|Publication number||US3290837 A|
|Publication date||Dec 13, 1966|
|Filing date||Nov 27, 1963|
|Priority date||Dec 13, 1962|
|Also published as||DE1297317B|
|Publication number||US 3290837 A, US 3290837A, US-A-3290837, US3290837 A, US3290837A|
|Original Assignee||Maurice Weston|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (24), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 13, 1966 i WESTQN 3,290,837
MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Filed Nov. 27, 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet i INVENTOR. MAURKE WESTON ATTORNEYS Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES 14 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 27. 1963 IN VENTOR.
B MAURICE WESTON ATTORNE Y Fild'mov. 27, 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet :5
Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON 3,290
MuLTL-sToRmY BUILDING STRUCIIURES INVENTUR MAURICE WESTON Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES 14 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Nov. 27. 1963 INVENTOR.
MAuRmE WESTON BY ATTORNEYS.
Dec. 13, 1966 M; WESTON MULTI-STOREY BUILDiNG STRUCTURES 14 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Nov. 27, 1963 INVENTOR- MAURlCE WESTON BY 61W uail A T TORNE Y- Z Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON 3,290,837
MUL'lI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Filed Nov. 27, 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet 6 IN VEN TOR.
MAUR'CE WESTON La l e 1 W9 AT TORNE Y3,
Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON 3,290,837
MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Filed Nov. 27, 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet 7 INVENTOR mumcg WESTON A T TOWN EMS? M. WESTON MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Dec. 13, 1966 14 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed Nov. 2'7. 1963 INVENTOR.
MAUR|CE WESTON ATTORNL'YS Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES 14 Sheets-Sheet 9 Filed Nov. 27. 1963 INVENTOR.
Maumcz ESTON BY 92m); ufi wle ATTORNEY;
Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Filed Nov. 27. 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet 10 IN VENTOR.
MAumcE WESTON A TTORNEY Dec. 13, 1966 WESTQN 3,290,837
MUL'I'I-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Filed Nov. 27, 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet 11 INVENTOR.
MAURICE WESTON BY p wki d w ATTORNE v Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON I MULTI-S TOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES 14 Sheets-Sheet 12 Filed Nov. 2'7. 1963 V RN 0 O R raw/W m r v v Wm; m m Y ,B
Dec. 13, 1966 WESTON 3,290,837
MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Filed Nov. 2'7, 1963 14 Sheets-Sheet l3 INVEN TOR MAURICE WESTON A TT'ORNEKS' Dec. 13, 1966 M. WESTON MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES 14 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 27. 1963 w N 0m N fl WM w gown m M w M Y B United States Patent MULTI-STOREY BUILDING STRUCTURES Maurice Weston, 13 Kingston House (North),
irinees Gate, London, England Filed Nov. 27, 1963, Ser. No. 326,483 Claims priority, application Great Britain, Dec. 13, 1962, 47,127/62 16 Claims. (Q1. 5230) This invention relates to building structures in which it is required to combine the attributes of economic usage of planned floor area for parking of road vehicles or other commercial purposes, with the requirements of other kinds of accommodation, such as the public rooms and bedrooms of an hotel, or the reception and working rooms of an ofiice, or the like. In terms of an hotel, for example, it is requisite to provide certain areas having public rooms for the functions of reception, feeding, resting, entertainment and similar purposes, and in addition smaller but equally accessible bedrooms, bathrooms, lavatories and minor service accommodation such as linen rooms and the like; the whole complex being, of course, interconnected by Stairways and elevators as necessary.
The modern requirements are such that, on appropriate sites, an economic balance must be struck between vehicle accommodation and human accommodation. The present invention is concerned to fulfill such requirements, and in doing so to conform to good engineering and architectural practice so far as the structure, safety, convenience and elegance of the product is concerned.
It has long been usual architectural and structural engineering practice to design certain buildings in some symmetrical and hollow pattern-that is to say, with the general structure round or polygonal, with a well or wells in the middle. The present invention involves a structure with some kinship to this but with further features which, both from the utilitarian and the engineering points of view, conduce to efficiency, acceptable appearance, and great convenience to those who are to use it.
