US 3289748 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 6, 1966 D. c. JENNINGS 3,289,748
HEAT TRANSFER GARMENT Filed Sept. 4, 1964 5 Sheecs-Sheet 1 Dec. 6, 1966 D. c. JENNINGS 3,289,748
HEAT TRANSFER GARMENT Filed Sept. 4, 1964 i 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 l v /l @a ff@ /YZ ff@ f A 9% x y) #5A/7a@ @Aw/ a J'A//V//l/@J De@ 5, 1966 D. c. JENNINGS HEAT TRANSFER GARMENT Filed Sept. 4, 1964 5 Sheets-Sheet Z VEA/T@ @A7V/ JE/V/V//VGJ gy/W United States Patent O 3,289,748 HEAT TRANSFER GARMENT David C. Jennings, Windsor Locks, Conn., assigner to United Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford, Conn., a corporation of Delaware Filed Sept. 4, 1964, Ser. No. 394,548 13 Claims. (tl. 165-46) This invention relates to liquid heat transfer garments and particularly to the construction of a liquid-cooled undergarment. The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract and is subject to the provisions of Section 305 of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, P-ubli-c Law 85-568 (72 Stat. 435; 42 U.S.C. 2457).
It is Ian object of -this invention to provide an under garment including ilexible liquid cooling conduits mounted on a net fabric in such a fashion as to be in contact with the skin of the wearer so as to cool the body by direct conduction of heat in an emcent manner.
A still further object of this invention is to distribute the tubing in the garment so that it covers the body of the wearer in approximate proportion to the local body mass, thereby providing heat removal capacity commensurate with metabolic heat generation capability.
A still further object of this invention is the mounting of the flexible tubing to a-n underganment structure so that the tubing is distributed in serpentine or meandering paths within parallel routes of w-idths adjusted to fit a predetermined length for each tube within a given region of the undergarment.
A still further object of this invention is to provide in a garment as des-cribed, connecting means such as manifold ttings formed of material compatible with the material used in the cooling tubes so that the two are positively bonded or cemented together.
A still further object of this invention is to provide in an undergarment as described, a predetermined pattern for connecting the tubing into the manifold `at predescribed locations in the undergarment to assure flexibility `and convenience -for the user.
A still further object of this invention is to provide in an undergarment as described, an arrangement of zippers and the like located at the torso front, the wrists and the ankles to provide ease of -donning and dofiing yet maintaining snu-gness of tit to the wearer.
A still further object of this invention is -to provide a novel undengarment construction to permit adjustment to the individual wearer so as to assure snugness of fit to the proper degree by providing lacings `along the sides of the front `and back torso portion, sides of the legs, sides of the arms and over the shoulder.
A still further object of this invention is to provide in an undergarment as described, supply and return flexible tubes which are mounted in such a -fashion on the front or 'anterior so as to permit and 4facilitate donning and dot-ling of the garment while avoiding having the tubes cross the garment back or posterior so as to assure comfort to the wearer as well as providing a route for these tubes for improved mobility.
A still further object of this invention is to provide in an under'ganment as described, a waistband formed from elastic material attached to the net fabric in such a manner yas to maintain snuvgness of lfit at the waist of the wearer.
A still further object of this invention is to construct an undergarment with a net fabric material and orienting the material so that it is lat approximately a 45 angle to the axis of the ,garment so as to obtain a two-axis stretch, a strong base yfor attachment of tube retaining 3,289,748 Patented Dec. 6, 1966 stitches and yet capable of providing effective ventilation when cooling liquid is unavailable.
A still further object of lthis invention is to provide means 'for attaching the tubing to the structure so as to obtain a secured -unit while avoiding loss of garment flexibility and stretch.
A still furthe-r object of this invention is to provide in a garment as described, t-ubes located in s-uch a pattern so as to exclude straight runs of appreciable lengths to prevent tubes from migrating away from their original position and avoid the formation of kinks and pinching of the tubes.
A still further object of this invention is to provide tubes having a wall thickness'that 'bears .a predetermined dimension with respect to its inn-er diameter so as to .avoid kinking and pinching off of the liquid stream in the tubes which may result from the operating loads and flexing.
A still further object is to provide in a garment as described, a basic structure formed from a net fabric material which allows the cooling of the wearers body by gaseous ventilation when cooling liquid is not available.
Other features and advantages will be apparent `from the specification and claims and from the accompanying drawings which illustrate an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. l -is an anterior view of the garment as don-ned by the wearer illustrating this invention.
