US 3287938 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 29, 1966 H. KNOHL 3,287,938
RUN-RESISTANT ELAST I C FABRI Filed Deo. 6, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 JAA/ww g 22g 23g 213V H. KNOHL.
RUN-RESISTANT ELASTIC FABRIC Nov. 29, 1966 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Dec. G. 1955 /Zia Nov. 29, 1966 H. KNOHL RUN-RESISTANT ELASTIC FABRIC 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Dec. 6. 1963 www mmv ,0.o um @n www @My/Effi@ S? fm .NNN
United States Patent O setts Filed Dec. 6, 1963, Ser. No. 328,599 14 Claims. (Cl. 66-190) This invention is concerned with elastic fabric knitted by the so-called seamless or circular single needlebed knitting system with provision for knitting plain jersey stitches, tuck stitches and floated yarn combinations and also with provision for linlaying elastic yarn. The invention is particularly concerned with circular knit inlaid elastic yarn [fabrics and garments orf such fabrics which display considerable nun-resistance in addition to coursewise elastic stretch an'd optionally, restricted longitudinal or Walewise stretch.
Run-resistance in inlaid elastic yarn fabric of the je-rsey and modified jersey stitch type has never been provided heretofore to my knowledge although obviously it is a very desirable characteristic for any knitted fabric.
In knitting the less complicated nun-resistant fabrics of this invention, it is desirable to utilize a machine with at least two yknitting stations and an inlay station which latter 1 yay be a converted knitting station. As needle selections and feeds are added including at least these -three functional stations, a variety of other run-resistant [fabric constructions become obviously possible.
In general, the fabrics of this invention are knitted in a repeating series of four courses not including the inlay, although with some Variations, such as Fabrics =III, VI, IX and XII of Table I which :generally ane not preiferred, there are two courses not including the inlay in each repeating series. In a typical four course repeating series, .all of the needles knit in one course, alternate needles knit and intermediate needles tuck in the second course, all the needles knit in a third course and in the fourth course alternate needles tuck and intermediate needles knit. The fth course is similar to the first course and the entire sequence is repeated. Obviously, theI order of courses may be Varied and in Table I several variations of order are indicated together with the seq-uence of the elastomer inlay.
The preferred construction for the inlay is that in which an elastomeric yann is inlaid after every two courses but in some instances it may be desirable to inlay a yarn after every course or alternatively after every third or fourth course or even at farther intervals apart.
For purposes of this invention an elastomeric yarn is defined as any yarn having an elastomeric portion such as uncovered multiiilament and uncovered -monolament yarn of elastomeric material or uncovered spun yarn off elastomeric fibers or any of these covered with one or more Wrapping yarns which may be either relatively non-elastic or of the stretch or torq-ue type. The size and materials of the elastomeric and other various yarns used are relatively determined in accordance with the type of .ganment to 'be rnade. The elastomeric portion of the elastomeric yarn may vary for instance in deniers from to 500. Where a very sheer lgarment is ydesired bare elastomeric yarns and ine nylon or polypropylene lmight suitably be Selected whereas coarser yarns such as heavy nylon, cotton or Wool might be appropriately used with covered elastomeric yarns for making coarser garments, such as sports garments.
In inlaying the elastomeric yarns into the fabnic, it is preferable -to take the yarn into the hook olf every other needle 'as it is raised t-o the tuck position. However, other patterns of inlay may be used. That is, a sequence of successive needles rather than every other needle may be raised to tuck position `to take elastomeric yarn. Conversely only one needle in three or four may be raised to tuck position to take elastomeric yarn in its hook. In any event, the needles Iwhich do not take elastomeric yarn in their hooks, rise affter such -yarnhas been taken and pass in lfront of the elastomeric yarn held in the hooks of the other needles, the yarn sliding down the back of the needle shanks. The needles with elastomeric yarn in their hooks also rise and the elastomeric yarn `slides down th'e front of these hooks and over the latches. This yarn is cast olf when the next .stitch is cast off the needle.
The sequence in which the elastomeric yann is inlaid is not critical hut the sequence does have some effect on the character of the fabric produced. F or instance, there is a difference in walewise stretch in fabric in which the yarn is inlaid just following a course in which all the needles knit from that yof fabnic inlaid just following an alternate knit and tuck course.