For the purposes of definition, in the following description habitable space will mean spaces (e.g. rooms, passages and open areas), intended primarily for occupancy by people; parking space will mean, space intended primarily for the accommodation and movement of vehicles; and industrial space will mean, space intended for such purposes as show-rooms, storage, entertainment, or similar useful but not usually habitable space.
It is the primary object of this invention to provide a building which is comprised by a lower zone providing parking space on the helical or so-called spiral system, which zone surrounds a well or shaft, and which has access to an upper zone providing habitable space; and to provide in either or both such zones certain areas or volumes which can be made available if required, as industrial space.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a building which, whilst being versatile in the sense that the general scheme is highly adaptable to varying sites and to a variety of proportions of parking and accommodation, is economic both in cost and in site, and which can intrinsically be a tall building or a relatively low one, and can provide convenient access to all parts thereof.
According to the present invention there is provided a building, or building structure comprising a load-carrying skirt structure defining an inner well extending vertically Within the building; one or more rows of columns spaced outwardly of and surrounding the skirt structure; a helical floorway supported by the skirt structure and columns and extending upwardly from near the bottom of the building and winding around the inner well for several convolutions to define a plurality of storeys; and an enclosed structure supported by the skirt structure and columns and situated above the uppermost convolution of the helical floorway.
Conveniently, the skirt structure and columns in plan may be arranged to define a substantially regular geometric pattern. In the majority of cases it appears preferable that the building structure should possess a regular geometric shape in overall plan, wherein an innermost plan outline defining the inner well is surrounded by one or more further plan outlines each defined by a line running through the base of the or eachrow of outwardly spaced columns and parallel to the innermost plan outline, and wherein by an outermost plan outline is defined by a line constituting the outer perimeter line of the building which runs parallel to the inner plan outlines.
The skirt structure may consist of or include columns which predominate in carrying the load, and preferably these supporting columns are spaced from one another at regular intervals along the, or each row. If desired, spaces between the columns in the skirt structure may be in filled by walling. Alternatively, the skirt structure may consist of or include a wall which predominates in carrying the load. Moreover, the lower part of the skirt structures for several storeys may consist of a load carrying wall, Whilst the upper part may consist of load carrying columns. Preferably, the wall will extend from ground level to the uppermost storey defined by the helical floorway.
i The helical fioorway and enclosed structure are sup-. ported by beams which are carried at or near their inner ends by the skirt structure and which extend from the inner well over and beyond the outwardly spaced columns to provide cantilever support for the floors beyond the columns at least in the outward direction. The ground level of the structure may include an enclosed portion having a horizontal floor, in which case the helical floorway may be connected .to ground level by a short ramp located outside the ground level enclosed portion,
To meet modern requirements, 'Where vehicles have to be accommodated, a parking zone, constituted by the helical floorway, provides space both for a multi-lane automobile driveway and for a parking area for automobiles peripherally disposed with respect to this drive-.
way without obstructing it. In such case, it is convenient to ventilate the parking zone by arranging that the helical floorway is open to the atmosphere for the full length of its outer periphery. The outer periphery of the helical floorway may be provided with meansto prevent accidental driving of automobiles 01f the edge of the floor,
comprising a short upstanding wall or railings or similar.
barrier of substantially less height than a storey.
The upper enclosed part of a building structure according to my invention can be arranged to constitute a habitable zone and to include a plurality of horizontally disposed floors at least some of which are partitioned to provide rooms. The inner well may be open from its top at least to the level of the upper end of the parking zone, whereby to admit light and air to the interior of that part of the enclosed structure facing the inner well and constituting the habitable zone.
It may be desirable that the enclosed structure constituting the habitable zone shall be isolated from the parking zone; this can be effected by providing a partition extending across the inner well to close the lower part thereof so that fumes cannot rise from the lower closed part of the well to its open upper part and thereby contaminate the habitable zone.
A building in accordance with this invention is susceptible to a wide variety of layout. For example, the habitable zone may include at least one floor which is not partitioned and which is adapted to form a continuous platform surrounding the inner well. Each floor at least in the habitable zone preferably will include transfer space constituted by stairways interconnecting such floor with the floors immediately above and below it, and preferably also by elevators interconnecting at least all habitable floors. The inner well may enclose a stairway and an elevator at least up to the level of the habitable zone.
