US 328970 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet J. P. PLACE.
No. 328,970. Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
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Witnesses (No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 2. J. 1?. PLACE.
. GAS ENGINE. No. 328,970. Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
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(No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 4.
J. F. PLACE.
v GAS ENGINE. No. 328,970.
Patented 001;. 27,1885
Witnesses NITED dramas A'IENI lFI IQlEA JAMES F. PLACE, OF N-EWV YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNO R TO THE PLACE GAS ENGINE MANUFACTURING COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 328,970, dated October 27, 1885. Application filed September 1, 1884. Serial No. 141,960. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, JAMEs FRANK PLAcE, of the city and county of New York, and State of New York, a citizen of the United States,
have invented certain new Improvements in Gas-Engines; and I do declare the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, to be a full and exact specification of the same.
to My invention relates to improvements in those motors where a mixture of air and inflammable gas, or gasoline, naphtha, or other hydrocarbons, is used to form a combustion, and by the consequent explosion of said gases 1 5 or resultant gases and the air pressure is exerted in a cylinder on a receding piston connected to a revolving shaft by a crank.
According to another arrangement, described in my application for United States Patent NO. 138,748, filed July 25, 1884, I employ duplex cylinders and admit an explosive charge of inflammable gas and air alternately into the same, and alternately compress and ignite and burn the same in said cylinders; and each 2 5 cylinder after each explosion is cleaned by the admission of fresh air which has been heated by the waste heat of the engine, and is then used (or a large portion of same) in forming a new explosive charge, the charge of gas and. air being regulated by an automatic cutoff governor to any degree of richness required, and is delivered in each cylinder and to different portions of the same with varying richness in inflammable gas, so as to secure 5 the maximum pressure at the most advantageous point of the stroke.
In my present arrangementmy improvements have for their object, first, the securing of still greater economy in inflammable'gas o consumptionforagiven power; second,greater uniformity in speed and a quicker regulation of same and a wider range of power for any given size of engine; third, a more thorough mixture of the gases, which we mix only as 5 used, so as to secure quick control by the governor; fourth, using gasoline or naphtha, or similar hydrocarbons in liquid form, and vaporizing the same in the engine, so as to secure the same or similar results as when using inflammable gas; fifth, more simplicity and economy in constructionand less friction.
In aiming to attain the above results I employ the heat of the exhaust and vitiated gases to heat the air before mixing the same with the inflammable gas or hydrocarbon liquid by forcing the same into a tube or passage extending close to or around the exhaustpipe, and through and around the exhaustvalve through a series of heated perforated disks, sheets, or projections from the inner mm face of the passage through the exhaust-Valve or outer surface around the exhaust-pipe, and also through a series of passages around the cylinder'head, whereby the heat of said passages and surfaces is largely absorbed and the heat of the air or gas is correspondingly augmented and its pressure increased; also by forcing said gaseous mixture around the surfaces of certain annular recesses in the cylinder-head and annular projections on the pistonhead, so that the heat of those surfaces is absorbed and the temperature of the mixture is still further augmented and the pressure largely increased at a time when the mixture is being displaced from the compression-cylinder to the power-cylinder, and when, by reacting on the compression-piston after it passes the center, such increased pressure is availed of, (by reason of the angle of the axis of said cylinders to each other,) and both pistons are made to propel the crank, which pressure on the power-piston is very largely augmented by the explosion or combustion of the explosive mixture when the crank is at its best leverage. 8
I still further economize the amount of inflammable gas or vapor required by the use of my automatic cut-off governor, in which, as herein constructed, new and different devices are employed from those described in my said 0 application for patent to secure the same or very similar results. As herein arranged, the inflammable gas or vapor is measured at each stroke, and a greater or less portion of the ex-. plosionchamber is filled with the explosive 5 mixture, as may be required by the load, (the balance being filled with air,) the governor working and controlling automatically the amount of inflammable gas or vapor in such explosive charges. Said governor still fur- ICO ther economizes in inflammable gas or vapor by cutting off the gas-supply altogether when a certain speed is reached, and resuming the supply when the speed lowers.
