US 3287944 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 29, 1966 D. R. CRUMB 3,287,944
LOCKING MEANS Filed March 18, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
Nov. 29, 1966 n. R. CRUMB LOCKING MEANS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 18, 1964 INVENTOR. Eda/76 1? 02.42%
ATFDP/VEI United States Patent Delaware Filed Mar. 18, 1964, Ser. No. 352,868 6 Claims. (Cl. 70-364) The present invention relates to locking means and particularly to means by which various items may be assembled and retained together for rotation of each with respect to the remainder. The present invention is especially advantageous when in the form of a lock since unauthorized operation is prevented.
A lock of the type presently used in the rear compartment lids of many automobiles comprises essentially a casing secured in the lid, a cylinder within the casing, a side bar which keys the cylinder to the casing and prevents rotation of the cylinder within the casing and which is retracted within the cylinder permitting such rotation when a coded key is inserted in the cylinder, and a driving shaft which rotates with the cylinder to operate the latch mechanism for the rear compartment lid.
It has been discovered, however, that unauthorized operation of the latch mechanism is possible without using the coded key, by causing the cylinder and casing to rotate coincidentally within the lid. To accomplish this, a screw driver or similar object can be inserted in the cylinder and suflicient rotational force applied thereto to rotate both the cylinder and casing, or a wrench can be clamped around the casing head and sufficient rotational force applied thereto to rotate both the casing and the cylinder. In either of these situations the rotation of the cylinder, transmitted by the driving shaft, will operate the latch mechanism, effecting an unauthorized entry into the rear compartment of the automobile.
To prevent such unauthorized entry into the rear compartment, it was necessary to develop some manner of preventing the transmission of rotation to the driving shaft from the casing head and from the cylinder when the coded key is not inserted therein.
To prevent rotation of the driving shaft by the cylinder without the coded key, the present invention provides a sleeve between the casing and the cylinder of the lock. The driving shaft is coupled to this sleeve rather than to the cylinder. The cylinder is incorporated in the lock so as to be freely rotatable within the sleeve and casing when the coded key is not inserted therein.
To permit the free rotation of the cylinder the present invention provides a modified side bar mechanism comprising two side bars. A primary side bar remains completely within a recess in the cylinder. A secondary side bar is positioned radially outward of the primary side bar. When the coded key is not inserted in the cylinder the secondary side bar is contained in both a slot in the casing and a slot in the sleeve and keys these latter two members together, preventing rotation of the sleeve within the casing. Under these conditions there is nothing which prevents rotation of the cylinder within the sleeve. However, when a coded key is inserted in the cylinder and the cylinder is rotated to bring the recess containing the primary side bar into radial alignment with the slots containing the secondary side bar, the secondary side bar is forced, by a spring, to move radially inwardly out of the slot in the casing and to reside in the slot in the sleeve and the recess in the cylinder, keying these latter two members together. Under these conditions, the sleeve and the cylinder will rotate coincidentally 'within the casing, causing rotation of the driving shaft and operation of the latch mechanism.
To prevent rotation of the driving shaft by the casing head, the present invention provides a separate casing and casing head assembled by a novel tongue-in-groove joint which permits rotation of the casing head upon the casing. The joint is formed by a flange on the casing head and a groove about the inside of the casing. To permit assembly, a notch is formed in the flange and a gap is formed through the side of the casing whereby the flange may be inserted in the groove. The notch and the gap may be so proportioned that the joint may be easily assembled and yet be locked to prevent accidental disassembly.
The details, as well as other objects and advantages of the present invention, will be apparent from the accompanying description and the drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a side view, in elevation, of a lock incorporating the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line 22 of FIGURE 1 illustrating the lock as it appears with the coded key inserted in the cylinder thereof;
FIGURE 3 is a view of the lock, partially in section with part broken away, illustrating the look as it appears without the coded key inserted in the cylinder thereof;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken along line 4-4 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional View taken along line 5-5 of FIGURE 2';
FIGURE 6 is a sectional view taken along line 6-6 of FIGURE 3;
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view taken along line 77 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 8 is a diagram illustrating the geometric relationship existing between the casing and the head necessary to assemble the casing and head; and
FIGURE 9 is a diagram illustrating the development of one of the parameters of that geometric relationship.
Referring first to FIGURE 1, the lock illustrated is secured in the vehicle rear compartment lid (not shown) by means of a bracket 10 clamped in grooved ears 12 of the casing 14. The driving shaft 16, which upon rotation operates the latch mechanism (not shown), i coupled to the lock by a spring 18.
The sleeve 20, shown in FIGURES 2-7, is located in casing 14. Spring 18, connected to projections on casing 14 and sleeve 20, biases sleeve 20 in one direction of rotation. Driving shaft 16 is coupled to sleeve 20 and constrained to coincidental rotation therewith. The coupling and pring connection are entirely conventional, and accord generally with that shown in Jacobi 2,655,028.