But the greatest degree of walewise elasticity occurs when the same needles which knit in a knit and tuck course are raised to tuck position and used for inlaying a following elastomeric yarn. In a course repeat of four courses exclusive of inlays, there are generally two inlays. When both inlays are of the type which produces -the optimum walewi-se elasticity the .-fabric has optimum -walewise elasticity. When only one of the inlays has optimum elasticity a lesser degree of ywalewise elasticity` in the fabric results. At the extreme is a fabric with very little or no walewise elasticity produced when the needles which tuck in a knit and tuck course 'are raised to tuck position to take the inlay yarn following the knit and tuck course. These two fabrics are illustrated in the drawings in which:
FIGURE l is an enlarged back view of a section of fabric of the invention wherein the elastomeric yarn is inlaid just pnior to the course in which lall the needles knit, the tuck position needles used in inlaying :being the tuck position needles used in the alternate knit and tuck course `just knitted.
FIGURE 2 is the enlanged [front side of Ithe fabric of FIGURE l showing the fabric stretched coursewise.
FIGURE 3 is an enlanged Ifront view of a section of fabric yof the invention wherein the elastomeric yarn is also inlaid just prior to the course in which all the needles knit, Ithe tuck position needles used in inlaying the elastomeric yarn bein-g the same needles in the -knit position in the just previously knitted alternate knit and tuck course. j
FIGURE 4 is the enlarged back side of the fabric of FIGURE 3 showing -the [fabric stretched coursewise.
FIGURE 5 is an illustration of the outer side of a typical stocking fabric of the invention in the stretched con.
dition and very much enlarged. This stylized drawing illustrates the general species shown in FIGURES 3 and 4 y which is the preferred species.
FIGURE 6 is an illustration of a typical stocking made in accordance with the invention.
FIGURE 7 is an illustration of a typical girdle made in accordance with the invention.
FIGURE 8 is an illustration of a typical cam ring layout showing the action of the needles in succession as they progress from right to left around the knitting circle.
The fabrics of this invention all display a degree of runresistance, some being more effectively run-resistant than others. The `fabric of FIGURES 1 and 2 is less runresistant than that of FIGURES 3 and 4. The latter fabric has a greater degree of walewise stretch as well.
In general, the run-resistance of the fabric is accomplished by the use of alternate courses of long stitches and courses of short stitches, the latter courses being the D courses in which all of the needles knit. In some cases where the materials are not dictated by other circumstances, the Short stitches of courses in which all of the needles knit may be of yarn which will shrink in one of l This has the effect of giving two knitting stations.
Referring once more to the drawings: In FIGURE l which represents the unstretched back a 4-course repeat with only the', inishing operations, thus making the short stitches 5 and in FIGURE 2 which represents the stretched front of still tighter and hence increasing the run-resistance even a One-way stretch fabric with moderate run resistance, the more. In t-his connection, when dealing with a nylon fabric comprises COurSeS 12d, 12b, 12C, 12dJ 12 and knitted structure, amultilament nylon 6 yarn is preferred 121- These are courses in which every needle knits a for the short stitches while a monoiament nylon 66 yarn short stitch. Each of these courses is followed by a knit is preferred for the knit and tuck courge, 10 and tuck course 14a, 14h, 14C, 14d, 14e and 14f of rela- A number of .fabi-ie variations are indicated in the tively long stitches. The stitches of the knit courses 12a, table below whereinithe alternate and intermediate needles 12b, CC- are diStOIled by the kBit and tuck following are indicated by the letters AN and IN; the letter K incourse; those (of which 13 is typical) immediately foldicatesknit; the letter F indicates oat; the letter T indiloWed in the same Wale by a tuck stitch in the next course cates tuck and the letter e indicates the elastomeric yarn. 15 being elongated by robbing yarn from the knitted stitches TABLE I FabricI Fabric II Fabric III FabricIV FabricV vFabric VI AN IN AN IN AN IN AN IN AN IN AN IN ceurse1--KK'KKKKKKKKKK Course2 .,T,KTKTKTKTKTK Inlay--." Fe Te F Te F@ Te F@ Te Te Fe Te 1" Course.- K K K K K K K K K Course4--KTKTVTKTKKTTK In1ay F., T. T., F, Fa T. '1e F. F., T.. 'Io F.,
