US 3290815 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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DDD E3, i966 J. B. EDWARDS 3,290,815
A FIRERM RECON.: REDUCER Filed May l0. 1965 l E 3' HG n@ ,f/ faz-- i *Y *7' ifi" L vi" "w f i, i *A c f5 E 5 r f l A n /Z/ 1 (aaa- L /Za "05 Z INVENTOR /7 Jesse B. EDWARDS Y E @Q6-17A NW ATTORNEY United States Patent dice 3,290,815 Patented Dec. 13, 1966 3,290,815 FIREARM RECGIL REDUCER .lesse B. Edwards, 269 Herbert St., Alton, Ill. Filed May 10, 1965, Ser. No. 454,435 5 Claims. (Cl. l2- 74) This invention relates in general to rearms and, more particularly, to a mechanism for reducing recoil upon tiring thereof.
In the firing of firearms, particularly rifies and shotguns, the development of recoil has long been accepted as an unpleasant and wholly undesirable condition. Numerous efforts have been undertaken heretofore to bring about reduction, if not an elimination, in such recoil. However, none of such efforts have substantially solved the problem so that sports enthusiasts, soldiers, and the like, must, perforce, expect the shock of recoil upon rifle, shotgun and submachine gun firing, with resultant physical discomfort to the marksman, which may, in addition to entailing painful bruises, bring about a numb* ing of the shoulder area.
Furthermore, recoil also is productive of substanial inaccuracy in firing since the force thereof may contribute to the firearm being inadvertently raised or caused to jump, in addition to the fact that the individual ritieman may expectedly be diverted from full control of the firearm in anxious anticipation of the impact of recoil. Well founded studies have demonstrated that there are actually two distinct components of recoil which are developed upon firing; the same acting in sequence. The initial recoil component is caused by the gas pressure developed through the explosion of the propellent powder which is translated from the base of the cartridge case to the face of the gun breech, thus tending to move the firearm rearwardly. This force is equivalent to the pressure acting on the projectile, including multi-missiles, forcing same through the gun barrel. The said initial recoil is active only during the passage of such projectile through the gun barrel and hence is of limited duration.
The subsequent, or secondary recoil is developed upon emission of the projectile from the gun muzzle. As the exit velocity of the powder gases is substantially greater than the muzzle velocity which may be ordinarily in the ratio of 2%. and 3 to l, the resultant counter-force or recoil created by the emission of the powder gases will vary directly therewith and hence be relatively substantial. It is this secondary component of recoil, being considerably greater than the aforesaid initial recoil, which has customarily caused the various problems and undesirable effects of recoil,
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a recoil reducer adapted for disposition within a firearm, rearwardly of the breech, for substantially eliminating recoil with its attendant undesirable effects.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a recoil reducer of the type stated which is adapted for facile reception within the stock of substantially any type of rifle, shotgun lor submachine gun, or the like, without necessitating costly modification thereof or reduction in the effective operation of the same.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a recoil reducer which may constitute an accessory for mounting within existing firearms, or may be incorporated in same as part of the original equipment thereof.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a recoil reducing mechanism which incorporates means for permitting selective control of the amount of energy absorbed so that the same are rendered versatile for utilization with firearms of various caliber and ammunition of various types.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a recoil mechanism which may be most economically produced, being comprised of a simplicity of parts; which is extremely durable and reliable in usage; and which may be installed in existing firearms by the owner thereof without resort to the services of trained individuals such as gunsmiths, and the like; and which through its simplicity of construction is adapted for longevity of usage so that replacement or repair would be substantially unnecessary.
Other objects and details of the invention will be apparent from the following description, when read in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal view in partial vertical section of the breech and stock portion of a rifle or shotgun incorporating a recoil reducer constructed in accordance with and embodying the present invention.
FIGURE 2 is a horizontal section taken on the line 2 2 of FIGURE 1, but with the piston and springs being shown in full lines.
FIGURE 3 is an end View of the recoil reducer illustrated in FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary horizontal section taken substantially on the line 2-*2 of FIGURE l, but illustrating another type of end closure construction.
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of the stock portion of a rifle or shotgun incorporating another form of recoil reducer constructed in accordance with and embodying the present invention.
FIGURE 6 is an end view of the recoil reducer shown in FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 7 is a vertical section taken on the line 7-7 of FIGURE 6, but with the piston and springs shown in full lines.
FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary vertical section View taken substantially on the line 2 2 of FIGURE 1, but illustrating a spring tension adjusting member.
