|Publication number||US3288886 A|
|Publication date||Nov 29, 1966|
|Filing date||Jan 15, 1964|
|Priority date||Jan 25, 1963|
|Also published as||DE1297866B|
|Publication number||US 3288886 A, US 3288886A, US-A-3288886, US3288886 A, US3288886A|
|Inventors||Himei Shinichiro, Takine Masamichi, Akita Kunio|
|Original Assignee||Kanegafuchi Chemical Ind|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (17), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Q 3,288,886 BLEND OF VINYL CHLORIDE RESIN AND GRAFT COPOLYMER PREPARED BY CONSECUTIVE POLYMERIZATION F MONOMERS ONTO BU- TADIENE POLYMER Shinichiro Himei, Ashiya, and Masamichi Takine and Kunio Akita, Osaka, Japan, assignors to Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry Company, Limited, Osaka, Japan, a corporation of Japan No Drawing. Filed Jan. 15, 1964, Ser. No. 337,736 Claims priority, application Japan, Jan. 25, 1963,
,685 1 Claim. (Cl. 260--876) This invention relates to the manufacturing method of a thermal plastic synthetic resinous composition consisting of a large quantity of hard vinyl chloride polymers, on one hand, and a small quantity of graft polymers, in which styrene and methyl'methacrylate are polymerized on rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series under specific conditions, this being intended for improving its impact resistance, which is a drawback, while retaining advantages of a hard vinyl chloride polymer.
The hard vinyl chloride polymer is used as a substitute for other metals, as a suitable corrosion-resistant industrial material. It, however, had the disadvantage that its impact resistance is relatively low. Researches for the purpose of eliminating this disadvantage has so far been made public variously, in Letters Patent and other literature. The present invent-or, likewise, was engaged in similar research work, which has now culminated in the present invention.-
The graft polymer of the styrene-methylmethacrylate of the rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series, which this invention relates, is manufactured by, first, graft-polymerizing styrene on the ruber-shaped butadiene polymer series, and, after completion of said polymerization, by grafting methylmethacrylate in a quantity (in weight: the same applies hereinafter) less than that of styrene previously used. The rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series used contains a polybutadiene and/or butadiene-styrene copolymer.
The styrene polymer and ruibber-shaped butadiene polymer series has a low co-so-lubility with the vinyl chloride polymer, and, accordingly, each of their single units or their mixtures with a vinyl chloride polymer fails to have any improved impact resistance. The graft polymer, obtained by graft-polymerizing styrene on a rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series, also, has the similar nature.
On the other hand, it is known that a methylmethacrylate polymer has a high solubility with a vinyl chloride polymer, and the attempt to improve the impact resistance by mixing the graft polymer obtained by graft-polymerizing methylmethacry'late on a rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series, is already well known by the Japanese Patent Bulletins 81364959, 35341960, etc.
Thus, another method may be conceivednamely, instead of graft polymerizing styrene on a rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series, part of styrene is rep-laced by methylmethac-rylate and, thus, a mixed polymer of styrene and methylmethacrylate is graft-polymerized. As a result, it was known, however, that, .within the range of composition of said mixed monomer, containing styrene in a quantity larger than methylmethacrylate, the impact resistance of the product obtained iby mixing a simple graft Patented Nov. 29, 1966 polymer, thus produced, with a vinyl chloride polymer, shows no improvement whatever, or only a negligible improvement, if any, and, thus, it carries practically no value.
Styrene, on the other hand, has the advantages that, the more its percentage occupied in the graft polymer, the cheaper it will be as a raw material, and, besides, that the fluidity and thermal colored resistance at the processing temperature of the composition of the graft polymer and vinyl chloride polymer will be improved.
This invention provides a novel manufacturing method, by which the impact resistance of a vinyl chloride polymer may be improved without impa-ring these advantages.
The method may be carried out, first, by graft-polymerizing :styrene on a rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series, and, after a thorough polymerization up to the point where the styrene monomer may not be substantially recognized, methyl-methacrylate is added for a second-step graft-polymerization.