FlG. 2 is a view showing the cuff ,and lower sleeve of the garment.
FIG. 3 is a view showing the lower leg and cuff of the garment.
FIG. 4 is a schematic view illustrating the path of the various tubes and their connections.
FIG. 5 is a schematic view showing an arrangement of tubes in the upper right region of the torso.
FIG. 6 is a side elevation of a portion of the leg illustrating the lacing arrangement.
FIG. 7 is a schematic view illustrating the attachment of the flexible tubing to the net fabric.
FIG. 8 is la detailed sectional view of the manifold connector.
FIG. 9 is an end View of the manifold connector shown in FIG. 8.
Referring now more particularly Ito FIG. 1 which shows the anterior portion of the ysuit mounted on a wearer which is basically formed from la suitable net fabric generally indicated by numeral 1t). The limbs and the torso are formed in two sections, front and rear, and are suitably sewn together an-d laced together in such a fashion as to provide snugness of tit to the wearer as will become 'apparent `from the following description.
Looking at FIG. 1, the major portion of the garment is formed from a suitable net fabric which preferably is a fishnet fabric or a Norwegian fabric which is available under the tradename of Brynje The fabric is made from a cotton yarn which is braided into an open mesh netlike structure interwoven at the intersections rather than being knotted as is generally the method in a net material used in fshnets. This construction forms a relatively flat surface and eliminates bulges which are formed from a knotted or over or underlapping ty-pe of net construction. I have found that a mesh size of 7/16 inch square pattern forms a satisfactory garment. Of course, other sizes may be equally suitable for this purpose.
As noted from FIG. l, the arms are joined to the upper torso portion of the net fabric at the shoulder `along seams 12 by any suitable means such as sewing. The back and front part of the arms are sewn together on the inner side indicated by seams 14. The outer side of the arms including the top portion of the shoulder, are provided with a tape sewn to the end of the net material having a series 3 of eyelets for accommodating lacings so as to permit the Wearer to tighten the garment and adjust it to snugly hug the contours of the limbs. At the wrist, suitable cuffs 16 may -be provided and are suitably joined to the net.
The front of the undergarment is formed from a single l snugness cf fit provided by the cuit, it is necessary for the wearer to unfasten the cuff zippers to don and dol the garment.
in accordance with this invention, suitable ducting or flexible conduits are mounted on the inner surface of the sheet of net fabric to flex to hug the body contours of the 5 garment in a predetermined manner as to be described wearer. The posterior is likewise formed from a single hereinbelow. It can be seen, however, from FIG. 1 the sheet of net fabric and cut to conform to the body of the supply line and return line are mounted on the anterior wearer. The two are laced together at the sides of the portion of the garment. A proper or suitable manifold torso and outsides of the legs by a lacing extending from 32 which, for description purposes, may be considered the foot to a point on the sleeve slightly beyond the arrnto be the supply manifold and manifold 34 which may be pit. A tape 18 is sewn at the neck to help support the considered to be the return manifold, extend and project sleeves. A front opening 20 is provided and extends down on the outside of the garment above the waist. Suitable a substantial length of the front of the torso and may carry tubing (not shown) connects with the inlet tube connecsuitable joining means such as zipper 22. Band 23 made l5 tion 36 of manifold 32 and outlet tube connection 38 of from suitable elasticized material is sewn on the inner manifold 34 for supplying and returning cooling transport surface of the net material and extends across the front fluid, such as water, through the tubes in the garment. waist to the sides of the garment. A similar material is It is contemplated within the scope of this invention that similarly mounted on the inner surface of the posterior a plurality of tubes made from a suitable material such as waist section of the net fabric and also extends to the side 20 polyvinylchloride are distributed in a serpentine or meanedges. dering pattern so that the distribution of tubing over the From the foregoing, it is apparent that the garment is body is in approximate proportion to local body mass, adjusted to snugly t the wearer. This is accomplished thereby providing heat removal capacity commensurate by first donning the garment by opening the zippers. Once With metabolic heat generation capability. Thus, in its donned, the wearer would adjust the laces until the gar- 25 preferred form, the tube length distribution should be ment snugly ts his body. After the proper fit is obtained, made proportional to body mass distribution so as to prohe can then unfasten the garment and doif it while revide local cooling capacity