US 3289679 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 6, 1966 G. ZELLERMAN 3,289,679
LUMINOUS INFRA RED METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ACCELERATING COLORING OF HAIR ON HUMAN HEAD Filed Dec. 17, 1965 IN VEN TOR.
ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,289,679 LUMEJOUS INFRA-RED METHOD AND APPA- RATUS FOR ACCELERATING COLORWG 0F HAER ()N HUMAN HEAD Gabor Zelierman, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, assignor to Anabel Laboratories, Inc., New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Dec. 17, 1965, Ser. No. 514,644 11 Claims. (Cl. 132-7) This invention relates to a system for accelerated chemical treatment of human hair both on and off the human head. In particular, my invention relates'to a machine and process for treating human hair, and, in its preferred embodiment, for chemically treating hair on the human head.
There are, currently, many hair treatments wherein chemicals in a liquid base carrier are applied to hair, such, for instance, as dyeing, tinting, toning and bleaching. In general, these treatments require a comparatively extended period of time for completion ranging from thirty minutes upwards. It is highly desirable to shorten the span of treatment time without in any way deleteriously affecting the hair or scalp of the patron and without reducing the efiicacy of the treatments. Various processes and equipment have been suggested for this purpose. However, for practical and procedural reasons, up to the present time none of the suggested substitutes have met with appreciable public acceptance.
It is the principal object of my invention to provide a practical system for chemically treating human hair, and preferably hair on the human head, such that with the use of standard chemicals the treatment can be carried to completion in a greatly shortened period of time and without in any way deleteriously affecting the desirable physical characteristics of the hair strands.
It is another object of my invention to provide a hair treating system of the character described which specifically will accelerate chemical reactions that take place on or in hair on the human head which reactions involve oxidizing processes. More particularly, it is an object of my invention to provide a method and apparatus for accelerating bleaching, dyeing, tinting and toning, i.e., coloring, of hair on the human head wherein an oxidation step is practiced.
It is another object of my invention to provide an accelerated oxidation system for color treatment of hair on the human head in which the treatment of the hair is substantially uniform so that there is no marked variation in the over-all color imparted.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described which, despite the shortened period of treatment, will leave the hair with a good hand and silky feeling; which will, when practiced upon initially harsh hair, impart an improved texture thereto; and which will, along with the oxidizing treatment, stimulate the sebaceous glands in the scalp, thereby inducing an increased flow of natural oil into the bases of the hollow hair strands from which the oil will travel upwardly in the strands to enhance the lustre and sheen of the hair.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described which accelerates the oxidizing processes by the application of radiant energy within a certain critically restricted portion of the electromagnetic spectrum such that the energy will penetrate a wetted mat of hair all the way to the scalp in a uniform manner whether the hair be wetted with a fluent composition, a viscous thick or creamy composition, or a thixotropic composition, and whether the carrier base is water or an organic liquid.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described wherein the radiant energy lies in a critically restricted portion of the spectrum so selected that the energy will penetrate a random arrangement of wetted hair or hair in ordered configuration, e.g., in rolls, or hair in small bundles contained in thin metallic envelopes, such for instance, as foil envelopes, whereby regardless of its configuration all of the hair on a patrons scalp will be treated in substantially the same fashion so as to result in a uniform change in color.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described in which the accelerated chemical reaction is not accompanied by accelerated action on the scalp, so that despite the more rapid action in the oxidation system there is no burning or other deleterious effect on the scalp.