Referring now by reference characters to the drawing which illustrates practical embodiments of the present invention, A generally designates a firearm recoil reducing mechanism comprising a cylindrical sleeve or tubular casing 1 fabricated as of aluminum or like durable, yet preferably light weight metal, within which is disposed for axial, slideable movement therein a cylindrical piston 2 of relatively heavy weight with respect to the weight of sleeve 1 and having an outside diameter slightly less than the inside diameter of said sleeve 1 for providing a circumferential air passage therebetween as indicated at a. Piston 2 is provided with a pair of parallel planar end faces 3, 4 which respectively bear against the inner ends of compression springs 5, 6, which at their outer ends bear against bearing plates 7, 8, respectively, located inwardly of the respectively adjacent end of sleeve 1. Said bearing plates 7, 8 are maintained in fixed relationship to sleeve 1 by means of pins 9, 10 extending diainetrally across sleeve 1 outwardly of the respective plates 7, 8 and being maintained fixedly in such position by any suitable means, such as by threading and the like.
Sleeve 1 is closed at each of its ends by end plates 11, 12, respectively, which are press-fitted into closure positions with their inner faces abutting against the adjacent pins 9, 10, and their outer faces in surfacewise alignment with the adjacent end edges of sleeve 1; spring bearing plates 7, 8 are also dimensioned for tight reception, as by press-fitting, within sleeve 1 so that the same are rigid in position and being buttressed on their outwardly directed faces by the proximate pins 9, 10; springs 5, 6 are of equal length and strength so that in condition of repose, piston 2 will be biased into centered relationship with respect to sleeve 1, as may best be seen in FIGURE 2.
Provided within sleeve 1, proximate to, but inwardly of, bearing plate 7, is a pair of apertures 13, 14 constituting air-vents; said apertures 13, 14 being preferably diametrally opposed, but it being recognized that there is no limitation upon the number of such vents that may be provided.
If desired, there may be provided a cylindrical sleeve or tubular casing 1", as shown fragmentarily in FIGURE 4, which is in all respects similar to sleeve 1, as above described, but wherein the spring bearing plates are shown exemplarily at 7 and the closure plates as shown exemplarily at 11, are both pressfitted within the end portions of sleeve 1', and wherein the spring bearing plates and closure plates are in surface abutting relationship. This particular form of the invention obviates utilization of Cross pins, such as indicated at 9, 10 in FIGURE 2.
It will be observed that the said spring bearing plates 7, 8 and end closure plates 11, 12 are of such close tolerance with respect to the inside diameter of sleeve 1 that the same are substantially proof against undesired air loss through leakage, so that air flow will occur only through apertures 13, 14.
In usage recoil reducing mechanism A is received within a complementarily formed compartment c drilled or otherwise provided within the normally wooden stock 15 of a firearm, such as a rie, shotgun, or the like, as indicated generally at R; said compartment c being axially parallel to the barrel 16 of firearm R; the inner portion of said compartment c may open within the bore 17 normally formed within the stock 15 of firearm R, for receiving at its inner end the head of the customary toggle or stock bolt 18 for engaging the stock 15 to the breech block 19 for integrating the stock 15 with the operative parts of firearm R, including trigger guard 20, cartridge chamber 21, and gas ejector 22, as well as the barrel or barrels 16. The outer end of compartment c, just as bore 17, is closed by ibutt plate 23, which is secured to stock 15 as by screws 24, 24'. It is preferable' that recoil reducing mechanism A fit snugly within compartment c whereby any superfluous volume may be filled by suitable packing material to prevent undesired shifting.
With recoil reducing mechanism thus installed fully within the stock of firearm R, wherein the end lof said sleeve carrying said apertures 13, 14 is presented proximate to breech block 19, the user or rifleman is then free to fire firearm R with a sense of assurance that the theretofore experienced powerful recoil has been substantially eliminated. It appears that upon firing of firearm 'R, the aforesaid initial and subsequent or secondary recoils are translated through breech block 19 and stock 1S acting upon, and being received by, piston 2, which is driven rearwardly against spring 6 to place same under stress; it being recognized that said piston 2, by reason of the disposition of mechanism A will travel in a direction axially parallel to the direction of recoil so that the energy thereof is substantially absorbed by spring 6. Piston 2 will be returned forwardly through unloading of spring 6, and the air pressure and thereby cause a compression of forward spring 5. Air being driven forwardly by piston 2 will be vented through openings 13, 14 and piston 2 will be forced rearwardly upon unloading of spring so that reciprocal movement of piston 2 axially of its cylinder will continue until springs 6 and 5 have dissipated the energy of recoil. The importance of the provision of air passage a now becomes all the more evident since without such there could be a freezing of piston 2 within sleeve 1 resulting in a total failure of operation. Apertures 13, 14 permit air to be readily expelled from and admitted into sleeve 1, as may be effected during energy absorbing action of springs 5, 6.
