|Publication number||US3289362 A|
|Publication date||Dec 6, 1966|
|Filing date||Nov 9, 1964|
|Priority date||Nov 9, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3289362 A, US 3289362A, US-A-3289362, US3289362 A, US3289362A|
|Inventors||Whelan Joseph A|
|Original Assignee||Whelan Joseph A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (11), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Deco W66 J. A. WHELAN 3,289,362
PREFABRICATED ROOF AND EAVE ANCHOR MEANS THEREFOR Filed Nov 9, 1964 I N VEN TOR.
United States Patent 3,289,362 PREFABRICATED RUOF AND EAVE ANCHOR MEANS THEREFOR Joseph A. Whelan, Box 114, Pauli, Pa. Filed Nov. 9, 1964, Ser. No. 409,637 8 Claims. (Cl. 52--92) The present invention pertains to a roof construction with particular reference to roofs prefabricated with conventional materials as well as roofs molded from plastics or concrete.
Prior to the present invention, practically all roofs were erected piecemeal at the building site. First the rafters had to be cut, fitted and nailed in place. Next, the roof decking had to be nailed to the rafters and finally, the waterproof roofing material had to be applied to the decking. The necessity for erecting a roof in this manner was due to the fact that a panel or section of a roof, once the decking and roofing materials had been applied, was too heavy, too bulky and too unwieldy to maneuver into its final position. Additionally, after the roof decking had been affixed to the rafters, the rafters could not be reached for joining to the ridge or to the structural members of the building.
The roof, being the topmost part of a building is always erected at a height above the ground. The workmen are required to stand on skeleton framing and. do not have a firm footing. As a result, their ability to handle large or heavy sections of a roof is severely restricted.
When a roof is erected piecemeal, each step must await the completion of the prior step. This alway cause a delay and, until the roof is completed, the interior of the building is always subject to damage from the elements. This is particularly serious in prefabricated buildings where many of the finished parts of the building are erected concurrently with the walls and before the roof is completed.
Since the conventional way to erect a roof is to attach the rafters to the ridge and to the structural members by nailing, no non-naila'ble materials, such as plastics or concrete, can be used.
In order to reduce the expenditure for skilled and semi-skilled labor at the building site and to permit workmen to work indoors, prefabricated buildings have come into wide usage. In prefabricated buildings, substantial portions of the building are assembled remote from the building site and shipped as assembled panel sections to the building site where they may be erected on the foundation or other supports. However, it has been the practice to construct the roof in the conventional manner at the site. This is because an assembled section or panel of a roof is too heavy and too awkward for workmen to maneuver into place and because the decking renders the rafters inaccessible for fastening to the ridge or to the structural members of the building.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a self aligning prefabricated roof panel capable of being raised into final position without the use of special tools or equipment.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel construction wherein the thrust and stress of the roof is transferred to the structural members of a building through a bracket and a brace anchored to the rafters and the structural members, respectively.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel construction of a roof using non-nailable materials such as plastics or concrete.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel construction of a roof without special equipment where the conventional rafters are too long or too heavy to be maneuvered by workmen.
3,289,362 Patented Dec. 6, 1966 All of the objects of the present invention are more fully set forth hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a section through a roof panel between two rafters showing the relation of the parts.
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary perspective view of a roof panel erected in its final position.
Briefly, the invention consists of a roof panel having a plurality of rafters 1 to which have been attached the roof decking 2 and the waterproof roofing material 3, each rafter 1 having a notch 4 reinforced by a bracket 5 positioned to engage a brace 8 in such manner as to prevent longitudinal movement while permitting lateral and rotary movement during erection and thereafter providing a means of attaching the rafters to the structural members of the building.
In the embodiment shown on the drawings in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the exterior wall of a building is shown with a vertical structural member 14 and a horizontal structural member 13 to which is attached the exterior wall facing 15. In FIG. 2 a panel section is shown in its final position comprising a plurality of rafters 1 with the roof decking 2 and the roofing material 3 attached, and with the engagement of bracket 5 and brace 8 joined by a bolt 7, and the brace 8 anchored to the structural member 13 by means of a bolt 9. Longitudinally along the rafter 1 are a series of prepositioned holes 10' through which bolts can be inserted to bring adjacent panels into alignment and security. At the ridge end of the rafter, a ridge board 11 is attached which bears against a similar ridge board in the opposing panel 12 and the two ridge boards are held together by bolts.