Many of the color changing oxidizing reactions now in use employ strong chemicals such, for instance, as hydrogen peroxide, under pH conditions which induce damage to the scalp if the chemicals are left on the hair for extended periods of time, e.g., exceeding thirty minutes. A large number of patrons, however, require lengthy periods of treatment with said chemicals. Thus, a woman with particularly coarse or particularly dark or red hair may require extended bleaching or even multiple bleaching of her hair. These frequently result in the formation of painful lesions on or tenderness of the scalp, this in part being due to the long time that the chemicals remain in contact with the scalp and in part due to water evaporation from the treating composition which causes concentration of the active chemicals, such concentration increasing with the length of application and ultimately becoming so strong as to be harmful. Until the present time, patrons have accepted this drawback, not without complaint, but because no other course was open to them. In accordance with my invention, this particularly severe disadvantage has been overcome. Patrons who heretofore required length applications of strong chemicals for oxidizing coloring have, when treated with my new system, been astonished with the speedy yet excellent results which were obtained without harm to their scalp or hair. It appears that in the practice of my system the acceleration is limited to the oxidizing reaction and that there is no acceleration of any other reaction and particularly of other reactions which harm the scalp or the hair structure. Moreover, in my invention, although the hair is heated, the operation is essentially a closed one so that a point of equilibrium of vapor evaporation and condensation is quickly reached which inhibits concentration of the chemicals that might harm the scalp.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described in which, due to the shorter period of treatment, stronger than usual oxidizing reagents and carriers can be applied to hair on the human head while minimizing the damage to the scalp or hair structure.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described which, because of its short period of treatment, enables an operator to take care of a patron with limited time at her disposal, as, for example, an office worker who wants her head colored over lunch hour. Heretofore, this has been considered impossible because the minimum bleaching time has been one-half hour and frequently more. Even changing the color of hair on the head with oxidation dyes needed at least thirty minutes. Additional time was required for pretreatment, after treatment, drying, rinsing, shampooing,
and setting. The total time exceeded an hour. However, using my new system reduces the oxidizing reaction time in many cases to as little as three to twelve minutes, so that it now is possible to complete a hair coloring treatment on a lunch hour.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described which can be carried out in an air conditioned room. Up to the present time it has been usual for patrons who have oxidizing chemicals on their hair to be permitted to walk about while they were waiting for the chemicals to take effect. Chilling of a wet head of hair made this uncomfortable and cool air slowed the treatment. Hence, it has been customary to carry out oxidation coloring in a room having a warm, moist atmosphere. But, with my system this no longer is necessary. The treatments can be effected in an air conditioned room with the patrons head confined in a hood. It would be inconvenient to have the patron thus immobilized for the protracted times heretofore necessary for coloring of the hair. But this is no longer a problem.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described which lends itself to more economical and more efficient instruction. A student no longer has to wait, sometimes for hours, to see the results of her work. She can determine quickly whether her application of the chemicals and manipulation of the subjects hair has been correct. Moreover, when examining students, the instructor can rapidly determine whether the treatment has been performed correctly and will be more exact and proficient in her evaluation of the student.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described in which the critically restricted portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is so selected for the range of radiant energy that the penetration of the wetted mat of hair on the human head is deep enough to extend from the exterior surface of the mat to the scalp and a slight distance beneath the same, but not deeply enough under the scalp to render the treatment uncomfortable or to damage subcutaneous tissue.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described which is so practiced that the chemical coloring reactions are carried out in an atmosphere of high humidity so as not to increase the concentration of the chemicals.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described in which the process is carried out in a quiescent, i.e., static, atmosphere and in an atmosphere which is localized, i.e., closely confined, to the patrons hair in order to obtain and maintain the desired high humidity and minimal evaporation.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described that employs inexpensive apparatus which is easy to build and which requires no special technical knowledge for servicing, the same being an apparatus in which the operating parts are either mechanical, or, where electrical, are in the form of readily replaceable simple components such as incandescent lamps and switches.
It is another object of my invention to provide a system of the character described which is far less complex and expensive than high frequency radio energy machines which presently are employed to a very limited extent.
These and various other objects and advantages of my invention will become apparent to the reader in the following description.
My invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements, arrangements of parts and series of steps which will be exemplified in the device and process hereinafter described and of which the scope of application will be indicated in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings in which is shown one of the various possible embodiments of my invention,
FIG. 1 is a side, partially fragmentary, partially sectional, elevation view of an apparatus embodying and employed for carrying out the process of my invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged side view of one of the lamps shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a bottom view of the lamp shown in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a bottom view of the inner shell of the hood shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially along the line 55 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken substantially along the line 6-6 of FIG. 1 and illustrating a detail of the peripheral configuration of the mouth portions of the inner and outer shells that conjointly form thehood shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of a detail of a modified form of hood embodying my invention.
In general, I achieve my invention by directing onto a mat or mass of human hair, either on the human head or forming a wig or hair piece, radiant energy in the critically restricted range between 7,000 A. and 12,000 A. I have found that such energy in the prescribed range accelerates oxidation reactions such as take place in oxidative coloring of human hair but does not accelerate the reactions that are detrimental to the hair and scalp. This range embraces electromagnetic energy at the low end of the Visible spectrum and the adjacent high end of the infrared spectrum. Desirably, the energy distribution is such that the predominant, i.e., major, portion of the energy lies within the critically restricted range just mentioned. It is preferred to employ a minimum of energy having a wavelength in excess of 12,000 A., since its penetration will be too deep, that is to say, will extend too deeply into the subcutaneous tissues where it is of no benefit to my system and can, if present in a substantial amount, cause discomfort and harm and, moreover, such energy will not be absorbed to a sufficient extent in the mat of hair. It is preferred to employ a minimum of energy having a wavelength less than 7,000 A., since the depth of penetration thereof is not sufficient and since energy at this level has undesirable side effects for some patrons.