Referring to FIGURES 2 and 4, the casing head 24 is coupled to casing 14 by a flange 26, formed on casing head 24, which extends into an annular groove 22 formed about the inside of casing 14. Formed in casing head 24 is a notch 28 extending through flange 26. A gap, as between 30 and 32, formed in the side of casing 14 extends from the ends thereof beyond groove 22. This construction permits flange 26 to be inserted, as described below, and rotated and retained in groove 22.
The diagram of FIGURES 8 and 9 illustrate the geometric relationship necessary to insert flange 26 into groove 22 to assemble casing head 24 and casing 14. In the diagrams, r is the radius of the periphery of groove 22 in casing 14, and r in the radius of the periphery of flange 26 on casing head 24. The difference between these radii is accentuated in the drawing, actually they differ only by a tolerance sufficient to permit rotation of the casing head 24 within the casing 14.
7 4H is the angle subtended by notch 28 in casing head 24, and LC is the angle subtended by the gap between 30 and 32 on casing 14. L is the chord across AC.
3 11;; (FIGURE 9) is the rise of the arc of 4H. a' is the diameter of the periphery of flange 26 (twice r;;).
V and W are the end points of chord L corresponding to points 30 and 32 on casing 14. X and Y are the end points of the arc subtended by AH, corresponding to the sides of notch 28 in flange 26. Since r and r are nearly equal, W and X are coexistent. Z is the point on casing head 24 diametrically opposite point Y. Line L extends between points V and Y, and line L extends between points Z andW-X.
It will be appreciated that if L is greater than d the casing and casing head may be assembled without difliculty, notch 28 being unnecessary.
If L is less than d;;, and notch 28 is formed in flange 26 of such a size that d minus h is shorter than L casing 14 and casing head 24 may be assembled by transverse movement of casing head 24 and casing 14 together.
If L is shorter than d minus h casing 14 and casing head 24 may be assembled by rotation of One relative to the other if notch 28 and gap 30-32 are formed according to the relationships set out 'below.
Casing 14 and casing head 24 may be assembled without relative rotation when 4C+AH=180 and L is greater than d h It will be appreciated that L =2r sine LC/2 and (d h :r (l-l-cosine LH/Z) Therefore, in order for casing 14 and casing head 24 to be assembled without relative rotation, AH must be greater than twice the angle whose cosine is 2r,,r The value of 4C is determined from the relationship 4 C=180 H.
The sum of LC-j-AH may be less than 180, however, and casing 14 and casing head 24 may be assembled by relative rotation. The value of the sum of LC-j-LH may be decreased only so long as L is greater than d;;. An equivalent statement is that the sum of LC-l- AH may be decreased so long as L is greater than L When this condition obtains, casing 14 and easing head 24 may be assembled by pivoting casing 14 about point Y on casing head 24. Point W on casing 14 just slips past point X on casing head 24. Point V on casing 14 just slides past point Z on casing head 24. It will be appreciated that L =2r sine 4C/2 and L =2r cosine LH/Z. Therefore, in order for casing 14 and casing head 24 to be assembled by relative rotation, 4H must be greater than twice the angle whose cosine is r /r sine LC/Z.
The advantage of providing .a joint requiring rotation to assemble and disassemble lies in the fact that'an appreciable locking factor is obtained preventing accidental disassembly.
It will be appreciated that when such a joint is used to assemble two cylinders, only a relief on the surface of the inner cylinder corresponding to the portion swept by point W is necessary.
The cylinder 40, shown in FIGURES 2-7, is located within sleeve 20, casing 14 and casing head 24. In addition to containing the tumbler and side bar mechanisms, to be hereinafter considered in more detail, the cylinder 40 serves to prevent transverse withdrawal of casing head 24 from casing 14.
Referring to FIGURES and 6, the customary tumblers 42 are retained within cylinder 40 by springs 44 and a retainer 46. The primary side bar 48 is retained in a recess 49 in'cylinder 40 by springs 50 and retainers 52, shown in FIGURES 2. and 3.
Referring to FIGURES 2 and 7, a retaining member 54 prevents withdrawal of cylinder 40 from sleeve 20. Retaining member 54 is inserted, through a notch 56 (FIG- URES 3 and 7) in casing 14, into a slot 58 in sleeve 20 and an annular groove 60 formed about cylinder 40.
The secondary side bar 62 is located in a slot 64 in sleeve 20 .and a slot 66 in casing 14.
The operation and [function of secondary side bar is illustrated in FIGURES 5 and 6 FIGURE 5 illustrates the lock as it appears when the coded key, indicated by 69, is inserted therein. Primary side bar 48 is retracted into notches 70 in tumblers 42 by springs 50. Secondary side bar 62 is depressed by a spring 68 entirely out of slot 66 and into recess 49 to the extent that it keys cylinder 40 and sleeve 20 together. As cylinder 40 is rotated by the coded key 69, sleeve 20 and driving shaft 16 rotate, operating the latch mechanism.