Also,in my present improvements,to economize gas and secure greater regularity of speed, my automatic cut-off governor will supply gas only at every other stroke, until more than half the power of the engine is being utilized, when, if a slightly lower speed is caused by increase of the load on the engine, the governor will immediately supply gas for combustion and consequent impulsion atevery stroke, first in small quantities and then increasing, cutting off the gas-supply at longer and longer points in the stroke, as the load on the engine may require, working automatically. In this respect my cut-offgovernor differs from any other gas-engine governor, as others reduce the quantity of gas supplied to the engine by simply diluting or enriching the whole charge, the whole charge in the explosion-chamber being at each explosion of a uni:
form richness, but varying the quantity of gas throughout the whole charge with different explosions, or regulates the speed by the interval between explosions, all of said ex plosionsbeing of the same strength, whereas my governor opens the gas-valve at the same pointv each time it opens, and opens it to the same extent every time a gas-charge is admitted, but allows the valve to remain open different periods oftime, (corresponding to different points in length of the stroke of the gas-pump plunger or compression-piston, which moves in same plane,) and in this way delivers an explosive mixture to the'igniting-chamber of the power-cylinder at all times when working, but enlarges that charge of mixture without in creasing its richness in gas, by extending the charge farther and farther into the cylinder, taking the place of air,until nearly the whole space in the cylinder devoted to an explosionchamber is filled with the explosive charge, if the load .of engine requires it. If the engine is running empty, the governor will cut off the supply of gas very early in the stroke, so that the explosive charge is very small,
(but as small as it is it is sufficiently rich ingas to ignite promptly,) but it is delivered to the cylinder last, (being next to the plunger in pump,) and fills the igniting-chamber, while the'balance of the space in the cylinder used as an explosionchamber is filled with air alone, which is expanded by the heat of theexplosion more or less, according to the amount of the explosive charge.
.I still further insure greater regularity of speed by running my governor at high speed, using a spring of great tension, so that it is very sensitive, and so that the slightest change in speed will affect the amount of the next following explosive charge.
' Imake use of my perforated gas-mixer, referred to in my former application for patent; but as herein constructed the gas is compressed and ejected or sprayed into a moving column.
of heated air, through the perforations in the tube fixed in the center of said air-passage.
By this means a more perfect combustion is obtained, and not only greater economy but a more perfect regulation of speed is secured.
By heating the air by passing the same around the exhaust-pipe, and around and through the exhaust-valve and heated sheets of disks or inwardly-projecting ribs in the exhaust-valve, I am enabled to instantly vaporize liquid gasoline, naphtha, or similar hydrocarbons as the same is in,ected into the air through my perforated spray-mixer, as the air is forced through the mixing tube or chamber into the POWQFCYllDdGl, and such gaseous mixture is equally as inflammable when in the cylinder as ordinary coal-gas and air. In such cases (when using gasoline, &(3.) I employ an ordinary kerosene gas-generating burner for the relighting-jet below the igniter, and heat the gasoline-supply pipe with a keroseneburner, converting the gasoline-charge after leaving the pump into gas or vapor to mix with the air for the first few charges, or until the engine-cylinder head and exhaust-pipe become sufficiently warm to vaporize the gasoline as it is sprayed from the perforated mixing-tube.
Figure 1 of theaccoinpa'nying drawings is a vertical longitudinal section of m'y'engine cut in the plane of the line a. a in Figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 2 is a plan of the engine, partly in longitudinal section on line b bin Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an elevation of the cylinder and the cylinderhead, being shown in vertical section on line '0 c in Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a vertical section of the power-cylinder head on alarger scale than Fig. 1.. Fig. 5 isan enlarged horizontal section corresponding to Fig. 2. Fig. 6 is a, ver? tical section of the cylinder-head and inlet and exhaust .valves cut in the plane ofthe line d d in Fig. 4. Fig. 7 is a horizontal section-of the.
cylinder head,'being a continuation of Fig. 5 on a larger scale, showing the piston and its. annular projections. 13 are details of the automatic cut-off, showing cut-off, cam, levers, &c.. ,Fig. 12 is an end elevation of the gas-charging pump on a larger, scale, showing the cut-off gas-valve in vertical section. Fig. 14 shows the igniting slide-valve and its plate in elevation. i
In the construction of myimproved engine,
as herein described, I use two cylinders-a compression-cylinder, 2, and a power-cylinder, 1fixed at an angle as to their axes of about sixty degrees to each other, the powerpiston traveling in advance of the compres-v sion-piston, both being connected to the same crank-pin. I do not confine myself to this one crank-pin, however, or to fixing the cylinders at that angle, as they may be fixed at any angle, or side by side, in the latter case the two. cranks being arranged at the desired angle to.
each other-to give the respective pistons the same relative operation.