Accordingly, a copolymer chain of styrene-methylmethacrylate is not substantially recognized in the graft polymer thus produced.
The fact that a surprising improvement of the impact resistance is seen when the graft polymer obtained is mixed with the vinyl chloride polymer, is a complete departure from the conventional conception that, even in case styrene, having a lowco-stability with vinyl chloride polymers, is not used alone but used as one of the graftpolymerizing components of the rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series, in order to ameliorate as far as possible the effect of styrene to deteriorate the co-solubility, it should be used only in mixing with a methylmethacrylate monomer, having a better co-solubility.
According to the manufacturing method of this invention, it is apparent that a styrene mono-polymer chain is produced in the graft polymer. That this kind of graft polymer will have a remarkably improved impact resistance in comparison with a graft polymer produced in such a well-known way that no styrene mono-polymer chain may be produced, has never so far been conceived, and, as such, should be termed a perfectly new discovery.
The rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series used in this invention is manufactured by emulsifying and polymerizing the mixture of butadiene or butadiene and styrene by the known art. In the case of a butadiene-styrene polymer, it is necessary to contain more than 50% (in weight) of butadiene in the molecules thereof. If the percentage is below 50%, the rubber property is decreased, making it impossible to have the effect of this invention fully displayed.
The ratio of styrene and methylmethacrylate should be 50-90%, or preferably 55-75% for the former, and 50-10%, or preferably 45-25% for the latter. In case the percentage for styrene is below 50%, no marked effect in the improvement of the impact resistance will result while the fluidity and thermal colored resistance at the processing temperature of the composition of this invention will be deteriorated, and, again, in case it is above 90%, a composition having the effect of improving the impact resistance will be hardly obtained.
The ratio of the rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series and the total monomer component used in graft polymerization should be l0-70 parts or preferably 30-50 parts for the former, and 90-30 parts or preferably -50 parts for the latter. In case the percentage of the rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series is below 10 parts, little effect of improving the impact resistance is obtained, while, in case it is above 70 parts, inferior co-soiubility with the vinyl chloride polymer will result, and, thus, in either case, the object of this invention may not be achieved. An appropriate graft polymerization is carried out in the following procedure.
A rubber-shaped butadiene polymer latex is placed in the polymerizing machine, and, after the addition of an appropriate amount of water, a catalyst, a polymerization modifier and an emulsifier, the machine is tightly closed and the air inside is thoroughly drained out, and, then, styrene is added, the temperature is raised to the appropriate level, and, thus, polymerization is started. After completion of the polymerization of styrene, methylmethacrylate is added, and, if necessary, a catalyst is added for the completion of polymerization. In case the rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series latex is not entirely exposed to the air, polymerization may at times be carried out without using a catalyst. If the catalyst is soluble in oil, it may be dissolved in styrene or methylmethacrylate. At times, again, any polymerization modifier is not used, and, if necessary, it may be used, dissolved or un-dissolved in a monomer. As for the emulsifier, no emulsifier should preferably be used except what is already in existence in the rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series latex. The two-step graft polymer latex thus obtained, after the addition of a suitable age resistor or stabilizer, is neutralized by a mineral acid and coagulated by adding an inorganic electrolysis. After heat treatment, it is dehydrated, rinsed and dried.
The composition of this invention should contain 70-95 parts or preferably 80-90 parts of the hard vinyl chloride polymer, and 30-5 parts or preferably 20-l0 parts of the graft polymer. In case the latter is above 30 parts, the impact resistance is deteriorated, and, in case it is below parts, little effect of improving the impact resistance results. The effect of improving the impact resistance becomes the greatest when the latter is kept within the range of 20- parts.
The intended composition may be obtained by uniformly mixing a hard vinyl chloride polymer series and graft polymer by means of a rubber mill, Banbury mixer, extruder, etc. Or else, the method of coagulating the resin after the latices of the two polymers are mixed may be followed.