approximately equivalent to taining proper tit. local heat generation capability. While an actual calcu- As noted from FIG. 6, the sides of the anterior and lation of the mass of the human body may be calculated, posterior of the garment carry tapes 25 and Z7 having a 30 such a calculation is extremely difficult and for the purseries of holes or eyelets 29 extending vertically for acpose of designing the garment it is only necessary to make commodating lacing 31 so as to allow the wearer to easily certain assumptions as to the volume of the human body. adjust the garment to t the contours of his body. The` left The following chart giving the tube distribution calcuand right sides of the anterior and posterior of the garlation from body mass distribution is prepared with the ment are constructed in this manner. Since the net ma- 35 assumption that the body can be represented by adjointerial has a two-way stretch, snugness of fit is assured. ing cylinders making up an average man as having the For comfort of the wearer, a fabric covering 24 may be following dimensions: legs, 30 inches high and 5 inches iitted around the crotch and lower front and rear portion in diameter; arms, 30 inches high and 3 inches in diameter; of the torso. This fabric may be sewn to the garment in upper torso, 18 inches high and l1 inches in diameter; any suitable manner. lower torso, 10 inches high and l1 inches in diameter; and The garment, as noted above, provides cuffs made from head, ll inches high and 7 inches in diameter. Of course, a suitable knit material at the wrist and at the angle of it is to be noted that the particular size of the suit and the wearer which cuffs are sewn or suitably joined to the the tube distribution will vary according to the particunet fabric. lar size of the man for whom the suit is designed.
Distributed Head Volume and Area Volume Weight Area Volume Area Height (in) (lb.) (ft) fraction fraction (in.) Volume Area Tube Tube fraction fraction length length (in.) fraction Head 423 15. 3 1. 68 090 Rt. arm 212 7. 6 1. 9e .045 Lt. arm 122 7. 6 1. 96 045 Rt. upper torso 855 30. 8 2. 16 182 Lt. upper torso 855 30. 8 2. 16 182 Sub Total e 544 Rt. lower torso 475 17. 1 1. 20 102 Lt. lower torso 475 17. 1 1. 20 102 Rt. ieg 589 21.2 3. 27 .126 Lt. leg 589 21. 2 3. 27 126 Sub Total .456
Total 4,685 168.8 18.85 1.000 1.000 e9 Another feature of this invention is that zippers 28 65 Once the mass distribution of the body is calculated sewn on the side of the ankle cuffs 30 and mounted on and the number and lengths of tubes selected, the cooling the side of the wrist cuffs are provided to further assure tubes are then generally laid out in patterns which may proper snugness of fit. As noted in FIGS. 2 and 3 (showfollow the 45 slope of the net strands as referred to the ing the inner surface of the garment), the eyelets for the axis of the garment. In this way the ability of the garlaces are located opposite the respective zippers and exment to stretch along either longitudinal or transverse tend from the edges of the cuffs to the neck of the wearer in the case of the sleeves and extend from the lower edge of the ankle cuff to the armpits on the front and rear sections. The cuffs are so constructed that when the zippers are fastened,
axis with body displacement is not impaired. As can be seen in FIG. 5, which is the upper right region of the torso, tive tubes schematically illustrated in a typical pattern by numeral 40a are made of equal length to form garment rise is limited. Owing to this a pattern in serpentine or meandering paths with parallel lroutes of widths adjusted to fit within this 'region of the garment. Obviously, the other limbs and torso regions of the garment are formed in a similar manner to assure that the heat conductivity is proportional to the heat generation throughout the entire body. Hence, in each region of the body the tubes have equal lengths and are similarly secured to the net fabric in a serpentine pattern.
As noted from FIG. 1 the supply manifold 32 distributes liquid to four conduits 42, 44, 45 and 48 and the return manifold 34 receives the discharging liquid from four conduits 50, 52, 54 and 56 for passing liquid through the tubes mounted on the interior of the open netted fabric which, in turn, dissipates the heat generated by the wearer. The distribution of fluid is best seen by referring to schematic shown in FIG. 4.
Referring now particularly to FIG. 4, it can be seen that the liquid cooled by any suitable means, such as heat exchanger 58, is directed to manifold 32a (all subscripted reference numerals correspond to the elements refer'- enced in FIG. l) for distributing the cooled liquid to conduits 42a, 44a, 46a and 48a to be, in turn, distributed to the plurality of tubes 40a sewn to the inner surface of the net fabric via the respective connecting manifolds 60, 62, 64 and 66. The transport liquid picking up body heat by conduction in passing through the tubes 4t) is then returned to the inlet of the pump by a network of return tubes Stia, 52a, 54a and 56a via return manifolds 68, 70, -72 and 74.