Each rafter 1 in the panel is of predetermined size and configuration. At the ridge end, a ridge board 11, eX- tending the width of the panel, is securely fastened to each rafter and when the panel is in its final position the ridge board presses against an identical ridge board fastened to the rafters of a similar opposing panel. Near the eaves end of each rafter is a notch 4, reinforced by a bracket 5. The bracket is totally within the outline of the associated rafter and positioned to offer no obstruction to the smooth bottom surface of the associated rafter. When the panel is brought to the building, the ridge end is raised and rested on top of the top structural member of the outside wall. The panel is then pushed upward and inward and the smooth bottom surface of the rafters is slid over the vertical leg of the brace 8 until the notch 4 falls around and engages the brace 8. After the engagement of the notch 4 and the brace 8, further longitudinal movement of the panel, or the rafters, is restricted while the panel may be moved laterally and rotated around the brace 8. Once the brace 8 has been positioned near the caves of the building, no further measurements are necessary and the engagement of the notch 4 with the brace 8 defines the position of the panel with respect to the outside wall. After final positioning, the panel is permanently secured to the structural members of the building by fastening bracket 5 to brace 8 by means of a bolt 7. The notch 4 is reinforced by a bracket 5 anchored to each rafter 1 by bolts 6. The bracket 5 transfers the stress and thrust of the rafter 1 to the structural member 13 by pressing against the brace 8 and being permanently fastened thereto by bolt 7. It will be noted that when the bracket has engaged the brace 8 and the ridge boards 11 are pressing against each other, the panels will remain in position without any further support and will permit final adjustment of the panel before permanent attachment. Spaced longitudinally along the edge of the exterior rafters of each panel are holes 1t) registered to set opposite holes in the adjoining panel rafter and by means of which the adjoining panel may be aligned and securely and permanently fastened by bolts.
The notch 4 is placed near the eaves end of the respective rafters. This notch need not be of any particular shape provided the inward side is plumb in its final position and the notch is wide enough to avoid binding on the brace during rotation. In the preferred embodiment shown on the drawings, FIG. 1, the inward side is straight and perpendicular to the ground. The other side of the notch is arcuate curving from the top of the inward side of the notch, outwardly and downwardly to a point outwardly of the outside horizontal edge of the brace 8. It is important that there be a small space between the outward limit of the horizontal leg and the outward margin of the notch to prevent binding during rotation. The inward vertical side of the notch must be of sufiicient depth to prevent disengagement of the bracket and the brace 8 when the rafter is rotated.
The bracket 5 is firmly anchored to each rafter 1 and has one leg projecting at right angles to the side of the rafter. The projecting leg has a hole registered with a hole 16 in the brace 8 and through which the bracket 5 is ultimately fastened to the brace 8 by means of a bolt 7. It will be noted that while the space between the horizontal structural member 13 and the roof decking 2 is insuificient to permit nailing the rafter to the structural member 13, such space is sufiicient to permit joining the bracket 5 to the brace 8 by means of a bolt 7. The bracket 5 is anchored to the interior side of each rafter 1 with the outward surface of the projecting leg in line with the inward straight side of the notch 4. In this position the bracket 5 absorbs any shock to the notch 4 and prevents splitting of the rafter 1. It also bears against the brace 8 and transmits the stress and thrust of the roof panel directly to the brace 8.
The brace 8 is firmly anchored to the structural members 13 of the building by bolts 9 and receives all the stress and thrust of the roof panel. Positioned along its vertical leg are holes 16 registered to set opposite holes in the projecting leg of the bracket 5 and to receive a bolt 7 permanently binding the bracket to the brace. The vertical leg of the brace 8 must be of sufficient height to prevent disengagement of the bracket 5 and the brace 8 when the panel is rotated. The brace 8 being firmly anchored to the structural member 13 transmits all stress and thrust of the roof panel received from the bracket 5 to the structural member 13.
When the panels are brought to the building site, the ridge end is raised and rested against the top of the outside wall. A similar panel is raised against the opposite outside wall. From this position, one panel is pushed upward and inward, with the assistance of a block and tackle if necessary, until the notch 4 falls around and engages brace 8. The panel is then rotated to a near horizontal position and rests on ceiling joists or other support. The opposing panel on the opposite side of the building is similarly raised and rotated until it overlaps and rests on the ridge end of the first panel. From this position, the ridge end of each panel is raised and rotated around the brace 8 until the ridge board 11 is slightly higher than its final position. The ridge end of both panels are then lowered until the ridge board 11 of each panel rest against each other. The pressure of the panels against each other at the ridge boards 11 and the pressure of the bracket 5 against the brace 8 holds the panels in place, while being adjusted, without further support. From this position, the panels are brought into final adjustment and permanently bound by bolts through predetermined holes in the ridge boards and by bolts attaching the bracket 5 to the brace 8. Each succeeding pair of panels is similarly raised and additionally each panel is bolted to the adjoining panel through the holes in the exterior rafters, thus securing a rigid homogeneous roof.