The hard vinyl chloride polymer may use not only a vinyl chloride mono-polymer but also such copolymers, capable of polymerization with vinyl chloride, as vinyl chloride-ethylene, vinylacetate, vinylidene chloride, acrylonitril, vinyl, ether, acrylic ester, methacrylic ester, etc. It is necessary that more than 80% at least of vinyl chloride is contained in the molecules at the time of copolymerization.
The intended composition is processed into the shape of a sheet or pipe with or without the addition of a stabilizer, lubricant, filler or coloring agent by the processes of extrusion, emission, calender processing or blow molding. In these processes, use of the stabilizer conventionally used for vinyl chloride polymers is found effective; however, in view of the purpose of this invention, use of a solid stabilizer is desirable. If needed, again, use of a small amount of a plastic is not objectionable.
Below, the invention will be described by an embodiment.
(Embodiment) 1. MANUFACTURING CONDITION OF POLYMERS A. Hard vinyl chloride polymer A resin of 1300 in average polymerization degree, obtained by the known method of suspension polymerization.
B. Rubber-shaped butrzdiene polymer series latex The polymerizing conditions are:
Parts A mixture of butadiene-l,3 or butadiene and styrene 100 Water 150 Sodium lauryl sulphalic ester 30 Potassium persulphate 0.25 Dodecyl mercaptan 0.15
When it was heated at 60 C. for 24 hours, 62% of polymerization rate was reached. Subsequently, it was drained of the air in vacuum, and, as a result, a stable latex was obtained. This latex may be classified as follows depending on the kind and the ratios of ingredients of the monomer:
Names of B latex Butadiene (percent) Styrene (percent) C. 2-step graft polymer latex The polymerizing conditions are:
Parts B latex X Monomer V for first-step graft polymerizallOzH y Water Cumene hydroperoxide 0.3
Sodium sulplh-oxylate formaldehyde 0.15
After heating at 60 C. for 4 hours, the polymerization rate of 99% was obtained. Subsequently:
Parts Monomer V for second-step graft polymerization y was added, and polymerized for another 4 hours, and the rate of polymerization against all of the monomers added was set above 97%.
(1) X indicates the number of parts of the contained (the same applies hereinafter). +y1+y2= D. Simple graft polymer lalex polymer The polymerizing conditions are:
Parts B latex X Monomer V for graft polymerization y Water 150 Cumene hydroperoxide 0.3 Sodium sulp h oxylate formaldehyde 0.15
After heating at 60 C. for 4 hours, the rate of polymerization attained was above 98%.
Note: X+y l00 E. Vinyl polymer latex The polymerizing conditions:
erization attained was above 98%.
2. POLYMERIZATION COMPOSITION OF POLY- MERS AND COMPOSITION OF COMPOSITES Polymer Vinyl Rubber-shaped mixed comchloride butadiene 2-step graft polymer Simple graft polymer Vinyl polymer position polymer polymer series No. Parts Kinds Parts Parts Parts Kinds Parts SBR(40) S (60) SB R010) *S (40) SB R(40) M() SB R() (S +M) (40+20) NOTES:
B(x)=Kinds of rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series (number of parts at the time of polymerization).
V (y,)=Kind of monomers for first-step polymerization in 2step graft polymerization (number of parts at the time of polymerization).
V (y )=Kind of monomers for 2nd-step polymerization in 2-s'tep graft polymerization (number of parts at the time of polymerization).
V (y 1) =Kind of monomers for polymerization in simple graft polymerization (number of parts at the time of polymerization).
SB R=Butadiene-Styrene (75-25) Copolymer.
B R =Butadiene polymer.
M= Mothylmethacrylate monomer.
S+M=Mixture of styrene monomer monomer.
11S+PM=Mixture of styrene polymer and methylmethacrylate po ymer.