The term mat of hair is used herein to denote the arrangement of the hair at the time of treatment. This may be of any configuration. For instance, the hair may be rolled on curlers or in the form of pincurls, and the rolled tresses or pincurls may be exposed to the atmosphere or contained within envelopes of sheet material, such, for instance, as plastic, paper or metal foil, the latter preventing effective operation of a radio energy unit. In one form of my invention with which I have obtained successful results, the mat of hair is in a random disarray such as is obtained by wetting the hair with the chemical reactants and pushing it about manually. This configuration results, for example, during a bleaching operation when the hair has had applied to it a watery bleaching solution which is massaged into the hair and against the scalp. Alternatively, the hair may have had an oxidizing coloring solution applied in the same manner.
Another suitable configuration in which the hair like wise is randomly disposed in the mat is where a watery bleaching or coloring composition is applied with a fibrous pad wetted with the composition, or where the composition is applied in a creamy or viscous state, or is thix- -otropic. First the hair is provided with a furrow, i.e., part, to the scalp and then the coloring composition is laid down in the part and massaged. Part after part is provided with the composition being applied in each part, so that the hair is not quite as randomly disposed as where it has been wetted over-all with a generally applied composition.
After the application of the coloring composition, the mat of hair for a typical patron will have an average thickness of approximately inch with some portions being considerably thicker, e.g., half an inch or more, and other portions being thinner to the point where the scalp is barely covered. Patrons with particularly long hair may have a mat which may be a half inch to an inch in thickness when wetted with the chemical coloring reagent.
It is a characteristic of my invention that within the critically restricted range of radiant energy which I employ, all of these various thicknesses do not affect the uniformity or efiicacy of my treatment. Nor do these various thicknesses tend to leave the scalp tender or burnt by the chemical reagent, the coloring action only of which is accelerated by my system.
The oxidizing chemicals used in my system may, as has been indicated above, be in any well-known physical form, i.e., carried in any well'known manner. One suitable carrier is water. The chemical reagent can simply be dissolved or caused to be dissolved in water and the composition as applied to the hair can be watery, i.e., fluent. Alternatively, the carrier for the active oxidizing chemical reactant may be an organic liquid, e.g., ethyl alcohol. Still further, the carrier may be viscous with either an aqueous or organic liquid base and a suitable thickener such, for instance, as natural or synthetic gums, e.g., carboxymethylcellulose, gum arabic, or gum karaya. Furthermore, the carrier may be thickened by forming an emulsion of oil and water, and for this purpose the carrier may include both water and an oil, e.g., mineral oil or vegetable oil, as well as an emulsifying agent, for instance, lanolin or a soap, for instance, sodium stearate. Also, if desired, the carrier may be of a thixotropic nature. Typical thixotropic agents are mentioned in copending application Serial No. 302,494, filed Aug. 15, 1963, these including: behenic diethanolamide, arachidic diethanolamide, stearic diethano-lamide, palmitic diethanolamide, myristic diethanolamide and diethanolamide of hydrogenated rapeseed fatty acids.
In the practice of my invention the specific carrier employed does not materially affect the basic oxidizing accelerative action which I have achieved through the use of the critically restricted radiant energy, although it will be understood that some of these carriers will slightly lengthen the period of treatment. But, the lengthening is not sufficient to influence the carrier selected. For example, I have found that with oxidizing reactants carried in a cream base there is no significant increase in acceleration over that obtained when using oxidizing reactants carried in a fluent watery base.
I have found that it is not necessary to prepare special reactant compositions for bleaching or oxidative coloring of hair on the human head, i.e., compositions in which the chemicals are different, either as to composition or concentration, from those conventionally employed in beauty shops. I have used my system to successfully accelerate the coloring action of a wide variety of commercial chemical oxidative coloring compositions, such as:
(Blue Black.) (Light Ash Brown.)
Roux Fanei Tone Black Rage N0. 12..
Creme Hair Tint.
Do Blue Jet No. 11- Revlon Coiorsilk 'loiloe Brown No.
The formulations of the foregoing commercially widespread compositions are guarded secrets and therefore cannot be specified. However, in a subsequent portion of this specification I have indicated specific formulations with which my invention is useful.
One of the great advantages of my system is that it does not necessitate any changes in commercially available chemical compositions; my system simply accelerates the oxidizing reaction of the standard coloring oxidizing compositions which are applied to the hair in any standard manner.
I have found that, if desired, I may use chemical reactants which are stronger, either in their action or in their concentrations, than those which it is customary now to employ for oxidation coloring. Thus, it is usual at the present time, either when bleaching hair or when dyeing hair with an oxidative dyestufi, to utilize hydrogen peroxide in a concentration of between 10% and 20% by volume. The use of stronger concentrations of hydrogen peroxide is not now considered desirable because of its deleterious effect either on the hair or on the scalp. But, this effect is not due simply to the increased strength of the hydrogen peroxide, but to the combination of the increased strength and to the considerable period of time for which the hydro-gen peroxide is left in contact with the hair and the scalp. Pursuant to my system, such disadvantage, i.e., considerable time of contact, no longer is present, and I therefore am able, if I desire, to use stronger concentrations of hydrogen peroxide without harming the patrons hair or scalp. Nevertheless, it will be understood that my invention is not to be restricted either to the use of standard strengths and types of oxidizing chemical reactant coloring compositions or to stronger oxidizing chemical reactant coloring compositions. My system merely places a too-l in the hands of the beauty parlor operator and owner which enables them to use such stronger compositions to further reduce the period of treatment time.
A particular advantage of the stronger compositions resides in the treatment of hard-to-bleach hair which with standard strengths of hydro-gen peroxide and nonaccelerated methods often required double bleaches and sometimes triple bleaches, this term referring to a second or a third application of hydrogen peroxide, either with or without an intermediate rinsing of the hair with water. Such double and triple bleaching steps often require very long periods of time, even up to four and one-half hours, which is exertmely undesirable from the patrons point of view, which often form visible and painful lesions in a patrons scalp, which cause patrons to go to extremes to shun a bleaching treatment, except for special social events, and which make the patron reluctant to return to the beauty parlor for retouching of her roots. However, with my system, not only is the bleaching time considerably shortened, for instance to thirty minutes for multiple bleaching which formerly would have required four and one-half hours, but to even shorter times with the use of stronger concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
It is a characteristic of my system that the radiant energy is applied not only in a critically restricted segment of the electromagnetic spectrum so as to obtain the required depth of penetration without an excess depth and which also obtains a uniform absorption of energy in the chemically wetted mat of hair, but the field of application of such energy is relatively uniform, that is to say, the radiation energy is so applied as to avoid areas in the field which differ markedly in energy content from other areas. This is achieved by employing a large number of small sources of radiant energy in the specified frequency range, by suitably spacing these sources from the scalp, so that the energy from any single source is in an expanding beam which overlaps and mingles with other beams, by reflecting the energy emanating from each of the sources whereby there is a further overlapping and by, if desired, interposing energy absorbin means in any portion of the field where the energy is at too high a level, for instance, at the crown of the head, where the scalp may be closer to the multiple small sources of energy than at other points.
Furthermore, I select a quantum of energy applied to the mat of hair wetted with chemical reactants which is such as to obtain a desired accelerated action without excessive discomfort to the patron. For this purpose I apply the energy in such an amount that the temperature of the mat at the scalp does not exceed 135 F. and preferably is a little lower, for instance, from to F. and even as low as 110 F. Lower temperatures do not provide a commercially significant acceleration. Desirably, the quantum of energy is so selected that the amount of radiant energy at the scalp level is about 2 to 3 watts per square centimeter, 3 being preferred. In order to achieve the foregoing quantitative application of the selected segment of the electromagnetic spectrum I employ a cluster of tungsten filament gas-filled incandescent lamps, for instance, from about six to about nine lamps, located from about three to about six inches above the chemically wetted mat of hair and backed up by reflectors with each of the lamps having an energy content of about 20 to 50 watts, eight or nine lamps with an individual rating of 35 watts being preferred.
Still further, as has also been indicated previously, the desired quantitative and qualitative degrees of energy must be applied under a condition which localizes, i.e., closely confines, the atmosphere surrounding the chemically wetted mat of hair, whereby to keep the atmosphere quiescent, i.e., static, so as to inhibit, i.e., minimize, evaporation, whereby to maintain a condition of high humidity. This is achieved by locating the cluster of lamps within a helmet, i.e., hood, having a large open mouth in which the patrons head or a carrier for a hair piece is inserted. It is critical to the operation of my invention that the air within the hood and above the patrons mat of hair be essentially static. Hence, there must be no fan or otherwise induced movement of air over or around the mat of hair, although the apparatus which I employ may include a fan for the purpose of forming a cooling jacket of air around an inner shell in the hood within which shell the mat of hair is located. It will be understood, of course, that the lamps are selected to dominantly radiate electromagnetic energy within the critical range, i.e., from 7,000 A. to 12,000 A., and preferably within the still more restricted range of 7,600 A. to 10,000 A.
I have found that typically reduced times for various oxidation coloring treatments are as follows: Where an average unaccelerated bleach will completely strip a typical head of hair in from forty-five to ninety minutes and a very hard-to-bleach head of hair in up to four and one-half hours, with my system an average head of hair will be completely stripped in from four to twelve minutes and a very hard-to-bleach head of hair will be stripped in twelve minutes to about one-half hour, using conventional bleaching compositions. Where an average time for unaccelerated tinting with oxidative dyes after bleaching or lightening of the hair would conventionally require thirty to forty-five minutes, I am able to perform the same operation, with the use of my accelerated system, in from three to four minutes.
I have found that, unexpectedly, the hair, despite its accelerated treatment, not only is left in no worse condition than after a conventional oxidizing treatment, but that the hair is even improved by having a higher lustre and a better flexibility and hand. I believe that this is due to stimulation of the sebaceous glands in the scalp and to the consequent speeding up of the flow of oil which finds its way up the hair shafts. The greatly shortened time of such treatments has many advantages, several of which have been pointed out in the preceding objects and which will not again be detailed. These advantages are merely typical and in no way constitute an exhaustive list of advantages. I also wish to point out that because the process of my invention, soon to be described, can be accomplished with equipment which is, to a large extent, standard, I am able to carry out the invention without instilling uncertainty in the operators who are not skilled technical personnel and who dislike being required to use delicate electronic equipment, the comprehension of which is not within their ordinary experience. My system merely involves the modification of largely standard equipment to incorporate luminous generators, to wit, electric incandescent lamps, the radiation and energy of which is concentrated between 7,000 A. and 12,000 A. and preferably between 7,600 A. and 10,000 A. These lamps have conventional bases either of the bayonet or screw type and can be inserted into conventional mating sockets in the hood, so that if a lamp burns out, it is within the skill of an operator or maintenance man to replace it, whereas the same would not hold true of certain radio frequency generators that have been proposed for speeding up treatment time of hair on the human head.
Referring now in detail to the drawings the reference numeral 10 denotes an apparatus which is specially designed for use in the system of my present invention. Said apparatus includes a hood 12 composed of an outer shell 14 and an inner shell 16. The hood is supported in a conventional manner which is the same as is customarily used to support a standard dryer hood, so that it can be emplaced over a subjects hair with the hair bearing portion of the patrons head located within the lower open mouth of the inner shell. It also can receive a hair piece on a support such for instance as an artificial cranium. A typical hood support is shown, the same constituting a pair of trunnions 18 extending from diametrically opposite sides of the outer shell and received in a fork 20 carried by a vertical pedestal 22. The fork can be vertically adjusted in the pedestal so that it can be raised off the patrons head and then lowered down into position while the patron is seated on a chair in the beauty parlor.
Preferably, both shells are of heat resistant lightweight material such, for instance, as sheet metal. The diameter of the inner shell is sufliciently smaller than the diameter of the outer shell to provide between them an annular space 24 filled with air which provides an insulating blanket so that the hood can be touched without discomfort when the inner shell is heated during the operation of the apparatus in a manner which soon will be described. The crown 34, i.e., closed end of the inner shell 16, is spaced from the corresponding closed end 36 of the outer shell to form a head space 26 likewise filled with air and also for the purpose of keeping the outer shell cool.
A fan and motor 28 are suitably supported in the head space as, for instance, by being mounted on the head 34 of the inner shell in order to provide for air movement within the spaces 24, 26. Air inlets 30 are provided in the head of the outer shell for ingress of cooling air. The air leaves the annular air space adjacent the mouth of the inner shell. However, this circulating air does not interfere with the quiescent state of the air within the inner shell. To further isolate the hollow interior of the inner shell from the aforesaid movement of the air, I desirably provide a terminal flange 31 of U-shaped cross-section at the open mouth of the inner shell. The outer leg 31a of this flange is joined to the lower end of the outer shell, as illustrated in FIG. 1, for the major portion of its periphery. However, at spaced intervals the outer leg is formed with protuberant segments 32 that constitute outlets for the circulating air.
The head 34 of the inner shell may be of any desired configuration. For example, it may be domed to match the domed configuration of the head 36 of the outer shell. In one form which I have found to be quite satisfactory for operation of my system, said head 34 is fiat and disposed in a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the hood, it being noted that both shells are of concentric cylindrical shape, i.e., of circular cross-section.
Mounted on the inner surface of the inner shell is a cluster of gas-filled tungsten filament incandescent lamps 38 which are luminous radiators of electromagnetic energy in the critically restricted wave lengths of between 7,000 A. and 12,000 A. and preferably between 7,600 A. and 10,000 A. As pointed out previously, the energy emitted by the lamps desirably is predominantly within the aforesaid range, so that the desired depth of penetration through a wetted mat of hair will be obtained while at the same time there will be avoided too deep a penetration through the subcutaneous tissue of the scalp. Moreover, this selected range is such that the energy will be substantially uniformly absorbed by the chemically wetted mat of hair, so that throughout the entire chemically wetted portion of the length of each strand the chemical oxidizing coloring action will be accelerated to substantially the same degree while the portions which have not been chemically wetted are not deleteriously affected. Thus, the results of the treatment will be uniform not only throughout each strand, but throughout all of the strands of the head of hair. Moreover, by employing the critically restricted range of the penetration and therefore application of the radiant energy will be substantially instantaneous so that the accelerated treatment will begin as soon as the lamps are energized. Such accelerated treatment speeds up the chemical reaction and specifically the oxidizing coloring reactions so as to shorten the heretofore conventional coloring treatment times to aboutl% to of the previous figures.
