole per gram mole of silver halide, said emulsion being coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film support, which support contains contaminants which tend to cause fogging of the emulsion.

5. A photographic element comprising a light sensitive silver halide emulsion containing about 0.05-5 .0 g. 4-ethylurazole per gram mole 'of silver halide, said emulsion being coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) film support, which support contains contaminants which tend to. cause fogging of the emulsion.

6. A photographic element comprising a light sensitive 1 compound which stabilizes against fog is present in a layer wherein Z represents the atomsrequired to complete a heterocyclic ring, and R is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, and aryl and substituted aryl; and the monoacyl and diacyl derivatives of compounds having the above formula.

8. The photographic element of claim 7 wherein said interposed between said polyester support and said emulsion.

9. The photographic element of claim 8 wherein said compound which stabilizes against fog is maleic acid hydrazide.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED, STATES PATENTS 2,708,161 5/1955 Jones et al. 96-109X 2,708,162 5/1955 Carroll et al. 96109-X 2,893,896 7/1959 Beeber et al. 9687 X 2,955,038 10/1960 Smith 9687 X 3,123,492 3/1964 Malfet 9687 X NORMAN G. TORCHIN, Primary Examiner.

I. H. RAUBITSCHEK, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2708161 *Apr 29, 1954May 10, 1955Eastman Kodak CoParabanic acid stabilizer for photographic emulsions sensitized with alkylene oxide polymers
US2708162 *Apr 29, 1954May 10, 1955Eastman Kodak CoUrazole stabilizer for emulsions sensitized with alkylene oxide polymers
US2893896 *May 2, 1957Jul 7, 1959Keuffel & Esser CoMethod of treating orienird polyethylene terephthalate film with an halogenated fatty acid
US2955038 *Jul 16, 1957Oct 4, 1960Du PontSensitized silver halide emulsions
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3449122 *Nov 6, 1964Jun 10, 1969Eastman Kodak CoPhotographic elements having silver halide emulsion layers coated adjacent to mordant-dye layers
US5415975 *May 24, 1994May 16, 1995Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyContrast-promoting agents in graphic arts media
US5492803 *Jan 6, 1995Feb 20, 1996Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyHydrazide redox-dye-releasing compounds for photothermographic elements
US5492804 *Jun 30, 1994Feb 20, 1996Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyChromogenic leuco redox-dye-releasing compounds for photothermographic elements
US5492805 *Jun 30, 1994Feb 20, 1996Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyPhotothermographic element of support with heat developable photosensitve image forming emulsion layer containing silver halide, nonphotosensitive reducible silver source, blocked chromogenic leuco dye reducing agent, binder
US5696289 *Nov 16, 1995Dec 9, 1997Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyBlocked leuco dyes for photothermographic elements
US5705676 *Nov 16, 1995Jan 6, 1998Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyDeveloper and coupler for photography
US5891615 *Apr 8, 1997Apr 6, 1999Imation Corp.Chemical sensitization of photothermographic silver halide emulsions
US5928857 *Dec 18, 1996Jul 27, 1999Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyAdhesion promoting resin and group ia or iia metal soap; spectrally sensitized to infrared or red light; bonding strength
US5939249 *Jun 24, 1997Aug 17, 1999Imation Corp.Negative element for forming images with doped silver halide grains with copper and silver
US6060231 *Mar 22, 1999May 9, 2000Eastman Kodak CompanyPhotothermographic element with iridium and copper doped silver halide grains
US6117624 *Aug 24, 1999Sep 12, 2000Eastman Kodak CompanyPhotosensitive layer of silver halide emulsion grains and an antihalation or acutance dye having an infrared peak absorbance (before processing) to visible absorbance (before and/or after processing) ratio of greater than or equal to 30
US7014989Apr 18, 2005Mar 21, 2006Eastman Kodak CompanyPhotothermographic imaging layer containing a hydrophilic polymer binder or a water-dispersible polymer latex binder, in reactive association cotnaining a photosensitive silver halide, a non-photosensitive source of reducible silver ions other than a silver salt of a urazole, a reducing agent
US7468241Sep 21, 2007Dec 23, 2008Carestream Health, Inc.Processing latitude stabilizers for photothermographic materials
US7524621Sep 21, 2007Apr 28, 2009Carestream Health, Inc.Method of preparing silver carboxylate soaps
US7622247Jan 14, 2008Nov 24, 2009Carestream Health, Inc.Protective overcoats for thermally developable materials
EP0124795A2Apr 11, 1984Nov 14, 1984Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Silver halide photographic emulsion
Classifications
U.S. Classification430/533, 430/613
International ClassificationG03C1/34, G03C1/795
Cooperative ClassificationG03C1/34, G03C1/7954
European ClassificationG03C1/34, G03C1/795P