P (S-M) Styrene-methylrnethacrylate copolymer.
and methylmethacrylate 3. MEASURING CONDITIONS OF IMPACT STRENGTH AND OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Of eac hof the lat-ices B-E manufactured by the process l, C and D la-tices were added with 0.5 part of Ionol (Shell Co.) an age modifier after it was emulsified, while simple latices Oil :mixed latices having a mixed composition as shown in 3 were dried through the processes of coagulation, heat treatment, filtering and rinsing. These simple or mixed polymers not containing vinyl chloride Common conditions:
(1) Kinds of rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series SBR.
polymers are hereinafter referred to as rubber composr- (2) Rubbershaped butadiene tions. polymer series component2sty- The mixture, 100 parts, of the vinyl chloride polymer rene componentszmethylmethand rubber composition, with the addition of Adbustab acrylate component 40:40:20 (parts). T360, 2 parts (Carlyle Chemical 00.), a stabilizer of (3) Number of parts of rubber powdered organic zinc mercaptide series and butylcomponent in compositions, steat-rate, 1 part, was roll-kneaded for 10 minutes at parts 10 parts, C., and the sheet, thus obtained, was pressed for 30 minutes at C. in a metal pattern, and, thus, a test specimen was p p The impact Strength (with a 55 Composition Manufacturing Methods of Rubber i r iiglll notch; measuring temperature 25 C.) of this test specipositions (Ks q -l men was measured by the Izod test method (ASTM D cm'z) 256-54T). Moreover, for obtaining referential data, the hot fluidity of the mixed polymer composite was observed by the Koka-type flow tester, and the coloring $333 gggggti ggt g i 2 property and transparency of a press plate, 3 mm. in graft 9,5 thickness, were examined macroscopically. 2 g tgg g sg? g g; g
The measuring conditions by means of the fiOW tester 19 2,
Meas ring appa a us um Koka yp flow tester 5 coirllrgagiasstnthe vinyl chloride polymer exists alone. Given here for (B method), manufactured by Shimzau P produced by the method of this invention, compared Plunger pressure 150 kg./ 2 with the compositions manufactured by other methods, is Nozzle size l mm X 10 mm. provlfied Wlth a f r grea er impact strength. Especially, Measuring temperature c 7 O the difference between P and P deserves notice. Ti f preheating 10 i (2) Comparison of impact strengths, hot fluidities and Flow unit cm. sec, Coloring pr p r les due to the difference in proportions of 4. COMPARISON OF IMPACT STRENGTHS AND OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES the styrene and methylmethacrylate contents contained in the 2-step graft polymer used for the manufacture of the compositions of this invention.
aesesee 7 Common conditions:
(1) Kinds of rubber-shaped butadione polymer series SBR. (2) Rubber-shaped butadiene poly mer series content: styrene content and methylmethacrylate content, single or combined (3) Number of parts of rubber in 40:60 (parts).
Rubber- Number of parts at Izod impact Composishaped B S M strength tions N o. butadiene polymerization (kgemJcmF) polymer the composition parts.
Polymer Manufacturing Styrene] Hot fluidity Izod impact Mixed method of rubber methylmethac- (190 0.))(10- Coloring property strength, Compositions composites rylate, cmfi/see. (Press plate) Kg. ant/cm.
N 0. percent 1?; SBR S graft 100/0 2. 45 (2) Light yellowun 3.6 P SBR S M 2-step 66. 7/33. 3 1. 82 (3) Light yellow- 60 55 45 1. 4s 4 Light yellow. 60 d 33. 3/66. 7 l. 11 (5) Light yellow 15. 7 P SBR M graft 0/100 0. 85 (6) Yellow .s 13. 8 P 0. 54 (1) Colorless 2.8
*This shows the case of the vinyl chloride polymer existing alone.
Given here [or comparison.
NOTE. The order of ranking in the coloring property indicates that the yellow coloring deepens as the numerical value increases.
The hot fluidity and thermal colored resistance are shown to improve with the mounting quantity of styrene. The impact strength shows the highest value in the range of the composition of this invention.