The use of the present invention will prevent the incidence of painful bruises and even numbing by the user, which injurious conditions have been heretofore accepted, albeit reluctantly, by rifleman, marksman, and the like. Furthermore, the present invention will substantially ohviate firearm jumping so that users may enjoy the same accuracy upon a second firing as in the preceding firing, wherein rapid fire is undertaken.
Referring now to FIGURE 8, a further modification of recoil mecanism A is disclosed wherein 101 designates the cylindrical sleeve or tubular casing with compression springs as in mechanism A, but being indicated as 106, with the outer ends of said springs bearing against a bearing plate 108 which is dimensioned for slideable movement within sleeve 101. Received within said sleeve 101, spacedly from plate 108 and in the adjacent outer end portion of said sleeve 101 is a terminal block or closure 112, rigidly secured within said sleeve 101 as by diametrally aligned pins 120. Said terminal block 112 is axially drilled and tapped to provide an internally threaded bore 121 for receiving an adjustment screw 122, the inner end of which bears against the outwardly directed face of bearing plate 108, with its head being presented outwardly of said terminal block 112 for convenient disposition for manipulation by any suitable tool, such as a screw driver, for effecting movement of bearing plate 103 within sleeve 101 for placing the related spring 106 under desired tension. By means of adjustment screw 122, and the associated structure, the tension of the springs normally acting upon piston 2 may be regulated as desired. It will be seen that by utilization of screw 122, an eccentric disposition of piston 2 with respect to sleeve 1 may be effected in view of causing a stressing of the springs. By said screw 122 a versatility is accorded the present invention so that appropriate adjustment may be effected for any unusual `conditions that might be encountered during usage brought about as, for instance, by the particular character of ammunition utilized, the caliber of the firearm, etc.
Referring now to FIGURES 5, 6, and 7, another form of recoil reducer embodied in the present invention is illustrated and is indicated generally at B and comprises a pair of recoil reducing mechanisms A1 and A2; the former consisting of `cylindrical sleeve or casing 1' and having a piston 2' with end faces 3', 4', against which, respectively, bear compression springs 5', 6', the outer ends of which bear against bearing plate 7', 8', respectively, there being diametrally extending pins 9', 10' abutting against the outer faces of bearing plates 7 8' and with end closure plates 11', 12' respectively abutting against the outer surfaces of said pins 9', 10'; there also being an air passage a' surrounding said piston 2'; all of said elements being substantially identical to the corresponding elements of mechanism A hereinabove described.
Recoil reducing mechanism A2 is of identical construction with recoil mechanism A and A1, =but differs therefrom in that the same is of slightly reduced length so that the forward, or breech-directed end, as at 30, is spacedly rearwardly of the breech-directed end of the companion mechanism A1. Said recoil mechanisms A1, A2 are in side-by-side, axially parallel relationship with their rearward or butt plate-adjacent ends in surface alignment and with the contiguous portions of their side walls being mutally secured as by any yconventional techniques. It will further be noted that if desired, retaining pin 10' may be of such length as to extend through aligned openings in both A1, A2 for further enhancing the unitary character of mechanism B.
Recoil reducing mechanism B provides an enhanced energy absorbing device for utilization with firearms wherein the recoil is of relatively great character. However, said mechanism B is particularly suitable for use with double barrel Shotguns, as, in addition to effecting adequate energy absorption, the same also allows for a differential in action timing to compensate for any differential that might develop in firing time.
It will be seen with reference now to FIGURE 5, that upon installation within stock 15 of a firearm R mechanism A2 will be presented downwardly or in lowered relationship to mechanism A1, and since the piston in each are normally centered, the piston in the lower mechanism A2 will be normally partially rearwardly of the piston 2 in upper mechanism A1. Said combined mechanism B may be suitably received within an enlarged compartment c suitably formed within the stock 15 of a firearm R, and which compartment c will open substantially into the bore 17 of the related stock 15.
In view of the foregoing, it will be seen that recoil mechanisms constructed in accordance with the present invention may be readily installed in any existing type of firearm without requiring the skilled services of expert gunsmiths, but may be readily so installed by the average firearm user without costly modification of the particular firearm. Furthermore, as is evident from the -foregoing, the recoil mechanisms hereinabove described will permit comfortable, consistently accurate and reliable usage of substantially powerful firearms, obviating the various attendant unpleasant'efects' of recoil which currently'hav'e been considered as unavoidable conditions of firearm usage.