The compression-cylinder has an extended passage, 37, from the bottom, (or opposite'to,
crank,) and extending around the exhaust pipe to the exhaust-valve 22 of the power-cyl-..
Figs. 8, 9, 10,11, andv ICO inder, and through said exhaust-valve into the annular passages 34 in the cylinder-head,which encircle the annular recesses 33 and chamber 40 of therpower-cylinder. From thence the air is forced into the mixing-chamber 38. At the bottom of this mixing chamber or tube there is a balanced piston inlet-valve, 21, which opens into the igniting-chamber 10, and this is the only valve or separating-wall between the two cylinders. In this way the com pressed ai rremaining in the passages 34 and 37 after the charge is delivered to the power-cylinder and the valve 21 has closed is made to react on the compression-piston with increased pressure, as its temperature has been very much augmented by taking up the heat of the exhaustpipe and exhaust-valve and the surface of passages 34.
The exhaustvalve 22 and the exhaustpipe 36,1 make of copper or brass, so as to rapidly conduct heat. Theinside of the exhaustval ve 22, I make hollow, the passage being filled with thin metal sheets or perforated disks, or thin projecting edges from the inner surface, (shown at 35, Figs. 4 and 6,) so that the air will take up from the outside shell the heat (which has been absorbed from the hot exhaust-air or burned gas) as it is forced through the passage inthe valve 22.
The igniting-chamber 40, I make by a recess extending from the. power-cylinder. I also make one or more annular recesses,33,in the cylinder-head. On the inner side (opposite the crank) of the piston I make a central projection, 32, and one or more annular projections,32,to correspond to and fit into the recesses 40 and 33. I conduct the air-passages 34 around these central audannular recesses in the cylinder-head in order to still further take up the waste heat in the cylinderhead, and further increase the temperature of the air after it leaves the passage through the exhaust-valve 22 on its way to the mixingchamber 88. The air and explosive charge, as it enters the recess 40 through the inlet-valve 21, is forced around the projections'on thepiston, and still further takes up the heat of their surfaces and the surfaces of the recesses, the result being a rapid increase in the tempera ture of the air, and consequently increased pressure. The area of the power-piston being considerably more than the area of the compression piston, power is exerted on the crank as soon as the power-piston turns the center, and which is later (in position of Fig. 1) greatly augmented by the explosion, and further aided by the reaction of the compressed air remaining in passages 34 and 37 on the compression-piston when it turns the center and the valve 21 has closed. (This valve closes immediately before the explosion.) The axis of the power cylinder is placed half the length of the crank below the crankshaft, which gives greater leverage to the power exerted on the ciank; On account of the power-piston being larger in area than the compression-piston,no harm-can result from premature explosions, as the effect in any event will be to keep the crank going in the proper direction. The raising of the temperature of the air and explosive charge as they enter the cylinder, by taking up what otherwise would be the waste heat of the exhaust pipe and valve, cylinder-head, and pis ton, is an important matter, as with my improvements, as herein shown, the power ob tained by such rapid increase of temperature and consequent increased pressure is at once utilized, and in addition thereto the amount of gas required for combustion to develop a given power by the engine is very much less than in engines where the air and gas are used at ordinary temperature.
By reason ofthe igniting-chamber extending as a recess from the power-cylinder the charge as it explodesis forced into the cylinderaround the piston-projections with great force and mechanical disturbance, and the ignition is very rapid; and by reason of the position of the crank at the point of explosion the best leverage and best possible results are-obtained. In this way, also, the piston, as it returns and drives out the burned gases when it nears the limit of its retnrnstroke, forces the hot burned gases around the projections and recesses and through the ignitingchamber with great force, so as to keep the surfaces clean and clear of all carbon sparks. The effect, also, is to slightly cushion the piston, thus avoiding the shock of turning the center.