Fabric VII FabricVIII Fabric IX FabricX Fabric XI Fabric XII AN IN AN IN AN IN AN IN AN IN AN IN Course 1 T K T K T K T K T K T K Gourse2.. K .K 'K K K K K K K K K K Inlay Fe Te Fe- Te Fe Te Fe Tu TQ Fe T., Fe Course 3-. K K T K K T T K Course 1 K K i Y K K K K K K K Inlay- Fe Te To Fa Fe Te Te Fe Fu Te Te Fe p Machines suitable for knitting the fabric of this inven- Y15 on either side making the latter very tight. It is these tion generally are single needle-bed circular machines extremely tight stitches which account for much of the with at least some control of alternate needles and which, 40 run resistance of the fabric. In FIGURE 2 which shows as has been indicated, preferably have at least two knitthe front of the fabric stretched coursewise which is the ting stations and an additional station for inlaying the condition of normal wear, the pattern of the tightly drawn elastomeric yarn. A number of multifeed machines knitted stitches is clearly shown. which may be readily adapted with Well-known equipment In this particular fabric, which is Fabric V in Table for inlaying elastic yarn are suitable for knitting the fab- I, the elastomeric yarn inlays 11a, 11b, 11c, 11d, 11e ric of the invention or particular garments utilizing the and 113 are seen to be substantially linear. This lack of fabric structure of the invention. Al machine with fairly distortion in the elastomeric yarn probably accounts for coarse needles such as the Supreme underwear and outerthe lack Of WaleWiSe Stretch O the fabIiC- wear machine made by the Supreme Knitting Machine In FIGURE 3 which illustrates the unstretched front Co., Inc. of Ozone Park, New York, and which has indiside of a two-way stretch fabric and in FIGURE 4 which vidual needle control is quite satisfactory, The AMF illustrates the same fabric 20 stretched coursewise, it is Stocking machine made by Scott and Williams, Ine., clear that the elastomeric yarn 21a, 2lb, 21C, 21d, 21e Laconia, N H., may be modified s0 as t0 provide either and Zlf is inlaid in such a manner that it assumes a sine very fine tubular material or a complete stocking 0iother wave position in the fabric rather than a linear position. tubular garment, such as a wristlet or an elbow or knee In this fabric which is Fabric II in Table I the knitted guard. The modification for the AMF machine consists stitCh CUUTSBS '0f 220, 22h, 22C, 22d, 22e, 22 and 22g in providing a yarn finger for the elastomeric yam which again are knitted with short stitches. Again the robbing directs yarn to previously selected alternate needles raised action du@ to knit and tuck Stitch courses 23, 23h 23C to the 10W tuck position by the alternate intermediate 23d, 23e, 23f and 23g elongates those stitches followed in jacks. It is necessary to modify the intermediate jack Ph@ Same wal by a tuck Stitch at the CXPCIISS 0f the aflrace on this machine to keep separate the alternate interlaceflt klm SlllCheS-0f the Samea course. The courses 1n mediate jacks previously selected to knit on the alternate Which-au of the Stitches are kfltted Smhes thus have a knit and tuck course. A Cam in the intermediate jack very tight stitch 2.4 alternated'with arelatively loose stitch race raises the selected alternate needles to low tuck posi- 25' One embodiment of thls plrtlcuiaf fabnc may be tion where they take the elastomeric yarn and are drawn stretched coilrsewlse to 350% of?? Ongmal reiaxed state down by an auxiliary draw down Cam, the Sinkers re and lengthwise to 1.50% of lts original lengthwise relaxed taining the elastomeric yarn in this position as the needles Stfa when mlald 21th bire 100 dem Spandef yam @ud rise. As the needles rise for the course in which they all kmtted m a mach me with zo neeqles to the meh usm? knit, the elastomer passes behind the old non-selected 120 dem Nyo? m the knitted Smokes' one embofh' needles (which are t-he new selected needles for the next ment of the fabrlc of FIGURES 1 and 2 when made Wlth round) thus being in Ifront of the selected needles and the Same Yams may be SletChed COUI'SeWlSe l0 425% 0f behind the non-selected needles. With the Scott and Wilits Original TelaXed State and lengthwise t0 Only 112% liams machine indicated, the selective mechanism causes Of S relaxed length. the selected needles to change so that in one course the ln FIGURE 5, a typical fabric 30 0f the invention is odd needles are selected and in the next the even needles. shown very much enlarged and stretched coursewise until the elastomeric yarn 31a, 31b, 31C, and 31d is substantially linear. This fabric is typical of stocking fabric of the invention. Preferably the courses 33a, 33h, 33e and 33d consisting of all short knitted stitches are of multifilament yarn such as nylon 6 yarn which shrinks somewhat in the finishing process thus making the tight stitches 34 still tighter. The knit and tuck courses 32a, 32h, 32e and 32d .are preferably of monofilament yarn such as nylon 66. This fabric is shown inverted from its position in a stocking as viewed on the leg.