It will be appreciated that the springs utilized in the recoil reducers ofthe present invention may vary in length and specifications in accordance with the forces to be accommodated. It is quite conceivable that under certain circumstances a differential in length or strength of springs might =be indicated. Additionally, it is, of course, apparent that the reducers of this invention are in air communication with the bores of the related stock, so that ready venting and replacement are easily eliected. Although it has been shown herein preferable to locate the recoil reducers within the gun stocks, it is Within the scope of this invention to comprehend the disposition of the same in other locations upon the firearm for absorbing the energies of recoil.
It should be understood that changes and modifications in the formation, construction, arrangement, and combination of the serval parts of the recoil reducer may be made and substituted for these herein shown and described without departing from the nature and principle of my invention.
Having thus described my inventori, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In combination with a firearm having a stock with a compartment formed therein, a recoil reducing mechanism disposed in said compartment, and comprising means forming a cylindrical sleeve, said sleeve being provided proximate one of its ends with a plurality of spaced apart air fiow passages, a piston slideably received within said sleeve for movement axially thereof; first and second springs provided within said sleeve at opposite ends of said piston, the inner ends of said springs bearing against the proximate face of said piston, first and second spring bearing plates mounted in said sleeve for respective abutment thereagainst of the outer ends of said springs, means for closing the ends of said sleeve in an air-proof manner, said spring bearing plates and the adjacent end closure means being spaced apart, and means disposed between each bearing plate and the adjacent end closure means for maintaining same in said spaced apart relationship, as well as buttressing the related spring bearing plate against the pressure of the related spring.
2. In combination with a firearm having a stock with a compartment formed therein, a recoil reducing mechanism disposed in said compartment, and being as defined in claim 1, but further characterized by said means disposed between each bearing plate and the adjacent end closure means for maintaining said bearing plates and end closure means in spaced apart relationship comprising pins extending diametrally against said sleeve and being fixed at its ends therein.
3. In combination with a firearm having a stock with a compartment formed therein, a recoil reducing mechanism disposed'in said compartment, and comprising means forming a cylindrical sleeve, said sleeve being provided proximate one of its ends with a plurality of spaced apart air flow passages, a piston slideably received Within said sleeve for movement axially thereof; first and second springs provided within said sleeve at opposite ends of said piston, the inner ends of said springs bearing against the proximate face of said piston, first and second spring bearing plates mounted in said sleeve for respective abutment thereagainst of the outer ends of said springs, means for' closing the ends of said sleeve in an air-proof manner, and means for adjustably positioning at least one of said first or second spring bearing plates with respect to the adjacent end closure means.
4. In combination with a firearm having a stock with a compartment formed therein, a recoil reducing mechanism disposed in said compartment, and comprising means forming a cylindrical sleeve, a piston slideably received within said sleeve for movement axially thereof, first and second springs provided within said sleeve at opposite ends of said piston, the inner ends of said springs bearing against the proximate face of said piston, first and second spring bearing plates mounted in said sleeve for respective abutment thereagainst of the outer ends of said springs, at least one of said bearing plates being adapted for slideable movement axially of said sleeve, means for maintaining such bearing plate in selected position within said sleeve, and means for closing the ends of said sleeve in the air-proof manner.
5. In combination with a firearm having a stock with a compartment formed therein, a recoil reducing mechanism disposed in said compartment, and comprising means forming a cylindrical sleeve, a piston slideably received within said sleeve for movement axially thereof; first and second springs provided within said sleeve at opposite ends of said piston, lthe inner ends of said springs bearing against the proximate face of said piston, first and second spring bearing plates mounted in said sleeve for respective abutment thereagainst of the outer ends of said springs, at least one of said bearing plates being slideably disposed within said sleeve for movement toward and away from the adjacent end closure, means for effecting stressing of said first and second springs, an adjusting member mounted in the adjacent end closure means and adapted for engaging the outer face of said slideable spring bearing plate, and means for closing the ends of said sleeve in an air-proof manner.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,147,941 7/1915 Haslett 42-74 1,307,529 6/1919 Werndl 42-74 1,379,989 5/1921 Johnson 42-74 2,155,130 4/1939 Hanel 89-44 2,240,681 5/ 1941 Swartz 42-1 2,875,731 3/1959 Settles et al. 89--198 3,039,222 6/1962 Hoge 42-74 BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner.