US 3287945 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 29, 1966 Y L. YuLKowsKl 3,287,945
CYLINDER LOCK Filed Sept. 2, 1964 llilllllilillll 4 2 mvENToR LEON YuLxowsKl 7 A\ f QAM/M @m 32 33 ATTORNEYS United States Patent ice Patented Nov. 29, 1966 3,287,945 j CYLINDER LGCK Leon Yulkowski, 536 S. Telegraph Road, Pontiac, Mich. Filed Sept. 2, 1964, Ser. No. 393,875 S Claims. (Cl. 70-364) cluding one or more radial projections extending into the boreof the shell loosely registering within annular grooves in the outer surface of the rotary plug. This requires a key having the correct prole, the correct top surface indentations, but also in its undersur-face a transverse notch or notches located relative to the key length for cooperative clearance registry with said ward projections to permit rotation of the key as inserted within the plug keyway.
It is another object to provide in a cylinder lock a novel form and location for a ward of comb-like form, with means to effectively nest and retain the ward body assembled within the lock shell, and with variably located ward projections on said body loosely nested within correspondingly spaced annular and circumferential grooves in the plug.
It is another object to provide an additional ward function, namely that the ward body and projections are arranged in alignment with and extend into the key-slot of the rotary plug. This requiresV a corresponding undercut function of the wards is t-o block rotation of all keys with proper prole and proper bitingV unless the key had under` cut slots to clear the wards. The location of the ward and projections within the cylinder body so as to project into the key slot of the plug requires furthermore that the key in order to .function will also include in its unfdersurface an elongated groove of the correct size and shape to cooperatively receive the ward projections upon insertion of the key within the plug.
Thus, the present invention is directed to, not only a novel type of ward construction and method of assembly, but also to a novel location of any type of ward projection; thus requiring an additional elongated groove in the undersu-rface of the key for clearance registry with the Ward projections. Thus, the ward projections will obstruct said keyway so that only keys of the correct profile and having the proper longitudinal groove in its undersurface may be inserted.
It is a further object to provide a ward arrangement for a cylinder lock wherein a single set of ward projections in substantial longitudinal alignment provides a double blocking function. A key is required having properly located transverse notches in its undersurface and also in its undersurface a longitudinal undercut slot.
This provides a theoretically limitless number of keyways and a corresponding number of keys or key combinations without drastically modifying the lock construction and without necessitating tighter manufacturing tolerances.
The present construction is adapted to increase security of the total locking system by reducing the number of master discs in the cylinders of large master key systems.
The present invention will reduce cylinder wear by reducing the number of pins normally required from seven or six to iive. The invention will simplify maintenance and extension of master key systems wherein masterkeying possibilities can be expanded by a factor of or more. The specific ward location in registry with the keyway slot effectively blocks all keys of prior or different manufacturer regardless of profile.
These and other objects will be seen from the following specification and claims in conjunction with the appended drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal section of the present cylinder .lock with key inserted.
FIG. 2 is a transverse section taken in the direction of arrows 2-2 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a similar section of a modification.
It will be understood that the above drawing illustrates merely a preferred embodiment of the invention, and that other embodiments are contemplated Within the scope of the claims hereafter set forth.
Conventional cylinder lock construction The present cylinder lock 11 includes a cylindrical shell 12 having at its outer end an annular door engaging iiange 13. Bore 17 extends longitudinally through the shell, adapted t-o receive the key operated plug 18. A series of longitudinally aligned parallel passages 14 are formed transversely through a portion of the shell, FIG. 1, and at their inner ends register with bore `17.. A cylindrical -driver 16 is nested Within each passage and is biasedl radially inward byv spring 15.
Thecylindrical plug 18nested and journaled within bore 17, has formed therein a series of longitudinally .aligned radially extending slots which normally house the cylindrical pins 21 tapered at 22 at their lower ends. y
The plug slots for said pins are in respective longitudinal registry with the corresponding driver passages 14, when the plug is in the position shown in fFIGS. 2 and 3. In the conventional operation of locks of this type said drivers 16 are biased downwardly so as to extend partly into the pin slots of the plug -for retaining the plug against rotation.
Plug 18 has an elongated upright key hole slot 19 of a predetermined profile or cross-sectional shape, FIGS. 2 and 3, and is adapted to thus receive key 20 having a corresponding profile, FIG; l. Said key has upon its upper longitudinal surface a series of angular projections and inclined surfaces 23, referred to as biting, adapted for cooperative registry with the lower ends of pins 21 whereby when the correct key has been fully projected within the plug, the lower ends 22 of said pins will so register with the key bitings 23 as to elevate the pins so that their upper ends are all in registry with the shear line or bore 17 in the shell. The drivers have also been individually elevated so that their lower ends are also in clearance registry with the shear line 17.
The plug at one end has mounted and secured thereover a collar 25 which includes the radially extending cam 26 for normally operating a lock mechanism.
The other end of the plug, FIG. 1, has a slightly enlarged collar 27 which cooperatively registers with an undercut annular portion in flange 13. The plug is retained assembled in the lock body by cam 26.