In FIGURE 6, an illustration of a typical stocking 40 is shown to reduced scale. The fabric of this garment from the shadow welt 43 to the toe 45 excepting the heel 46 is similar to that in FIGURE 5. The welt 42, the shadow welt 43, the heel 46 and the toe 45 are made using any of the typical yarns used for' that purpose in streetwear stockings.
In FIGURE 7, an illustration of a typical girdle 50 is shown to reduced scale. The body 30 is made of fabric similar to that in FIGURE 5. The turned welts 51 and 52 may be made similar to the welt of a stocking or alternatively either or both may be of fabric similar to the body 30.
In FIGURE 8, a modified cam ring layout 60 for the Scott & Williams AMF 33/4 stocking knitting machine is shown. Machines including the modifications for knitting stockings containing the fabric of this invention may be obtained from Scott & Williams Inc., Laconia, N.H., the manufacturer of the basic AMF knitting machine.
To the right of the cam ring layout is shown the relationship of the sinkers 61, the latch needles 62, the intermediate jacks 63, the cylinder jacks 64 and the selector fingers 65. The sinker 61 has a nib 61a which catches the elastomeric inlay yarn and pushes it behind the nonselected needles.
In modifying the basic AMF cam ring, it is changed to provide a channel for the intermediate jacks so that the selection made by the selector fingers will continue until a new selection is made by them after one revolution.
Thus, the bottom portion of cam 66 is modified to make its left-hand bottom edge at the same level as its righthand edge and thus perpetuate the channel 89 for the selected intermediate jacks. Likewise, substituted cams 67, 68 and 69 perpetuate this channel, cam 69 being cut away at the bottom to correspond to the contour of new cam 73 which is an intermediate jack raising cam. The selected intermediate jacks are caused to rise in the channel provided and thus raise the selected needles to tuck height where they take the elastomeric yarn in their hooks. An elastomeric yarn finger 74, also added to the basic machine at sinker ledge height, provides this elastomeric yarn. A thin fin cam 71 is inserted to keep the selected and non-selected intermediate jacks separated. The needle lowering cam 72 is modified slightly at its lower right-hand corner to make certain that the nonselected needles 'are lowered well below tuck height. A new selected needle lowering cam 75 lowers the selected needles and correspondingly the cam 70 is modified to lower the selected intermediate jacks to the same race as the non-selected intermediate jacks. Knitting the fabric of this invention preferably comprises using a multifilament yarn at the center feed 92 for the short knitted stitch courses, a monolilament yarn for the knit and tuck stitches at the left-hand feed 93, and a bare or covered Spandex or other elastomeric yarn at the inlay finger 74.
In knitting a stocking on the modified AMF machine in which the body portion is to be of fabric of this invention but the Vother portion, such as the welt, the shadow welt, the heel yand toe are to be conventional for streetwear garments, the following procedure is typical. The make-up, the welt and the shadow welt are knitted in the conventional manner for the AMF machine using the center and left-hand feeds and preferably with 50 denier nylon yarn with l0 turns S twist. When the shadow welt is completed, the yknitting machine is prepared to produce the elasticized leg and foot portion of the elastic stocking. This preparation includes an exchange of yarns of the center feed, an exchange of yarns at the left-hand feed and the activation of the controlled elastic yarn furnishing device.
The selector drum is activated taking two racks on every revolution of the cylinder. The pattern is set to select odd needles in one round and even needles in the next round. The non-selected cylinder jacks travel along the path 77 while the selected cylinder jacks rise on the jack raising cam 76 raising the selected intermediate jacks and the corresponding needles causing them to travel along the respective paths 78 and 80. The non-selected intermediate jacks travel along the line 79 and the nonselected needles travel along the line 81. The intermediate movable jack raising cam 94 causes the selected intermediate jacks to rise and raise the selected needles to high clear position. The right-hand stitch cam 83 is out of action and the non-selected needles are raised by the movable end cam 82 to tuck height and to low clear by the right-hand clear cam 85. The selected needles take yarn at the main feed 92 and draw down on the center stitch cam to give yarn to the non-selected needles so that all needles have new yarn in the hooks at the lowest point of the center stitch cam 86 where the previous stitch is cast off. The left-hand clearing cam is out of action and the non-selected needles are at tuck height and hence do not clear. The selected needles, however, are raised to low clear by the intermediate jack clear cam 90 and take yarn at the left-hand feed 93 and draw it down initially into the hooks of the non-selected needles. As the lower tip of the left-hand stitch cam 87 is reached, the selected needles cast off a stitch but the non-selected needles not having been cleared continue to hold the loops drawn by the center stitch cam of yarn from the main feed 92 as well as yarn from the left-hand feed. The needles advance to the needle lowering cam 72 which lowers both selected and non-selected needles. Immediately thereafter, however, the selected intermediate jacks are raised by new cam 73 and the selected needles rise to tuck height where they take elastomeric yarn from the finger 74 in their hooks. The hook of the first needle carries the elastic yarn along in the direction of the binder. When the needle passes the binder, the latter releases the tail of elastomeric yarn. (This tail is caught up by the needles and locked in to the knitted structure as one or more tuck loops when it passes the center stitch cam 86.) The sinkers 61 move in and catch the elastomeric yarn in the nibs 61a as the selected needles with elastomeric yarn in their hooks are drawn down by the new selected needle lowering cam 75. The intermediate jacks are drawn down by cams 69 and 70 and at the lowest point of cam 70 all intermediate jacks are at the same level. At this point, however, the selector fingers 65 select cylinder jacks which were non-selected on the previous rotation and the new selected intermediate jacks cause the new selected needles to rise. As they do so they pass in front of the elastomeric yarn held in by nibs of the sinkers. new non-selected needles which were the selected needles of the previous rotation rise on the movable end cam 82 and on the right-hand clear cam 85, the elastomeric yarn slides down in front of these new non-selected needles. As the new selected needles rise to high clear, they clear the loop of yarn from the center feed and the yarn from the left-hand feed. These needles Atake new yarn from the center feed and draw it down so that thenew nonselected needles also take it. As the new selected needles continue to be lowered by the center stitch cam, a loop of the yarn from the main feed is drawn and the stitch consisting of a loop of yarn from the main feed drawn on the previous rotation and the tuck yarn from the lefthand feed is vcast off at the lowest point of the center stitch cam. The very tight stitch 34 in FIGURE 5 results. Likewise, a loop of yarn from the main feed is As the drawn by the new non-selected needles and the previously drawn loop of yarn at the left-hand feed and the elastomeric yarn are cast olf.
It is to be understood that the elastomeric yarn is metered into the fabric as it is inlaid in accordance with the teachings in my U.S. Patent Re. 25,046 or in accordance with other known methods to shape the garment as it is being knitted, the relaxed shape of the garment being largely determined by the relaxed circumferences of the rounds of inlaid elastomeric yarns.
When the knitting has progressed to the point Where the heel `is to be knitted, the elastomeric yarn should be removedvif the heel is to be a conventional one. As the elastomeric yarn linger retracts, the elastomeric yarn is taken away from the needle hooks and is drawn into the binder which closes as the yarn is clipped by the knife. The resulting tail of the elastomeric yarn is caught up by thel needles and locked into the knittedstructure as one or more tuck loops at the center stitch cam when the latter is reached. 'The conventional heel is then knitted 'm the usual manner by reciprocation using the right and left hand lifters 84 and 88 and the dropper 91. After the heel has been completed, the elastomeric yarn nger is again activated and the rst needle to catch the yarn carries it along in the hook in the direction of the binder. When the needle passes the binder the latter opens and releases the tail. The end tail is locked and tucked in at the main stitch cam as before. The foot of the stocking is then knitted down to the ring toe at which point the elastic yarn nger is inactivated, the elastomeric yarn is severed and the tail is locked and tucked in as before. The toe is finished by any of the conventional methods using any of the conventional yarns.