The lamps 38 have their bases physically received in and electrically connected to a source of AC. electrical energy and through the medium of sockets 40 in which the lamp bases are detachably coupled, so that if a lamp should fail, it can be easily replaced with a fresh one. The lamp sockets are mounted on the inner surface of the head 34 and lead wires (not shown) are provided to conduct electrical energy to the same. A switch 42 is employed to energize or de-energize the cluster of lamps at will and, if desired, plural switches 44 may be included to selectively energize individual lamps or individual groups of lamps at the front and rear of the hood.
The lamp base receiving mouths of the sockets extend through openings in a plane reflector plate .6, the surface of which that faces the open mouth of the inner shell desirably being reflective and perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of the shells so as to direct rearwardly traveling radiant energy back toward the mouth of the hood and against the head of hair of a patron employing the apparatus lltl. In addition, the inner tubular surface of the inner shell desirably is reflective. Hence, the two reflective surfaces, in addition to a rear reflector which may be included if desired in each lamp 38, direct the rays emitted by the lamps outwardly through the mouth of the inner shell in an overlapping fashion such that the energy distribution of the cluster of lamps is substantially uniform at about three inches in front of the plate 46.
I prefer to employ several lamps 38 so as to have a broad area of emission of the radiant energy and thereby make it simpler to achieve a substantially uniform energy distribution a few inches in front of the reflector plate and around the mat of chemically wetted hair of the patrons head, so that approximately the same amount of energy will be directed against the various parts of the mat of hair.
Good results have been secured when using a cluster of eight lamps 38 (see FIG. 4) located at equiangular positions adjacent and around the periphery of the reflector plate. I have also secured good results where a ninth lamp was employed at the center of the reflector plate in addition to the eight peripherally located lamps. Further, satisfactory results will be secured where only seven or as few as six peripheral lamps are provided. In general, the fewer the lamps the more uneven will be the distribution of the radiant energy and the less desirable will be the uniformity of the accelerated change in color. Under some conditions, uneveness of the energy distribution will not noticeably affect the uniformity of coloration. However, in order to obtain good results under all of a variety of conditions, I prefer to use at least six similar lamps, and as a practical matter, prefer not to exceed nine similar lamps. Obviously a larger number can be employed. There is, however, a point of diminishing commercial and economic practicality which I consider to be nine lamps.
The quantitative output of the lamps is so selected that the total wattage output of the lamps is between about 200 and 500 watts. The distance from the lamps to the crown of the patrons cranium is from about three to about six inches. The specific total Wattage and distances are so interrelated that the temperature of the mat of hair at the patrons scalp is not in excess of 135 P., preferably lies between F. and F. and is not less than 110 F. In one specific embodiment of my invention I utilize nine 35 watt lamps.
The lamps and distances are, moreover, so selected that the energy received at a patrons scalp preferably does not exceed 3 watts per square centimeter. Acceptable results are achieved with a lower wattage per square centimeter, e.g., 2 /2 and even as low as 2 watts per square centimeter. Quite apparently, shortening of the specifi cally accelerated chemical oxidizing time will be obtained at even lower figures, but I prefer to employ the higher quanta of energy and shorter distances in order to achieve the best and most useful results. There is, so far as I have been able to determine, no advantage to be gained by operating at the lower figures, except achieving a less than most advantageous result of my invention.
As most clearly shown in FIG. 2, each of the lamps has a clear glass envelope with a threaded conventional base and a stem and lead wires which support a coiled tungsten filament energized in a gas-filled atmosphere at such a temperature as to obtain the desired critically restricted segment of radiant emission.
The diameter of the inner shell is selected to nicely accommodate the mat of hair on the head of an adult woman. The head of hair will substantially block the open mouth of the inner shell and will extend into the inner shell, the depth of the inner shell and the placement of the lamps 38 therein being such that the patrons head will be from about three to four inches but not more than six inches from the tips of the lamps. It is at this distance that with the bulbs of the given wattage the approximately correct quantum of energy will be directed to and received by the wetted mat of the patrons hair. Since there is not a great variation in sizes of adult female skulls, a hood large enough to receive a large head will accommodate a small head snugly enough to enable the atmosphere in the hood to remain substantially static.
It will be observed that all of the hair on the head is exposed to the radiant energy, said energy penetrating the wetted mat due to the selection of the special range.
Because of the various configurations of skulls and the inherently curved configuration of the human skull, and further because of the various placements of the patrons head in the hood, it may be desirable to expose certain parts of the hair to somewhat longer times of radiation than others. It is for this purpose that I may employ additional switches 44 to selectively energize certain of the lamps for longer or shorter periods than other lamps. For example, the switches 44 may enable the operator to selectively direct radiation to the front, top or sides of the head of hair for longer or shorter periods, as may be desired. This, however, is a non-critical variant of the apparatus of my system.
Also, if desired, a timer T may be included to control the master switch 42 which governs the energizat-ion or de-enerlgization of the complete cluster of lamps. This is particularly desirable for short treatments because with the use of my apparatus and system treatment time has been reduced so greatly that a careless operator who leaves the patron unattended may find that the treatment has been overexten-ded.
Optionally, as shown in FIG. 7, prot-uberan-ces 47 may be formed on the outer shell to shield the outlet segments 32.
To prevent the patron or operator from allowing the head of hair to approach too closely to the lamps to the extent that the patrons hair or scalp may be scorched, I provide a shield in the form of a plane screen 48 of wire mesh which extends across the inner shell below the tips of the lamps. This screen is not intended in normal use to function as a guard, that is to say, the patrons head of hair is not supposed to touch the screen. The screen merely is present as a safety measure. However, the screen serves an additional purpose, to wit, reducing areas of too high intensity of radiation. -F or this purpose the screen is of uneven density. Thus, said screen, as illustrated, has a center section 50 in which the spacing of the wires or the thickness of the wires is such that the center section is denser (has a greater metal to clear area ratio) than the outer section 52. The screen absorbs some of the radiant energy both in the luminous portion and in the infra red portion of the selected band of electromagnetic emission. The absorption, however, is greater in the center section 50 than in the outer section. Such arrangement is quite useful where the nine lamp cluster is employed, since this positioning of the bulbs provides a substantially uniform field of radiant energy and since the human skull is roughly spherical and therefore will have its center closer to the reflector plate 46 than its periphery, so that there may be a tendency to too great ly accelerate the coloration of the center of the mat of hair at the expense of the periphery of the mat of hair. The denser center section 50 of the screen will counteract this tendency which also can be counteracted by employing a center lamp 38 of lesser intensity than the peripheral lamps or .by arranging the lamps and reflector plate in a domed configuration.
In order to prevent overheating of the sockets 40, I may form ventilating apertures '54 in the head 34 of the inner shell and adjacent side walls thereof which thus allow the circulation of air through the space 56 between said head 34 and the reflector plate 46. Preferably, the openings in the reflect-or plate through which the sockets 40 extend will have only a small space around each of the sockets so as to discourage flow of air into and out of the inner shell.
To carry out my novel method, the patrons head has applied thereto, in a manner previously described, the
oxidizing chemical coloring reactants which are selected for treatment of a particular patron and then the wetted mat of hair is placed in the mouth of the hood so that the mat is from three to six inches from the lamps. The lamps are energized and the treatment allowed to proceed for a prescribed period which can be checked by removing the patrons hair from the apparatus and examining the extent to which the bleaching or dyeing has taken place. The operator will quickly acquire sufiicient experience to determine in advance the length of time the hair should be subjected to the treatment or, if paricular care is desired to be exercised, a small bundle of hair may be snipped from the patron and treated in accordance with my invention to predetermine the time of treatment in the apparatus.
Although the bleaching compositions and oxidation dye compositions used in my system are those now conventionally used for unaccelerated coloration and are widely used commercially, a few such compositions will be mentioned .by way of example.
One typical bleaching composition that I can use is composed of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide in the proportion of 20 minims of ammonia to 30 mm. of 10 to 17 volume hydrogen peroxide.
Another bleaching composition is composed of 10 parts of a volume hydrogen peroxide to 15 parts of sodium bicarbonate.
Still another bleaching co'mpositionis composed of 10 parts of 20 volume hydrogen peroxide, 10 parts of potassium carbonate and 5 parts of starch, the latter being used as a thickening agent.
A stronger bleaching composition which can be employed in conjunction with my invention is one utilizing a volume hydrogen peroxide which has been diluted with an oily diluent to a peroxide content of approximately 10% and ammoniated to a pH of about 9.5.
Typical oxidation dye compositions, including both the oxidation dyes and the oxidizing reactants, which are useable in pursuance of my invention are described in United States Letters Patent Nos. 1,497,262; 2,185,467; 2,776,668; 2,934,396; 2,944,869; 3,011,858; 3,128,232; 3,167,478.
I also may employ oxidation dyes in thickened form, a typical such dye being described in United States Letters Patent No. Re. 24,373. As noted earlier, I may further employ oxidation dyes in paste form, one such dye which I mention by way of example being disclosed in United States Letters Patent No. 2,042,698. The foregoing bleaching and coloring compositions are applied in the fashions described earlier in the specification.
It thus will be seen that I have provided a device and method which achieve the several objects of my invention and which are well adapted to meet the conditions of practical use.
As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention, and as various changes might be made in the embodiment set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein described or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. A method of coloring hair on the human head comprising:
(A) applying an oxidative hair color changing chemical reactant to a mat of hair on the human head,
(B) accelerating the ensuing oxidative chemical hair coloring react-ion of the rectant with the hair by ('1) subjecting the mat of hair and reactant to a substantially uniform field of radiant electromagnetic energy from about 7,000 A..Which is at the low end of the visible spectrum to about 12,000 A. which is at the high end of the infra-red spectrum (II) in an essentially static atmosphere of high humidity without appreciable drying of the mat,
(a) with the mat of hair in a hood having a large open mouth at the lower end only thereof in which the head is disposed and (III) with the said static atmosphere closely confined around the mat by the hood,
(IV) providing said energy in a quantum of from 200 to 500 watts and so spaced from the head as to shorten the hair coloring time with said reactant to a time which is from '10 to 25% of the time that would be required to effect said coloring with said reactant but without the concurrent application of the radiant electromagnetic energy, and
(C) continuing to apply said radiant electromagnetic energy long enough to complete the hair coloring.
2. A method of coloring the hair as set forth in claim 1 wherein the temperature of the mat at the scalp is raised to at least F. by said radiant energy.
3. A method of coloring hair as set forth in claim 2 wherein the temperature of the mat at the scalp is raised to not more than F. by said radiant energy.
4. A method of coloring hair as set forth in claim 1 wherein the energy is provided from 7,600 A. to 10,000 A.
5. A method of coloring hair as set "forth in claim 1 wherein the major portion of the radiant energy is from about 7,000 A. to about 12,000 A.
6. A method of coloring hair as set forth in claim 1 wherein the radiant energy is provided by a cluster of from about 6 to about 9 tungsten filament gas-filled incandescent lamps having an individual rating of from about 2 0 to about 50 watts and located from about 3 to about 6 inches above the mat.
7. For use in accelerating the oxidation reaction in the oxidative bleaching, tinting, toning and dyeing of a mat of hair on the human head wet-ted with a color changing chemical oxidation reactant, an apparatus comprising:
(A) a hood comprising an elongated tube having a closed top, said tube forming with the top a closed chamber having a large open mouth at the lower end only thereof, said chamber and mouth being such as to receive through the mouth into the cham-' ber a wetted mat of hair on a human head with the head spaced from 3 to 6 inches from the top of the chamber, said closed chamber with its open mouth providing an essentially static locally restricted atmosphere around the wetted mat in which a high level of humidity is maintained without appreciable drying of the mat during operation of said apparatus, the entire internal surface of the closed chamber being reflective, and
(B) a cluster of mutually spaced electric lamps adjacent the inside top of said chamber and distributed in cooperation with said reflective surface so that said larnps will radiate upon the Wetted mat of hair a substantially uniform field of radiant electromagnetic energy, the energy emitted by said lamps being from about 7,000 A. which is at the low end of the visible energy being of a .sufiicient quantity to raise the temperature of the mat adjacent the scalp to at least 110 F.
8. An apparatus for coloring hair as set 'forth in claim 7 wherein the cluster of lamp includes from about 6 to about 9 tungsten filament gas-filled incandescent lamps having an individual rating of from about 20 to about watts.
9. An apparatus for coloring hair as set forth in claim 7 wherein the lamps emit electromagnetic energy from 7,600 A. to 10,000 A.
10. An apparatus for coloring hair as set forth in claim 7 wherein the major portion of the energy radiated from the lamps is from about 7,000 A. to 12,000 A.
11. An apparatus for coloring hair as set forth in claim 7 wherein a guard is provided beneath the lamps in a position to permit reception of a head into the closed chamber with the top of the head spaced from 3 to 6 inches from the top of the chamber, said guard having a variable transmissiv-ity to the radiant electromagnetic energy and being least transmissive adjacent the center thereof to reduce the intensity of energy applied to the crown of the mat.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 881,017 3/1908 Morse 128-396 2,264,8 14 12/ 1941 Stanley 3499 2,295,824 9/ 1942 Bassel 34- 99 2,366,347 1/1945 Millson 82 3,019,795 2/1962 Weatherholt et a1 1327 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,261,383 4/1961 France.
611,663 11/1948 Great Britain.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner.
L. W. TRAPP, Examiner.