I put an air-supply disk rubber valve, 39, on the side of my compressioncylinder; also,
at 43,I put aserviee-cock, so that in starting,
by opening this cock, no compression is allowed, and the flywheel can thus be easily turned by hand. After the engine gets running, cock 43 must be closed. Thus the labor of starting is made merely nominal.
In the mixing passage or chamber 38,I put my gas-supply perforated mixing or spraying tube 20, the lower end of which is closed, and the gas,or gasoline,naphtha, or such other by drocarbon as may be used,is delivered through the small perforations around the same, (in
form of spray, if liquid is used,) and is thoroughly mixed with the column ofair as it moves through the passage around the small perforated tube. v
The gas, naphtha, gasoline, or other hydrocarbon which may beused is forced into the perforated tube by a small gas-charge pump,6,
fixed at the side of the power-cylinder and operated by the eccentric 29. This pump I make withordinary close-fitting plunger and withtwoinlet-valvesone for air, 18, and one for gas or liquid fueland one outlet-valve con nected with the-small tube l9. The air-inlet gas-pressure. This is necessary,as the amount of gas-pressure used by gasmanufaeturing companies varies from five-tenths to fortytenths waterinchesa very wide range. This gas-pump is supplied with'gas or liquid hydrocarbon by the gas-cock 17 and the autoflammablefixed gas,and arrange saidliquid at an elevation, a considerable distancefrom the engine,in atank or barrel,so it-will be delivered with slight pressure to-the supply-cock 17.
Myautomatic cut-off governor, as herein. constructed, may be described asfollows: The
shaft is driven by bevel-gear, as shown, at
' halfthe speed of the crank-shaft, the crankshaft making two revolutions-to its. one. From shaft 30, by spur-gear 44, is driven a smaller and shorter shaft, 31, Fig. 3, at the same speed of the crank-shaft. small shaftthe governor is driven at about three times the speed of the crank-shaft, running ,on sleeves 4.6 and 46, which turn loose cam-is shown in Figs. 8, 9, and 10.
on the shaft 30. Between the arms of the governor, circling the shaft, is a strong steel spring, 12, which has a tendency to pull the governor-ballstogether. At the end of sleeve 46 is the automatic cut-off cam 13, which I make in form of asleeve loose on the shaft 30, but held by a fixed key working in a slot, which allows the spring 48 to operate it and keep. it against the governor. This sleeve or I make on its surface a raised collar or cam, one side having different steps or lengths. At 49 it has only one cam on its-circumference, ending in one series of steps, so that when the lever 14 is against the same the cutbfi valve 16 will only open at everyother stroke, but if the speed lowers,by reason of increased load, the part 50 of the sleeve will come in contact with the lever 14, which, as is shown, has ,two series of steps, 50 and 50, and the valve 16 will open at every stroke, and there will be an impulse on the engine at every revolution of the crank. As the sleeve moves farther from the governor, the steps coming in contact with lever 14: are (in one form of construction) higher,;and-;valve 16 will remain open a longer part of the stroke of the pump-plunger, and consequently a stronger charge of gas or hydrocarbon vapor is forced into the heated air in the mixing-passage 38. When the valve 16 closes, theair-inlet valve of the pumpsuppliesair to the valve end of the pump, which, under compression by the -plunger, is forced into fthe mixing-passage 38 first and the gas last. Thus a rich charge, capable of being ignited promptly, is always insured in the igniting-chamber next to the inlet-valve 21. I attachto collar 57 a spring, 15, Figs-10 and 11, which is to hold the. automatic sleeve 13 :From gear 45cm this in ,position in starting the engine, so that the gas-valve 16 will beopened regardless of the speed of theengine. Whenan average speed is attained, spring 15 will .fiy out and allow the governor to operate the cutoff valve.
I do not confine myself to moving the automatic cam 13.0n the shaft; but Ivmay construct said automatic cam stationary on the shaft, and by a lever allow the governor-sleeve 46 to movethe lever 14 (oran intervening stud) over the face of the automatic cam 13. be seen ;that thecam orsteps onthe automatic sleeve 13(see 59, Fig. 8) are made so as to open the cut-off valve 16 promptly and wide 'openand out off or close the valve gradually,
(shown .bythe dotted ,lines,) which is-for the purpose of maintaining a rieh charge of gas in theignitingchamber and gradual tapering off toward the piston;
I do not confine vmyselfto this particular construction last described,but may make the raised steps on the cam so as tocut off the gas as abruptly as it is let on. In one form of construction I make the raised cam or steps on the automatic sleeve in form of steps, as shown in Fig. 10, so that the valve 16 opens wider as the loadincreases, as well as remains open longer, thesteps growing higher as well as longer on the sleeve. to makethe cam or raised portion on the automatic sleeve all of one height, (seeFig. 8,) and make the steps simply longer,so that the valve 16 remains open a longer portion of the I strokeasthe automatic sleeve moves from the governor. I prefer, also, instead of the series of steps, as shown in Fig. 9, to make the cam or raised' portions of the automatic sleeve of a gradual and continuously increasing length, as shown by 61 61 61", .so as to repre sent from about one-fourth to a full cut-oft. This feature of my invention may bebest understood by reference to Fig. 13 in connection with Fig. 12. The cam-cylinder has two camprojections, 61? and 61", on diametrically-opposite sides, and a little farther along it has a third projection, 61, in line with one of the others. All the projections are of the same shape-namely, a gradual ascent on the front side oftheprojection in a straight lineparallel with the axis ,of rotation, and an abrupt descent on the rear side in a straight line oblique to the axis of rotation. The base of each cam projection is thus a trapezoid, wrappedaround the surface of the cam-cylinder.
Itis well known that in order to make an explosive mixture of gas and air the proportion of gas to air must not be less than one to twelve or more than one tosix. The short end of eachof the cam-projections lifts the lever 141 just long enough to admitenough gas to the pump 6 to. effect a proportion for the explosive charge of one part. of gas to twelve of air, and consequently a comparatively feeble explosion is the result. 'Whenthe speed ofthe engine decreases sufficiently so that the, governor bringsthe long end of .the ca m- It will I prefer, however,
projection under the lever 14, the latter continues to be lifted at the same point in the stroke, but is held lifted and the gas-valve held open about twice as long a time as before, thus increasing the proportion of gas to two parts of gas to twelve of air, (one to six,) and consequently giving an explosion of maximum force. When the cam passes beyond this point, the supply of gasis out off entirely, because the cam has passed beyond and. does not lift the lever. Between these two extreme points the cam-projection presents a uniform incline on its descending side, so that the proportional charge of gas bears a uniform ratio to the position of the cam, instead of advancing by fixed charges in proportion, as is the case with cams which are formed in steps. Thus the characteristics of my cut-off cam movement are that the gasvalve is opened always at a uniform point in the rotation, whenever it is opened at all, that it is opened to a uniform extent, and that it is closed at varying times, as determined by the governor, and that the valve is not opened until the speed is sufficient to admit a charge of two parts of gas to twelve of air, nor after the speed becomes so great as to admit less than one part of gas to twelve of air.
The inlet-valve 21 is perfectly balanced, and is driven by the cam 24 on shaft 30, as shown in Fig. 3. The exhaust-valve 22 is also balanced, and is driven by the eccentric 25 on the small shaft 31. Fig. 6 gives a clear view of how these valves are constructed and balanced.