Elastomeric portions of the elastomeric yarns useful in this invention are not critical except that the elastomeric yarn should be capable of elongation 50% beyond its relaxed condition with substantial return to its unelongated length within minutes after removal of the forces causing its elongation. Thermoplastic polymers and copolymers which are elastomeric are generally preferred because when elastomeric yarns of such thermoplastic polymers and copolymers are used in conjunction with thermoplastic textile yarns, the fabric produced may be shaped in the presence of heat by boarding methods which are well understood. Suitable thermoplastic polymers which are representative but to which the invention is by no means limited, are the elastomeric polyamides, the elastomeric polyurethanes, the elastomeric halogenated polyolelns and the elastomeric polyvinyls. Natural rubber and other synthetic rubbers whose thermoplasticity has been removed by curing may be used even though there is something to be desired in the counter appearance of garments made vfrom such non-thermoplastic elastomers. Y Y
By the expression modified jersey-knit structure is meant a structure including plainand tuck stitches.
1. A tubular-knit elastic fabric tube including an elastomeric yarn inlaid into a modified jersey-knit textile yarn structure comprising alternate spiraloid courses of tightly knit plain stitches of yarn of relatively greater shrinkability and intermediate spiraloid courses of more loosely knit alternating plain and tuck stitches 'of yarn of relatively lesser shrinkability and wherein the elastomeric yarn Cil is incorporated as a'tuck yarn in stitches which have no 65 other tuck yarn.`
,. 2. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the tuck stitches of next adjacent intermediate courses occur in dilerent Wales.
3. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the elastomeric yarn is bare.
4. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the elastomeric yarn is covered with one or more windings of another yarn.
5. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the elastomeric yarn is inlaid immediately after the courses lof'plain and tuck stitches.
6. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the elastomeric yarn is inlaid after every second course of knitted fabric.
7. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the structure comprises a tubular garment.
8. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the structure comprises a stocking.
9. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the structure comprises a girdle.
10. The elastic fabric tube of claim 1 in which the elastomeric yarn is a bare spandex yarn and the textile yarn'is a yarn selected from the group consisting of nylon and polypropylene.
11. A tubular-knit elasticV stocking having a limited degree of Walewise stretch and a more pronounced degree of circumferential stretch comprising a welt and shadow welt, a modified jersey-knit textile yarn body and foot structure of alternate courses of tightly knit plain stitches of yarn of relatively greater shrinkability and intermediate courses of more loosely knit alternating plain and tuck stitches of yarn of relatively lesser shrinkability, and a toe, said body and foot structure incorporating an inlaid elastomeric yarn incorporated as a tuck yarn in stitches which have no other tuck yarns.
12. The stocking of claim 11 in which body and foot structure is interrupted in the heel area by removal of the elastomeric yarn from that area.
13. The stocking of claim 11 in which the elastomeric yarn is covered by one or more windings of a textile yarn.
14. The stocking of claim 12 in which the elastomeric yarn is bare.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 616,524 l2/1898 Cartledge 66-198 X 1,123,924 1/1915 Quinn 66-198 2,042,149 5/1936 Gastrich 66-198 X 2,201,269 5/ 1940 Markowitz 66-190 2,238,353 4/1941 Weintraub et al. 66-198 2,250,359 7/ 1941 Clark 66-176 2,277,249 3/ 1942 Nebel 66-83 2,581,322 l/1952 Fox 66-190 2,623,210 12/ 1952 Chateld.
2,962,885 12/ 1960 Knohl 66-202 X 3,016,726 1/1962 Lawson 66-202 X 3,025,689 3/ 1962 Beghelli 66-202 3,157,037 11/1964 Nebel et al 66--169 X FOREIGN PATENTS 520,265 3/ 1955 Italy.
OTHER REFERENCES American Dyestul Reporter, pp. 33-36, lan.I 7, 1963. MERVIN STEIN,- Primary Examiner. W. C. REYNOLDS, Examiner.