The partitioning of the floors in the habitable zone, may conveniently be carried out principally on a modular plan to provide blocks of rooms of repeating plan form adapted to occupy the floor area with maximum economy. For example a plurality of level bedroom floors may be provided, having modular rooms disposed in a substantially regular pattern around the perimeter of the inner well, but interspaced with transfer space connected to an adjacent floor to provide inter-floor communication, there being on each bedroom floor of the habitable zone an inner row of rooms lit from windows facing on to the inner well and an outer row of rooms lit from windows facing the exterior of the building and a substantially continuous passage separating the inner and outer rows of rooms and providing circumferential communication substantially around the whole of each floor.
The invention also includes a cluster of contiguous building structures previously set forth, each said structure comprising a tubular load-carrying skirt structure defining an associated inner well extending vertically within the building and at least one row of columns spaced outwardly of and surrounding each skirt structure; a plurality of helical floorways each respectively supported by one of the skirt structures and its associated row or rows of columns, each such fioorway winding around its respec- ;ive inner well for several convolutions to define a plurality of storeys, and a plurality of multi-storey enclosed horizontal floors constituting a habitable zone at the upper part of the building extending over the whole area of the building and being supported by the respective skirt struc- Lures and rows of columns of the several structures and Jeing situated above the level of the uppermost convolution of the several helical floorways.
Alternatively, the helical fioorway may wind around :he periphery of the cluster for several convolutions to deine a plurality of storeys; and a plurality of multi-storey :nclosed horizontal floors may be provided, constituting a habitable zone at the upper part of each structure of the :luster, these floors being supported by the respective ikll't structure and row or rows of columns and being ;ituated above the level of the uppermost convolution of he helical fioorway. In this case, some of the floors forming the habitable zone in each structure of the cluster nay be inter-connected at the same level.
Our invention provides buildings which can be adapted :or a wide variety of purposes. In one example, the iabitable zone provides hotel accommodation and in- :ludes an intermediate floor located immediately above the parking zone; living accommodation for guests and staff constituted by floors superimposed on the intermediate floor, and elevators and stairways connecting the intermediate floor both to the parking zone and to the superimposed floors for hotel living accommodation, whereby hotel occupants are prevented from passing to and fro between the parking zone and the superimposed floors without passing through some part of the intermediate floor which constitutes a reception zone. Moreover, the hotel living accommodation may comprise at least one or more lower floors providing a reception zone together with administrative office quarters, restaurants and kitchens with superimposed floors providing bedroom quarters.
In another example, the habitable zone includes office accommodation, and, if desired, at least one floor above the office accommodation may provide domestic living quarters. Alternatively, the habitable zone may be constituted by apartment flats, and an intermediate floor may be located immediately above the parking zone and below said habitable zone, so as to constitute a zone for reception and porterage.
Two embodiments of the invention will now be described in greater detail, one of which is an arrangement for use as a motel building and the other of which is a modified arrangement for use as a hotel and car park with a public resturant on the ground floor.
The first embodiment is described with reference to FIGURES 1 to 7 of which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a nine storey motel incorporating the invention;
FIGURE 2 shows the ground floor plan together with a small portion of the rising spiral parking circuit;
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of a full convolution of the parking circuit;
FIGURE 4 is a plan view showing the uppermost end of the parking circuit together with the area constituting a the foyer or reception zone of the motel;
FIGURE 5 is a plan view of a floor constituting a restaurant zone;
FIGURE 6 is a plan view of a bedroom floor;
FIGURE 7 is a section through the building on the line A-A of FIGURES 2 to 6.
The second embodiment is described with reference to FIGURES 8 to 13, in which the building is a motel constructed on a site where it is convenient to extend the ground floor laterally, in the manner of a plinth, to provide public restaurant and cloakroom facilities at ground level, and in which:
FIGURE 8 shows the ground floor plan, together with a small portion of the rising parking circuit;
FIGURE 9 is a plan view of a full convolution of the spiral parking circuit;
FIGURE 10 is a plan view showing the uppermost end of the parking circuit together with the floor area suitable for commercial display, staff changing rooms and cloakrooms;
FIGURE 11 is a plan view of a floor constituting the restaurant zone;
FIGURE 12 is a plan view of a bedroom floor;
FIGURE 13 is a section through the building on the line Z-Z of FIGURES 8 to 12;
FIGURE 14 shows a modified form of the invention in which a cluster of three parking spirals is superimposed by a series of continuous floors;
FIGURE 15 shows yet another embodiment in which a continuous parking spiral is superimposed by three contiguous structures each surrounding a central well.
Referring to FIGURES l to 7, the general plan of the building is defined by a regular sixteen sided figure, approximately 112 feet in diameter.
The ground floor, illustrated in plan by FIGURE 2 is indicated on the section of FIGURE 7 by the letter G; and from ground level the spiral parking circuit winds around the building for three convolutions or circuits.
Although these circuits cannot, by reason of their vertical spiral arrangement, be strictly termed definite storeys, it is convenient to consider them as such for the purposes of description.
As will be described, vehicles 23 are intended to be parked on the outside of the spiral ramp in the spaces between adjacent columns 2 (see FIGURE 3) which form parking bays, each bay accommodating two vehicles alongside. There are sixteen bays for each full circuit of the ramp.
The ground floor of the structure may be considered to include those premises which are located at ground level or slightly below it, together with that part of the spiral ramp which occupies the first four bays as shown on FIGURE 2. These bays are indicated as B1 to B4.
Parking space on the ramp does not commence until the fifth bay has been reached, at which position the ramp widens to the perimeter of the building. The complete convolution comprising one circuit of the ramp from the fifth to the twentieth bay inclusive, may conveniently be considered as the first floor. The section of FIGURE 7 cuts the first floor at the tenth and the nineteenth bay, this floor being indicated on the section by I.
The next circuit of sixteen bays comprising the twenty first to the thirty-sixth bay inclusive, may conveniently be considered as the second floor. The section of FIG- URE 7 cuts the second floor at the twenty-sixth and the thirty-fifth bay, this floor being indicated on the section by II.
The third and final circuit of the ramp consists of thirteen bays occupying the majority of what may be considered to be the third floor, and by the time the ramp has risen from the thirty-seventh to the forty-ninth bay, there is insufficient headroom below the general level of the floor above. At this point a storage area comprising three bays (as will be described) is located beneath the premises on the floor above which is the fourth floor. The section of FIGURE 7 cuts the third floor at the fortysecond bay and at the storage area. This floor being indicated on the section by III.
The first level floor of the building is the hotel foyer fioor which is the fourth floor, the plan of which is shown in the FIGURE 4, and the level of which is indicated on the section of FIGURE 7 by the number IV. The next floor above this is the restaurant floor shown in FIGURE 5. It constitutes the fifth floor and is shown on the section of FIGURE 7 by the numeral V. The uppermost three floors illustrated in FIGURE 6, are bedroom floors constituting the sixth, seventh and eighth floors of the building, and these are indicated on the section of FIGURE 7 by the numerals VI, VII and VIII respectively.
Referring first to FIGURES 2 and 7, the load carrying skirt structure is constituted by an inner ring of sixteen columns or piers 1 arranged centrally about an inner well, and the vertical axis of which is constituted by the line WW on FIGURE 7. This inner well contains various services such as staircases, lifts, etc. as far as the fifth floor, but is open at the sixth, seventh and eighth floors.
Surrounding the inner row of columns and spaced therefrom radially at a distance of about thirty feet is a second, outer row of columns 2 disposed symmetrically about the inner row. These columns I and 2 extend vertically for the full height of the building from the ground to the eighth floor and form the vertical load-bearing components of the structure, upon which are carried transverse beams. One of such beams is indicated as 2a on FIGURE 7, between the ground and the first floor. These beams support the various floors including the spiral parking circuitand ramp for vehicles. Conveniently, the columns and floors are constructed from reinforced concrete but any construction and materials which are appropriate, may be selected by the engineer or architect responsible, provided that they are capable of meeting the 6 requirements of span and cantilever loadings which will be evident from study of the section of FIGURE 7. The perimeter of the sixteen sided building is indicated on the plan by the dashed line 3. In this embodiment, the whole building is contained within this perimeter.
Referring to the ground plan of FIGURE 2, and considering the accommodation provided on this fioor, it will be appreciated that as the building functions as a motel it has been convenient for the designer to arrange all the accommodation for guests on the fourth to eighth floors. However, in order that pedestrians may enter and leave the motel whether from the ground floor or from the spiral parking circuit, transit accommodation in the form of lifts and stairs is provided initially within the central well.
Pedestrians enter at the point 4 underneath an appropriate canopy passing along an entrance arcade 4a on each side of which can be conveniently arranged display cases 412 for merchandise bounded by walls 18a, 18b. Passing through glazed swing doors 5 pedestrians arrive in the lift hall 5a. On one side of the lift hall there is provided a pair of passenger lifts, or elevators 6 approached through doors 6a and on the side of the lift hall opposite the entrance doors 5, a flight of steps 7 runs upwardly in the direction of the arrow to constitute the main staircase.
There is also provided an escape staircase 8 which criss-crosses with the main staircase in scissor fashion as indicated on the section of FIGURE 7. This escape staircase is approached through doors 8a from the side of the ramp 9 at the level of the ramp of the section line AA for FIGURE 7. The lift hall is enclosed by solid Walling Ia disposed between that part of the vertical columns .1 which constitute the segmental perimeter of the hall at this level.
Considering next the remaining arrangements on the ground floor in a clockwise direction on the plan from the entrance arcade, the ramp 9 for vehicular trafiic enters through bays B1 and B2. As will be described later with reference particularly to FIGURE 3, this ramp winds around the central well which is defined by the inner ring of columns 1 for three convolutions. It is convenient to include in the description of the ground fioor plan of FIGURE 2, the initial part of this ramp, and occupies the first four bays B1, B2, B3 and B4. For traffic purposes, this ramp is divided (as shown by the arrows), into an incoming (upwardly rising path) 9a and an outgoing (downwardly descending path) 9b. It will normally depend upon the rule of the road of the country concerned, whether the vehicles keep to the right or to the left of the ramp, however, it is important that the vehicles proceeding up the ramp should do so on the outer side of the driveway in order to facilitate parking. Normally a vehicle will stop just beyond a parking bay on the outer side of the spiral and will then reverse into the bay ready to drive forwards and downwardly.
It will thus be seen that the arrangement indicated in the drawing is for a country like England where there 7 is left-hand rule of the road and where the rising spiral to the ramp being clockwise, upwardly moving vehicles are on the left or outside of the spiral. However, in a country where the right-hand rule of the road prevails, which is the case with the majority of the world the upward spiral of the ramp would be an anti-clockwise one and the arrangement illustrated in this specification would be modified accordingly.
The initial slope of the ramp at the entrance portion 9c, and for a little distance beyond it, is fairly steep at an angle of about one in seven. This slope flattens off to an average of about one in twenty-one at the centre of the roadway for the major part of the ramp bay from B3 onwards. The particular position where the ramp first crosses the vertical plane of the section line A-- A is shown as 9d on FIGURE 7, and at this point the height of the ramp above ground level is approximately seven 7 feet. By the time the ramp has reached the position indicated by the wall 10 on FIGURE 2, its surface has attained a height of approximately eight feet. As far as this position, the ramp is solid as indicated by the hatch portion Ilia on FIGURE 7.
To make the best use of space it is convenient from then on to provide accommodation beneath the ramp as will now be described. The wall 10 and another wall 11 form the opposite sides of a goods loading and unloading area 12 (FIGURE 2), the floor of which is situated approximately four feet below ground level so that the clearance from this floor to the underside of the ramp where it passes over this goods area is approximately 12 feet, thus giving headroom for goods vehicles. The area 12 is approached from ground level by a downwardly sloping ramp 12a. Beyond and on one side of the area 12 there is an area 13 which may conveniently be used for the storage of dust bins, and a goods lift 14 is provided communicating with floors above. On the opposite side of the area 12 from the goods lift, there rises a staircase 15, leading into a showroom 16, which conveniently occupies the whole of the remaining periphery of the building around to the side wall 18a of the entrance arcade 4a. This showroom may be subdivided as required. Between the goods lift 14 and the staircase 15 is an area 17 constituting a boiler house for heating the building. It will be appreciated that the headroom in the showroom 16 beneath the ramp is initially about nine feet at the wall 11 and ultimately about eleven feet at the opposite end of the showroom at the wall 18, which forms one boundary of the entrance arcade 4a.
Considering next the arrangements on the spiral ramp, these may be understood by reference to the plan of a complete circuit shown in FIGURE 3, starting at the broken line 19 which corresponds in position to the wall 10 of FIGURE 2. In fact there are three circuits of the ramp constituting the first, second and third floors indicated by I, II and III of the section of FIGURE 7. The ramp 9 enters the first floor at the position on FIGURE 3 where the arrow leaves the broken line 19. At this point, the ramp which has hitherto been only approximately twenty-eight feet wide (this being the radial distance between the inner columns 1 and the outer columns 2) is extended out to its full width of forty-two feet, i.e. to the perimeter of the building. The floor of the ramp is cantilevered over beyond the columns 2 as shown by the reference 20 between the ground and first floors on FIGURE 7. It will thus be seen that the main part of the ramp 9 between the columns 1 and 2, may be used for vehicles 21 and 22 illustrated in FIGURE 3, whilst the remainder of the floor area of the ramp constitutes a parking place for vehicles arranged radially as exemplified by the vehicles 23 (FIGURE 3), two vehicles being located in each bay between each adjacent pair of columns 2, and there being provided space for 32 cars in a full circuit.
Conveniently, a low wall or balustrade is provided at the perimeter of the circuit at 24 together with a raised platform 25 which serves to prevent cars from driving too far outwardly when parking.
To provide access for pedestrians at two intermediate positions on the parking circuit and to enable them to reach the lifts 6, main stairs 7 and escape stair 8, two lift halls 26 are provided located at the levels indicated by the reference 26a on FIGURE 7. As shown in FIG- URE 3, each lift hall 26 has a pair of swing doors 27 which gives access to and from the ramp 9, and doors 28 leading to the passenger lifts 6. On the side of the well diametrically opposite to the lift 6 is an enclosed space 29, within which runs the goods lift 4, which travels between the ground floor and the fifth (restaurant) floor.
Reverting to the ground floor plan FIGURE 2, the main staircase 7 runs upwardly and out of the plane of the figure as can be seen from the lowest flight of this staircase 7 running upwardly from right to left on FIGURE 7. It emerges at 7a into the plane of a lift-hall (FIGURE 3) and continues upwardly in the opposite direction, leaving the plane of the lift hall at 7b, i.e. between floors I and II of the right-hand side of the section of FIGURE 7. The staircase 7 then crosses once more coming into the plane of FIGURE 3 (upper landing) and continuing to the level of 26a between floors II and III on the left-hand side of FIGURE 7. The staircase 7 then rises to a half landing 26b in the centre of the well of FIGURE 7 and turns back up the flight 70 to come into view at foyer level (FIGURE 4). Similarly, the escape staircase 8 runs from left to right and upwardly from ground floor level in FIGURES 2 and 7, coming into the plane of the lift hall at 811 and leaving that plane of FIGURE 3 at 8b. Where the staircase 8 reaches the landing (FIGURE 3) a door 8d is provided from the ramp 9. Thus, passengers on the ramp can either pass into the lift hall through the doors 27 and go up or down using the lift 6 or the main staircase 7, or in emergency, they can pass into the escape area through the doors 8d and go up or down the escape stairs 8. Exactly the same arrangement applies to the lift hall which is located at the upper level 26a between the second and third floors.
FIGURE 4 shows the plan of the fourth floor which constitutes the motel foyer. The main lift hall 30 is reached by the passenger lifts 6 through doors 31, or alternatively by the main staircase 7. In the segmental area outside the ring of columns 1 and behind the passenger lifts, there is a stock or merchandise display room 32 which is reached by doors 33 from the lift hall 30. Additionally, on the side diametrically opposite the display room 32, there is a motel reception room and lounge indicated generally by the reference 34 having a reception area 34a which is reached from the lift hall 30 by the swing doors 35. Between the doors 33 and 35 is a porters lodge 36, behind which, and communicating with the reception area 34a, is a cloakroom 37. Conveniently around the periphery of the building at the edge of the reception area 34a, a reception space 38 is provided for registration of guests, which communicates with a managers room 39. Also, toilets 40 and 41 for men and women are provided where indicated. There is a passage 42 leading from the reception area 34a to the display room 32. The lounge 34 is provided with a bar 43. For communication with floors above the foyer, passenger lifts 44 are provided, located outside the periphery of the inner ring of columns 1; these lifts 44 provide communication between the foyer on the fourth floor, the restaurant on the fifth floor, and the three bedroom floors above the restaurant. Additional communication for the same purpose is provided by a main sta rcase 45 and an escape staircase 46. The escape staircase 46 on the foyer floor, which leads down from the floors above, communicates with the landing 47, which in turn communicates with the escape staircase 8 leading down to ground level. The area 48 may be used as a store.
FIGURE 5 shows the fifth floor which contains the restaurant, kitchen, servery and bar. Access to this floor is by way of the passenger lifts 44 and main staircase 45, which open out on to a lift hall 49. At one side of the lift hall 49, and approached through doors 50, are toilets 51 and 52 for men and women. On the opposite side of the main staircase 45 from the toilets, is provided a cloakroom 53. Doors 54 lead from the lift hall 49 into a bar 55, from which there is an opening 56 leading to the main restaurant area 57. Between the restaurant 57 and the toilets 51 is located a kitchen and store 58 from which doors 59 provide communicationwith the goods lift 4. In the centre of the building, on a floor carried across the well above the l ft hall 30 of the foyer, is a still room and servery 60, and a bar store 61, which communicates with the bar 55. From the still room and servery 60, a door 62 leads into the restaurant 57. From the kitchen 58, a door 63 also leads into the restaurant 57. A further door 64 leads from the restaurant to the escape stairs 46.
The central well defined by the skirt formed by the ring of columns 1 is roofed over above the restaurant as indicated by FIGURE 7. From this level upwards the well is open, to provide light to the inner rows of bedrooms indicated generally at 66 on the section.
The three bedroom floors above the restaurant are identical in layout and are described with reference to FIGURE 6. Access to each bedroom floor is by way of the passenger lifts 44 and the main staircase 45 which both open on to a lift hall 67. An inner ring of bedrooms is provided around the central well 68 which is open at this level, these bedrooms being indicated at 66 on the section of FIGURE 7. From the lift hall a circular passage 69 encircles the inner ring of bedrooms 66, and outside the passage 69 is an outer ring of bedrooms shown as 70 on the section of FIGURE 7. The escape stairs 46 communicate with passage 69 through doors 71. A linen store 72 is provided approached by a passage 73 leading into the lift hall 67.
The walls separating the bedrooms 66 are arranged radially so far as is possible. The bedrooms themselves are, so far as can be arranged, modular in plan form, that is to say individual bedrooms are either repeated identically or are planned to fit with complementary bedrooms which are mirror images. For example, on FIGURE 6, the bedrooms 66a are all identical, whilst bedrooms 66b are identical and complementary to bedrooms 66a. Each of these bedrooms has a toilet area 73. The two bedrooms 75 and 75a are not identical with any of the other bedrooms.
A similar modular plan is provided for the outer bedrooms 70 (FIGURE 7). Here a number of double bedrooms 70a of identical shape are provided. Similar double bedrooms 7% which are mirror images of the bedrooms 70a are also provided, and interspersed between them are single bedrooms 70c and other single bedrooms 70d which are mirror images of the single bedrooms 700. These bedrooms also have their own toilet areas indicated generally at 74 and shown in detail at 74a and 74d.
The description which next follows refers to FIGURES 8 to 13 in which the building is an hotel constructed on a site where it is convenient to extend the ground laterally in the manner of a plinth to provide restaurant and cloakroom facilities at ground level.
Referring first to FIGURES 8 and 13, the load carrying skirt structure is constituted by an inner ring of columns 101, sixteen in number, Which are arranged symmetrically around an inner well, which latter is, for the first few floors, filled in mainly by staircases and lifts. Surrounding the inner row and spaced therefrom is an outer row of columns 102 disposed symmetrically and radially about the inner row.