(3) Comparison of impact strengths by the proportions of rubber component contained in the compositions of this invention.
( 1) Kinds of rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series SBR. (2) Rubbershaped butadiene polymer series conentzstyrene (4) Comparison of impact strengths varying due to the kinds and the number of parts at the time of polymerization of rubber-shaped butadiene polymers used in the manufacture of the compositions of this invention.
(1) Number of parts of rubber component in 100 parts of the composition (2) Manufacturing method of rubber composition B S M 2-step polymerization method.
Both in the cases of SBR and BR, the impact strength shows as high a value as more than 60 Within the range of composition of this invention.
The term graft polymer used in connection with this invention means a polymer obtained by polymerizing styrene in a rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series dispersed in water, and, then, polymerizing methylmeth-acrylate, but does never signify a polymer in which all of styrene and methylmethacrylate have a graft bond on the rubber-shaped butadiene polymer series.
A com-position consisting essentially of (A) to 95 parts by Weight of a resin selected from the group consisting of vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers of at least by weight vinyl chloride and up to 20% by Weight of a monoethylenieally unsaturated compound copolymerizable therewith, and (B) 30 to 5 parts by Weight of a graft copolymer of (1) 10 to 70 parts by Weight of a rubbery polymer selected from the group consisting of butadiene homopolymers and copolymers of at least 50% butadiene and up to 50% styrene and (2) to 30 parts by weight of monomers consisting of 50 to 90% by weight styrene and 10 to 50% by weight methyl methacrylate, said graft copolymer being prepared by first completely polymerizing styrene in the presence of an aqueous dispersion of the rubbery polymer, adding the methyl methacrylate to the reaction mixture, and polymerizing said methyl methacrylate.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,085,082 4/ 1963 Beer et al 260-876 XR FOREIGN PATENTS 850,487 10/ 1960 Great Britain.
MURRAY TI'LLMAN, Primary Examiner.
G. F. LESMES, Assistant Examiner.
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|GB850487A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3426101 *||Aug 25, 1965||Feb 4, 1969||Rohm & Haas||Acrylic modifiers which impart impact resistance and transparency to vinyl chloride polymers|
|US3448173 *||Feb 18, 1966||Jun 3, 1969||Rohm & Haas||Acrylic modifiers which impart impact resistance and transparency to vinyl chloride polymers|
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|US3644249 *||Jul 8, 1969||Feb 22, 1972||Mitsubishi Rayon Co||Polyvinyl chloride resin composition having excellent transparency, surface gloss and impact strength|
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|US3900528 *||Oct 9, 1973||Aug 19, 1975||Monsanto Co||Process for impact modification of high nitrile polymers|
|US3900529 *||Oct 9, 1973||Aug 19, 1975||Monsanto Co||Rubber modified high nitrile polymers and polymer blends produced thereby|
|US3901839 *||Jul 27, 1972||Aug 26, 1975||Monsanto Co||Vinyl halide resin compositions having high flex endurance|
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|US3985704 *||Jun 19, 1975||Oct 12, 1976||Rohm And Haas Company||Methacrylate-butadiene-styrene graft polymers and process for their production|
|US4021509 *||Apr 17, 1975||May 3, 1977||Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Production of impact-resistant, thermoplastic resin compositions|
|US4362845 *||Dec 9, 1981||Dec 7, 1982||Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd.||Polyvinyl chloride-base resin and multistage graft resin composition|
|US5268430 *||Sep 16, 1991||Dec 7, 1993||General Electric Company||Methacrylate-butadiene-styrene graft polymer and its PVC blends having low yellowness, good clarity, and improved impact strength|
|U.S. Classification||525/84, 525/902, 525/79, 525/310|
|International Classification||C08L27/06, C08F285/00, C08L51/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S525/902, C08L51/00, C08L27/06, C08F285/00|
|European Classification||C08L27/06, C08F285/00|