FIGURE 6 illustrates the lock as it appears when the coded key is not inserted therein. Primary side bar 48 i mentary detent to align slot 64 with recess 49 and permit depression of secondary side bar 62 into recess 49. The detent thus provided is not strong enough, however, to prevent rotation of cylinder 40 within sleeve 20.
It will be appreciated that the lock above-described is adapt-able for uses other than the indicated use in .a vehicle rear compartment lid.
It will be further appreciated that the method of rotatably mounting the casing head on the casing can be put.
to use in arts other than locksmithing; that is, mounting a lock casing head upon a lock casing in this manner is but one application of a tongue-in-groove type joint between two objects. a
1. In a cylinder lock, the combination comprising, a casing, an output sleeve rotatably mounted within the casing, a plug rotatably mounted within the sleeve, said plug and said casing having radial recesses and said sleeve having a slot align-able in a predetermined position of the plug and of the sleeve relative to the casing, a pair of separate side locking bar members received for movement radially within said recesses and slot, said members being arranged one radially overlying the other within the recesses and slot and having portions defining a parting.
face between said members, and key-operated tumbler. means mounted within said plug for movement therein means in the locking position thereof locating the radially inner of said members wholly within the plug and the radially outer of said members within the sleeve and the casing in positions aligning said parting face with the circumferential interface between the plug and the sleeve whereby the sleeve and the casing are keyed together and the plug is freely rotatable within the sleeve, said tumbler means in the unlocking position thereof locating said members in an unlocking position within said recesses and slot wherein the plug and sleeve are keyed together and freely rotatable within the casing.
2. The combination recited in claim 1 wherein, in the unlocking position of said members, said tumbler means locates said inner member wholly within the plug and said outer member in a keying position within the sleeve and the plug and out of the casing recess.
3. The combination recited in claim 1 wherein the casing has a Wall the interior surface of which is of circular cross section, said interior surface being formed with an annular groove, and a casing head having an to form a tongue-in-groove joint, said casing head being mounted on said casing by said joint.
4. In a cylinder lock, a hollow lock casing having an annular wall, and a casing head having an annular wall, one of said walls defining a bore and being formed with an annular groove therein, the other of said walls being formed with an annular flange thereon, said flange having a notch formed in the periphery thereof, said one wall having a gap opening to said bore and defining an entrance to said groove having a chordal dimension less than the diameter of said flange and greater than the angle subtended by said notch, said notch and said gap permitting radial insertion of said flange through said gap into said groove for assembly of said casing head onto said casing, said flange cooperating with said groove to form a tongue-in-groove joint having said other wall within said one wall.
5. In a cylinder lock, a hollow lock casing having an annular wall, and a casing head having an annular wall, one of said Walls defining a bore and being formed with an annular groove therein, the other of said walls being formed with an annular flange thereon, said flange having a notch formed in the periphery thereof, said one wall having a gap opening to said bore and defining an entrance to said groove having a chordai dimension less than the shortest diametrical dimension taken across said flange within the chordal span of said notch and greater than the angle subtended by said notch, said notch and said gap permitting assembly of said casing head onto said casing by radial insertion of said flange through said gap into said groove and simultaneous relative rotation between said casing head and said casing, said flange cooperating with said groove to form a tongue-in-groove joint having said other wall within said one wall.
6. A tongue-in-groove jointed assembly comprising a first cylindrical member having a wall defining a circular bore, said wall being formed with an annular groove having a radius r and a second cylindrical member having an exterior surface of circular cross section formed with a flange having a radius r said second member having a relief formed in the circumference extending towards the exterior of said second member and subtending an angle 4H, said first member having a gap formed in said wall subtending an angle 4C, r being greater than r 4H being greater than twice the angle whose cosine is r /r sine LC/Z, the sum of 4H plus LC being less than 180 degrees, said flange cooperating with said groove to form a tongue-in-groove joint, said first and second members being connected by said joint.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 650,184 5/1900 Maddock 285209 1,417,132 5/1922 Barker 364 1,965,889 7/1934 Fitz Gerald.
2,024,441 12/ 1935 Fitz Gerald 70362 2,040,258 5/ 1936 Jacobi 70370 2,049,658 8/1936 Moore 70448 2,105,659 1/1938 Jacobi 70364 2,431,894 12/1947 Spain 70362 2,648,972 8/1953 Diesel 70-419 2,650,492 9/1953 Jacobi 70367 2,655,028 10/1953 Jacobi 70367 EDWARD C. ALLEN, Primary Examiner.
BOBBY R. GAY, Examiner.
PERRY TEITELBAUM, Assistant Examiner.