I construct my igniter as shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The slide 23 is made of brass, and is water-jacketed by the passages 5. The interior is recessed, having a port, 51, Opening into a port in the igniting-chamber; It also has openings 52 on the top and bottom corresponding to openings in the shell or case which surrounds the slide through the cavity, toallow the relighting-jet 28 to burn up through where the ignition-port 51 is closed. Gas is supplied by the pipe 53 to the burner 27, and is forced out by the ejector 54, which is supplied withair and a gaseous mixture from the passage 34 and the mixing-chamber 38, respectively, by means of the small passage 41 41*. (See Fig. 4.) This passage communicates with a passage through the slide 41 when the port 51 is closed, which in turn communicates with passage 41, which opens into the ejector-port of igniter. By means of these passages 41 the pressure in the slide-cavity is equalized with the pressure in the cylinder at the time of opening of port 51,which prevents blowing out of the ignition-flame. As soon as the port 51 is closed after the explosion, the holes 52 open to the relighting-jet 28, and the igniting-flame at 54 is relighted. 55 and 56, Fig. 14, show face of slide and of chamber for slide, with the port 51 and corresponding port in the ignitingchamber; also the small passage 41 and 41. The passage 41 has a communication at 41", Fig. 4, with the air-passage 34 around the cylinder head, which supplies the injector 54 first with air, and the gaseous mixture from bottom of mixing-chamber is supplied to it late in the stroke, or just before the port 51 opens. This passage also has an outlet at 41 to fill the cavity in the slide with gaseous mixture to maintain the flame when the outlets 52 are closed. In the injector-port of igniter I put a disk of wire gauze, so that the flame from the igniter cannot pass back into the passage 41. I construct the lever 58 (see Fig. 3) so that the crank 26 operates it all to one side of its axis, whereby the igniting-slide is opened full open in about one-third of arevolution of the small crank, so as to insure prompt ignition of the explosive charge.
My invention may be susceptible of considerable modification without departing from its essential features, and I therefore wish it understood that I do not confine myself to the precise construction and relative arrangement of parts hereinbefore described.
I claim as my invention- 1. In a gas-engine, the combination of the power-cylinder, having air-passages formed through its walls, with mechanism, substantially as described, for causing the air destined to form part of the explosive charge to flow through said passages, whereby the air is heated and serves to cool the cylinder, sub- 'stantially as set forth.
2. In a gas-engine, the combination of the with a compression-cylinder for compressing ICO air, and a compressed-air passage leading therefrom and communicating with the airpassage in the cylinder-head, and extending thence to'the igniting-chamber of the powercylinder, substantially as set forth.
3. In a gas-engine, the powercylinder formed with recesses extending from the interior of the cylinder into the cylinder-head, in combination with air-heating passages formed through the cylinder-head in close proximity to the recesses therein, and extending to the igniting-chamber, substantially as set forth.
4. In a gas-engine, the combination of the power-cylinder, having a deep recess extending axially into its head,with an air-heatingpassage formed in the cylinder-head in close proximity to said recess, and the power-piston having a projection conforming to said recess, and adapted to enter the same when the piston is at extreme .instroke, substantially as set forth.
5. In a gas-engine, the combination, with the power'cylinder having an annular recess extending into the cylinder head, of the power-piston having a corresponding annular projection adapted to enter said recess when the piston is at extremeinstroke, substantially as set forth.
6. The combination, in a gas-engine, of a power-cylinder having recesses extending into its head, a power-piston having projections adapted to enter said recesses, a compression cylinder and piston, and a compressed-air passage extending from the compression-cylinder through heating-passages in the powercylinder head to the igniting-chamber of the power cylinder,whereby during the first part of the outstroke of thepower-piston the space behind it becomes filled with compressed air,
which is heated by passing through the passage in the power-cylinder head,and is further heated on. its entrance to the cylinder by flowing into said recessesin the cylinder-head and around said projections on the piston, substantially as set forth.
7. The combination in a gas-engine, of a power cylinder and piston, a compression cylinder and piston relatively connected, substantially as specified, whereby the powerpiston works in advance of the compressionpiston, a compressed-air passage leading from the compression cylinder to the power-cylinder, and regenerative surfaces adapted to heat the compressed air flowing through said passage, whereby the air after compression is transferred from the compression-cylinder to the power-cylinder without material further compression, and is heated during such passage, thereby increasing its pressure, substantially as set forth.
8. In a gas-engine, the combination of the power cylinder and piston, the compression cylinder and piston, the former piston being arranged to move in advance of the latter, a compressed-air passage leading from the compression-cylinder to the power-cylinder, an inlet-valve in said passage near its junction with the power-cylinder, and the exhaustpassage for the spent gases leading from the power-cylinder and extended in close proximity to said compressed-air passage, whereby the heat of the spent gases is utilized to heat the compressed air during its passage from the compression'cylinder to the powercylinder, substantially as set forth.