It will be apparent, therefore, that the present invention provides a roof panel section of a building or the like which may be completely preassembled remote from the building site and which may be connected to the building structure and to similar roof panel sections without special tools or equipment. The connection between the panels, themselves, and between the panels and the structural framing of the building is confined to the small space within the outline of the panel section and does not interfere with any other parts of the building. Since the panels may be preassembled at a location remote from the building site, the components may be designed to accommodate mechanized assembly and need not conform to standard building materials. The transfer of the stress and thrust of the roof to the structural framing by means of a bracket and brace permits the use of materials which are pre-cast or molded in a factory and brought to the site for erection.
While particular embodiment of the present invention have been herein illustrated and described, it is not intended to limit the invention to such disclosure, but changes and modifications may be made therein and thereto within the scope of the following claims:
1. In a roof construction, a rafter with a notch near the eaves end thereof, reinforced by a bracket lying within the longitudinal outline of said rafter, one leg of said bracket being bolted to said rafter and the other leg projecting perpendicularly to the side of said rafter and having its outward face in line with the inward face of said notch cooperating toabsorb any shock or stress on said notch and having a hole in said projecting leg registered with a hole in the vertical leg of a brace whose horizontal leg is bolted to the structural members of a building, said brace positioned to engage said notch and, after engagement, cooperating to restrain outward longitudinal movement of rafter while permitting rotary, lateral and inward longitudinal movement during adjustment and, after final adjustment, affording means of permanently fastening rafter to structural members by a bolt passing through the registered holes in the bracket and brace.
2. In a roof construction, a panel having at least two parallel facing rafters with roof decking attached, each rafter having a notch near the eaves end thereof and a bracket having one leg bolted to the associated rafter and the other leg projecting at right angles to the longitudinal plane of the rafter, the outward face of said projecting leg in line with the inside face of said notch and cooperating to absorb any shock or stress on said notch, said bracket having a hole in the projecting leg registered with a hole in the vertical leg of a brace anchored to the structural members of the building, said brace, after engagement with the bracket reinforced notch, cooperating to restrict outward longitudinal movement but allowing inward longitudinal lateral and rotary movement of the panel during erection and affording means of permanently attaching panel to the structural members of the building by bolts passing through aforesaid registered holes.
3. In a roof construction, a panel according to claim 2 wherein the notch in each rafter has its inner side straight and perpendicular to the ground in its final position and has the outer side of the notch arcuate, curving from the top inner side of the notch outwardly and downwardly to a point outside the outermost point of the horizontal leg of the brace affording means of rotating panel.
4. In a roof construction, a panel according to claim 2 wherein a ridge board is securely attached to the ridge end of the associated rafters and extending the width of the panel, opposing and resting against a similar ridge board attached to an opposing panel erected on the opposite side of the building and providing means for permanently bolting together opposing panels at the ridge.
5. In a roof construction, a panel according to claim 2 wherein the exterior rafters on each side of the panel have a series of holes spaced at predetermined points along the length of the rafters to register with similar holes in the exterior rafters of the adjacent panels, pro- "viding means for alignment and permanently fastening adjacent panels.
6. In a roof construction, a panel according to claim 2 wherein the rafters and the roof decking are prefabricated in one piece with the brackets, reinforcing the notches, anchored to the rafters and transmitting the thrust and stress of the roof panel to a brace securely anchored to the structural members of the building.
7. In a roof construction, a panel according to claim 2 wherein the notch is sufliciently deep and the vertical leg of the brace is suflicliently long to prevent disengagement of the notch and brace when. the panel is rotated.
8. In a roof construction according to claim 2 wherein the brackets are anchored by bolts to the interior side of the exterior rafters and within the longitudinal outline of the associated panel atfording smooth uninterrupted side and bottom surfaces of the panel.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner. M. O. WARNECKE, Assistant Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||52/92.2, 52/127.12|
|International Classification||E04B7/20, E04B7/00, E04B7/04|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B7/04, E04B7/20|
|European Classification||E04B7/20, E04B7/04|