Ward Construction A plurality of longitudinally spaced circumferential or annular channels 24 are for-med in the outer surface of .plug 18. A pair of axially extending slots 2S are formed within shell 12 opening into bore 17 in registry with said plug. Slots 28 are normally arranged upon opposite sides of key slot 19 in the plug, when said opening is in the upright position shown in FIG. 2.
An elongated ward body 29 is snugly projected into and along the length of slot 28 and includes one or more radially inward extending projections 30 which loosely and cooperatively extend within the corresponding annular plug grooves 24. Thus, nor-mal rotation of the plug 1s not interfered with by the ward projections.
Said projections are variably spaced along the length of plug 18 corresponding to the spacing of channels 24. These wards would normally interfere with rotation of key 20 but for the corresponding transve-rse notches 31 formed across its undersurface. Key 20 has one or more transverse notches 31 in its undersurface and longitudinally spaced for cooperative clearance registry with the ward projections 30.
Even though the key 20 were of the correct profile and had the correct biting 23 to align pins 21 at their outer edges at shear line 17, the key could not .rotate but for the undercut transverse notches 31. The ward construction is in the form of a comb, being entirely mounted, supported and anchored within the elongated axial channels 28 in shell 12, FIGS. 1 and 2.
Ward modcaton A modification in the ward construction is directed to the specific location of a single ward 'so as to lie in the plane of the key slot 32 when it is in the upright position shown in FIG. 3. An elongated slot 33 is formed in shell 12 centrally aligned with the vertical axis of key slot 32. An elongated ward bar 34 of a cross-sectional shape corresponding to slot 33 is nested and retained within said slot and includes one or more inwardly and radially directed Ward projections 35 which extend up into the plug bore and in corresponding clearance registry within one or more of the corresponding annular grooves, such as shown at 24, FIG. 1.
This location of the ward bar 34 and its projections 35 requires a new construction lof key 20'. Its undersurface throughout substantially its length has an undercut elongated slot 36 slightly larger than and of a shape corresponding to projections 35. Otherwise the key rnay not be inserted.
Thus, there is provided one additional requirement for the key, thus increasing the number of key combinations which may be employed in a locking system. The key in addition to the correct profile, correct biting, and correct transverse notches 31, FIG. 1, must also have the correct -slot 36 in its undersurface 'before the key can be projected into keyway 32.
The .proposed new location for the -modiiied ward requires that the same project into the keyway space within the plug in such a way as to obstruct the key slot. Only a key having the appropriate longitudinal groove in its undersurface will clear the ward projections. The key must have not only the proper profile, undercut groove, and biting, but must also be properly notched for rotating .past the ward projections. A single set of wards perform a double locking function.` Thus, there is provided a theoretically limitless number of keys which will have a longitudinal groove in their undersurfaces to pass the ward projections extending into the keyway.
Having described -my invention reference should now be had to the following claims.
1. In a cylinder lock, including a shell, a rotatable plug, key operated movable pins in the plug, and spring-biased drivers in the shell bearing on the pins normally retaining the plug against rotation;
said plug having an elongated axial key slot of predetermined prole opening outwardly of one side of the plug and in -registry with said pins; the improvement comprising: an elongated ward body nested and retained in the shell and extending axial` ly of said plug;
a plurality of longitudinally spaced ward projections on l said body extending radially inward of said plug;
there being plurality of longitudinally spaced annular grooves in said plug in registry with and loosely relo ceiving said ward projections;
located in said key for cooperative clearance registry with said ward projections.
2. In the cylinder lock of claim 1, there being a pair of parallel ward bars nested and retained in said shell spaced upon opposite sides of said key slot.
3. In the cylinder lock of claim 1, said ward body being in radial alignment with said key slot and said ward .pro-A there ybeing at least one transverse slot extending` through its bottom edge intermediate its ends adapted for clearance registry with said ward projection;
there being an elongated undercut slot formed into and along its bottom edge and extending to the free t projection. 5. In a cylinder lock including a shell, a rotatable plug, key operative movable pins in the plug, and spring-biased 40 drivers in the shell bearing on the pins extending into and normally retaining the plug against rotation;
said plug having an elongated axial key slot of predetermined profile opening outwardly of one side of the plug and in registry with said pins; the improvement comprising a ward nested andretained in the shell;
and at least one projection on the ward extending;
radially inward of said plug;
there being at least one annular peripheral groove in said plug in registry with and loosely receiving said projection;
a key having a transverse notch in its undersurface, longitudinally arranged in said key for cooperative clearance registry with said projection; Y
said ward and projection being in radial alignment with and extending into said key slot;
said key being of a cross section corresponding to said profile and having an elongated longitudinal slot in its undersurface of a shape and size to cooperatively receive said projection.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 752,624 1,438,336 12/1922 Schroeder 70-453 X 2,803,959 11/ 1952 Schlage 70-420 EDWARD C. ALLEN, Primary Examiner. P. TEITELBAUM, Assistant Examiner.
and a key having a corresponding series of longitudi` nally spaced transverse notches in its undersurlace,`
end thereof, adapted for slidably receiving said ward 2/1904 La Belle 70-420 X