9. In a gas-engine, the combination of a power cylinder and piston, a compression cylinder and piston of smaller diameter, the former piston arranged to move in advance of the latter, and a compressed-air passage extending from the compression-cylinder to the power-cylinder, and regenerative surfaces adapted to heat the compressed air flowing through said passage, whereby between the beginning oftheoutstrokeofthe power-piston and the termination 'of the instroke of the compression-piston the tension of the compressed heated air acts with the greater press ure on the larger area of the. power-piston, and tends to force it outward and drive the engine forward previously to the explosion, substantially as set forth.
10. In a gas-engine, the combination of a power cylinder and piston, a compression cylinder and piston, an extended passage for the compressed air extending past heated surfaces, in order to superheat the compressed air and increase its pressure, and terminating at the power-cylinder, and an inlet-valve in said passage near its junction with the power-cyl inder, and mechanism for operating said valve, arranged, substantially as described, to close said valve when the compressionpiston turns its center on its instroke, whereby the increased pressure of the compressed air which remains in said passage is made effective by reacting on the compression-piston on its outstroke.
I 11. In a gasengine, the combination, with the power cylinder and piston, ofxan exhaust valve formed with a regenerating-passage extending through the same, and an air-inlet passage communicating with the passage through said valve, whereby said valve is heated by the passage of the spent gases around it and serves to transmit the heat to the air passing through it, substantially as set forth.
12. In a gasengine, the combination, with the power-cylinder, of a force-pump arranged to discharge gas or liquid combustible into said cylinder, a variable cut-off valve controlling the admission of combustible to the pump, and a relief air-inlet valve adapted to remain closed so long as the pump is drawing in the combustible and to open upon the cutting off of the supply thereof in order to fill the remainder of the pump with air, substantially as set forth.
13. In a gas-engine, the combination of a power cylinder and piston, a compression cylinder and piston for compressing air, a forcepump for supplying the charge of combustible under pressure, passages leading from said compression-cylinder and force-pump uniting each other and entering the power-cylinder,
an automatic valve for admitting the combustible to the pump, mechanism adapted to open and close said valve once to each power-stroke, and a cut-off governor controlling said mechanism, substantially as described, and thereby determining the duration of opening. of said valve during each power-stroke, whereby the combustible is admitted to the pump during a longer or shorter interval of its stroke, proportioned to the varying demands upon the engine. v
14. In a gas-engine, the combination of a power cylinder and piston, an air-compressing cylinder and piston adapted to inject a definite volume of compressed air into the power-cylinder for each explosion, a force pump adapted to inject a definite volume ofgas or gas and air for each explosion, a valve for admitting the gas into said pump at the commencement of each suctionstroke thereof, a governor, substantially as described, adapted to determine the closing of said valve at varying points in said stroke, and an air-valve adapted to admit air to the pump while completing said stroke, whereby the pump is filled with a charge of first gas and then air, which on its return or compression stroke it forces in reverse order into the power-cylinder with the charge of compressed air from the air-compressing cylinder, whereby the explosive charge in the former is varied in richness from time to time,proportioned to the varying work of the engine, while maintaining always a} mixture of maximum density in the igniting end of the cylinder, substantially as set forth.
15. The combination of power cylinder and piston, air-compression cylinder and piston, force-pump, valve for admitting gas to said pump, a revolving cam adapted to open said valve always at the beginning of the stroke of said pump and to close it at different points in said stroke corresponding to different positions of the cam, and a centrifugal governor adapted to shift said cam and so vary the charge of gas admitted to the pump, substantially as set forth.
16. In a gas-engine, the combination of a power cylinder and piston, pumping mechanism adapted to admit an explosive charge to said cylinder at each outstroke of said. piston, a gas-inlet valve for admitting the gas for said explosive charge, a valve-operating mechanism adapted to open and close said valve, both once to each outstroke of the power-piston and once to each alternate outstroke thereof,-
and an automatic governor for controlling said valve operating mechanism, all constructed and adapted to operate substantially as set forth, whereby when the speed of the engine increases beyond a predetermined limit the engine receives an explosive charge only at every alternate outstroke, as described.