Although the ow of transport liquid may be controlled by a suitable fluid pump schematically shown by numeral '76, it should be understood that any other means for regulating the flow of the transport liquid is contemplated within the scope-of this invention. As for example, where available, the liquid may be taken from an ordinary cold water tap,
From the foregoing, it is apparent that all the return manifolds are located at the waist of the wearer and the supply manifolds located at the distal portion of the limbs. While this is the preferred arrangement of the manifolds, it is to be understood that other arrangements are within the scope of this invention.
In fabrication of the garment tubing 40 is fastened to the net by stitching while the net is distended over a flat form having dimensions corresponding to body semi-circumferences. v
It is noted that `the net fabric forming the basic garment structu-re is lset at approximately 45 angle to the axis of the garment for the combined purpose of obtaining a two axis stretch, a strong base for the attachment of tube retaining stitches, and compatibility with the requirements for `ventilation when the coolant liquid supply is unavailable.
The tubes are secured to the net fabric so that they form close coupled bends, meanders or serpentine undulations without straight runs of appreciable length for the purpose of avoiding the working of tubes through the stitches which would result in the accumulation of excessive lengths of tubes at the few sharp bends and promote the formation of kinks and tube pinching as well as reducing garment flexibility and cooling eiciency.
The tubes are attached by making a tack stitch through the net cross strand twice on each side of the tube with the doubled thread crossing over the tube. This method of stitching does not loosen when a thread is cut. Preferably, the thread travels slackly from one cross strand to the next to avoid compressing the net.
This is best illustrated by referring to FIG. 7. Tube 40 is attached -b-y two tack stitches through an adjacent cross str-and of net -on one side of the turbe with thread 82 crossing over the tube. Two more tack stitches are made on the adjacent cross strand of net 10 on the other side of the tube. The thread at this point is pulled taut to firmly retain the tube. Then the thread is loosely laid until it reaches the adjacent point of attachment.
In the illustrated garment cooling tubes 40 are of 1A;
inch outside diameter by J/lf; inch inside diameter polyvinylchloride, each 74 inches long and ten started at each wrist and ankle. Hence, a total of 40l tubes of 427 feet of actual length which makes contact with the skin. The ,supply and return tubes 42, 44, 46, 48, 50', 52, 54 and 56 are of "ylG inch inside diameter by 5/16 inch outside diameter polyvinylchloride. It will be appreciated that the walls ymounted at the front torso zipper for ease of donning and dofhng and avoiding crossing the garment back for comfort, and following la route across the front of the shoulder for improved mobility.
After the tubes are mounted they are inserted into the proper manifolds and then cemented into place. The tubes and manifolds are preferably made from the same material in order to assure positive bonding.
The preferable manifolds are Ifabricated according to the type shown in FIGS. 8 and 9. Manifold 84 may be molded into a sing-le piece having a. central generally circular shaped body section 86 with opposing projecting sections 8S and 90. The molded body contains a centrally extending opening 92 communicating with inlet 94 which communicates with a plurality of radially extending openings 96 which, in turn, are adapted to receive the ends of the proper tubes.
What has been shown by this invention is an undergarment construction carrying a plurality of cooling tubes on the inner surface of a net fabric and in intimate contact with the skin of the wearer for dissipating heat in an eflicient manner. The use of the net fabric as the basic supporting structure affords flexibility for assuring snugness of fit to the wearer, permitting ventilation in the event of unavailability of cooling liquid, and is lightweight so as to be comfortable on the wearer. The particular two-piece construction and side lacings allow the wearer to readily adjust the garment to enhance the snugness of t. The flexibility of fabric and method of adjustment assure that the garment will snugly hug the contour of the body of the wearer so that the tubes will `always be in intimate contact with the skin 4of the wearer. By the particular tubing and pattern thereof, the possibility of formation of kinks and tube pinching is reduced while providing garment flexibility and cooling eiliciency. It is to be understood that this garment may be worn with or without an overgarment.
It should be understood that the invention is not limited to the particular embodiments shown and described herein, but that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of this novel concept as defined by the following claims.
1. A garment enclosing the body of the wearer, said garment having a plurality of heat transfer tubes supported in contact Iwith the wearers body, means for conducting uid through said tubes for transporting heat to or from the wearers body, a fabric sup-porting the tubes, the number of tubes adjacent a Agiven area being dictated by the mass adjacent that area so that the lesser mass has the lesser number of tubes whereby the heat transfer effect orf the tubes for any `area of the .body is substantially proportional to the local mass of the body adjacent that area.
2. A garment as claimed in claim 1 wherein said fabric is made from ya yarn intertwined into a netlike cloth having spaces communicating the skin of the wearer to the adjacent atmosphere.
3. A garment as claimed in claim 1 wherein the tubes are made from polyvinylchloride.
4. A garment as claimed in claim 1 wherein the thickness of the walls of said tubes is at least equal to 25 percent `of the diameter of the tube.
S. A garment -as claimed in claim 1 wherein the tubes. in a given region of the garment are of substantially equal length.
6. A garment enclosing and cooling the body of thewearer including a plurality of equally .sized cooling tubes: adapted to conduct a cooling fluid for conducting heat away from the body of the wearer distributed in serpentineor meandering paths within parallel routes of Widths within a predetermined length for each tube in a predetermined region of the garment, said tubes being supported in contact with the wearers body, a ilexiible fabric supporting the tubes, and the number of said tubes adjacent a given area of said body being determined 4by the mass of the body adjacent that area so that the lesser -mass has the lesser number Iof tubes.
7. A garment as claimed in claim 6 wherein said fabric is formed in an `anterior section and a posterior section, and adjustment lmeans adjacent the sides of said sections for urging said sections toward each other so that said fabric distorts to snugly fit the contours of the body of the wearer whereby said tubes .are held in intimate contact therewith.
8. A garment enclosing and cooling the body including the torso and limbs of the wearer, including a plurality of cooling tubes supported in contact with the wearers body, a fabric supporting the tubes, the number off tubes adjacent a given area of said body rbeing detenmined by the mass of that body .area so that the lesser mass has the lesser number of tubes, said fabric formed into an anterior section and a posterior section each extending to the outer sides of the torso and limbs, means including lacings extending along the sides of the legs, sides of the arms, sides of the to-rso for securing said anterior -section to said posterior section whereby the garment is adjustable to snugly fit the contour of the body of the wearer.
9. A garment as claimed in claim 8 including a rst iband formed from a flexible materia-l secured on the inner surface ott said anterior section adjacent the Waist and a second band `formed from a exib-le material secured on the inner surface of said posterior section adjacent the waist.
10. A garment enclosing and cooling the body of the wearer, including a plurality of cooling tubes supported in contact with the wearers body, a fabric supporting the tubes, said fabric formed by interlocking threads dening strands arranged in Van open mesh joined at spaced intervals, said strands of said fabric lbeing oriented at approximately 45 angle with respect to the axis ofthe garment so as to be flexible in two axes and `said tubes being arranged to substantially follow the 45 slope of said strands.
11. A garment as dened in claim 10 wherein sai-d tubes are arranged so that the cooling effect of the tubes for any area of the body is substantially proportional to the local mass of the body adjacent that area so that the lesser Imass has the lesser number of tubes adjacent thereto.
12. A garment as defined in claim 11 wherein said garment includes predetermined regions of the body, and said tubes ibeing distributed in serpentine or meandering paths within parallel routes of Widths adjusted to it a predetermined length for each tube within each of said regions.
13. A garment enclosing and cooling the body of the wearer, including a plurality of cooling tubes supported in contact with the Wearers body, a fabric supporting the tubes, the tubes being arranged such that the cooling effect of the tubes for any area `of the body is substantially proportional to the 4local mass of the body adjacent that area so that the lesser mass has the lesser number of tubes, a supply of cooling liquid, connection means to and from said supply including a plurality ott conduits mounted on the outer surface of said garment, and fastening Imeans on the front center portion of said garment, said tubes extending over but spaced from said fastening means permitting accessibility thereto.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,028,889 l/l936 Baddour -46 X 2,255,751 9/1941 Boncel 165-46 X 2,540,547 2/1951 Rodert 165-46 X 2,648,325 S/1953 Siple 165-46 X 2,657,396 11/1953 Klein et al 165-48 X 2,978,225 4/1961 Dallas 165-46 FOREIGN PATENTS 746,65 0^ 8/ 1944 Germany.
MEYER PERLIN, Primary Examiner.
ROBERT A. LEARY, Examiner.
M. A. ANTONAKAS, Assistant Examiner.