17. In a gas-engine, the combination of a power cylinder and pist-on, pumping mechanism adapted to admit an explosive charge to said cylinder at each outstroke of said piston, a gasinlet valve for admitting the gas for said explosive charge, a valve-operating mechanism adapted normally to open said valve once for each ontstroke of the power-piston, and adapted also to open said valve only once for each alternate outstroke, and an automatic cut-off governor, substantially as specified, adapted to control the closure of said valve and thereby vary the amount of the explosive charge according to the varying demands upon the engine, lessening it more as the speed increases, and adapted also when the speed exceeds a predetermined point to cause said valveoperating mechanism to open said valve only once for each alternate outstroke of the l power-piston.
18. In a gas-engine, the combination, with a gas-inlet valve, ofa revolving cam adapted to open and close said valve, geared to rotate once to every two strokes of the engine, formed with two opposite cam faces or projections, each adapted to open the valve at a predetermined point in the stroke and to close it at a variable point,depending on the position of the cam, and formed also with a third cam face or projection, a substantial counterpart of the others, and adapted, when brought by the longitudinal displacement of the cam into connection with the valve, to open and close the same for every alternate stroke only,
a centrifugal governor adapted to displace said cam longitudinally according to the variations in speed of the engine, substantiallyas set forth.
19. In a gas-engine, the combination, with a power cylinder and piston and compression cylinder and piston, of a relief-cock, on opencylinder are not compressed, substantially as set forth. v. V
20. In a gas-engine, the combination, with the power-cylinder, of an igniting chamber or passage extending from the cylinder into cylinder-head, the inlet-valve for the explosive charge opening into the end of said chamber, and the exhaust-valve also opening into the end thereof, whereby the spent gases are expelled through said chamber,and the entering charge is admitted through it and heated by it, substantially as set forth.
21. In a gas-engine, the combination, with the power cylinder and piston and a com pression cylinder and piston, of the igniting slide-valve having a combustion-cavity formed in it, provided with an igniting-port coinciding with a port in the igniting-chamber of the power-cylinder in one position of the valve, and with relightingports coinciding with a relighting-jet in another position of the valve, an igniting gas-burner fixed opposite said cavity and adapted to direct its flame into it, an airpassage communicating with the compression-cylinder and terminating in an injector surrounding said igniting burner, and a port in the valve opening and closing said passage, all combined and arranged to operate substantially as set forth, whereby said passage is opened at the beginning of the compression-stroke and supplies air at low pressure to the igniting-burner, and the pressure of this injecting-jet of air increases up to the instant of the explosion, whereupon the air-passage is cut off.
22. The combination, with the power-cylinder, the gas-inlet valve, and the gas-pump of a gas-engine, of a centrifugal governor and a valve-operating mechanism, substantially as described, adapted to open the gas-inletvalve at a uniform point in the revolution of the engine, to close it at varying points proportioned to the variations of speed, and to be disengaged therefrom at either extreme of the conditions of the gaseous mixture, thereby varying the proportions of gas in the explosive charge,and interrupting the admission of gas when the speed of the engine becomes either so rapid as to give too small a proportion or so slow as to give too great a proportion of gas to constitute an explosive charge, as set forth.
23. The combination, with the governor and the sliding rotating cam operating the I gas-inlet valve, of the spring 15, adapted to be set to hold the cam in position to open the gas-valve in starting the engine and tending and to fly outwardly, whereby when the full work- .ing which the charges admitted to the powering speed is attained the governor acts upon In witness whereof I have hereunto signed the cam and the spring is released, substanmy name in the presence of two subscribing tially as set forth. witnesses.
24. The combination, in a gas-engine, of the 5 power-eylinde13 formed with a central ignit- JAS. F. PLACE.
mg-chamber, 40, in its head, with the powerpiston formed with a projection, 32, adapted Witnesses: when the piston is at extreme instroke to J. S. SHERBURNE,
, enter said ignitingehamber, substantially as O. K. FRASER.
10 set forth.