It will be seen that although the building is predominantly a sixteen sided tower, for convenience and economy on the site, as indicated in FIGURE 8, the ground floor plan has been extended in the form of an irregularly shaped plinth, beyond the perimeter of the tower, which perimeter is indicated on the plan by the dotted line 103.
Considering first the accommodation provided within the walled area on the ground floor which is indicated by the solid line 120, pedestrians enter through a main entrance 104 underneath a canopy, the extent of which is indicated by a chain dotted line. Passing through glazed swing doors 105 pedestrians arrive in the hotel foyer 106, in one corner of which is an area 107 set aside for reception and management, and in the opposite corner of which is an area 108 set aside as a cloakroom for coats and hats. From the hotel foyer 106, there is access through a pair of doors 109 in a glass partition 110 to a 1% .public restaurant 111 which may be used both for corn venience of hotel customers and for passer by trade, for which purpose an additional entrance 112 is provided.
From one corner of the restaurant 112 an area is set aside indicated generally as 113 for public toilets. An area 114 contains kitchen, stores and staff rooms for serving the public restaurant. Staff toilets are provided at 115. From the kitchen extends an arcuate servery 116 defined on one side by a curved wall 117 which forms an infilling between five of the columns 101, and on the other side by another curved wall 118 with doors giving access to the restaurant 111.
The ground floor premises above described are surrounded by an outer wall, indicated generally by a solid line 120, which is appropriately provided with doors and windows (not shown) in conventional manner at the discretion of the designer. Where these premises extend beyond the perimeter of the main structure indicated by the dotted line 103, they are provided with a flat roof (not shown). The initial part of the ramp, is illustrated in FIGURE 8 by the area .121. Conveniently, the ramp is divided into an incoming (upwardly rising) path and an outgoing (downwardly descending) path. The portion of the ramp illustrated in FIGURE 8 is initially sloped upwards from the ground at an angle of about one in seven. From the entrance to the ramp where it traverses the dotted line 103 defining the perimeter of the main structure, to the point at which it passes over the wall 122, is a distance of approxiarntely forty-two fee-t. Thus, by the time the ramp has reached the wall 122, its upper surface is about six feet above ground level. Referring to FIGURE 13, it will be seen that the ramp 121 at the point where it crosses the section line ZZ has climbed to about five feet. The wall 122 and the wall 122a together define a space which may be used for a boiler house 123. For this purpose the floor of the boiler house 123 is sunk two or three feet below ground level to give headroom underneath the ramp. The boiler house is therefore approached by another downwardly sloping ramp indicated generally at 123a.
Considering next the layout within the inner well of the building defined by the columns 101, there is provided a pair of passenger lifts 124, which lifts are approached by doors leading 011 the hotel foyer 106. There are also provided within the well a pair of staircases which crisscross each other scissor-fashion as will be described. The main staircase indicated by 125, is approached through swing doors 126 from the foyer 106 and after one right-angled turn rises upwardly in the direction of the arrow passing out of the plane of FIGURE 8 where indicated by the broken line 127. Rising in a diametrically opposite direction is an escape staircase 128 which is approached through doors 129 leading otf the ramp 121. The escape staircase passes out of the plane of FIGURE 8 at the broken line 130.
Diametrically opposite the passenger lift 12%, but on the other side of the well is a goods lift 131 which is lo cated in a sub-basement 132 somewhat below ground level and which is approached by a ramp 133 leading down from ground level. The ramp 133 must be sufliciently steep to allow headroom for vehicles entering the area 133 as they pass under the continuation of the main ramp 121 which, by the time it has reached a point above the area 132 will have risen to approximately eight feet above ground level. The floor of the basement 132 is therefore located about four feet below ground level, to provide at least ten feet of headroom for vehicles.
Considering next the parking arrangements on the spiral ramp, these may be understood by reference to that part of the ramp 121 shown in FIGURE 8, and by FIG- URE 9 which shows a typical circuit above ground floor level, and by that part of FIGURE 10 indicated by the reference 134 which shows the final segment of the ramp where it rises up to the level of the display room floor. Considering FIGURE 9, the upward spiral of the ramp is indicated by the arrow 135. That part of the shaded portion 136 of the ramp positioned between the section line Z-Z and the dotted line YY is shown both on FIGURE 8 and on FIGURE 9. Considering the section of FIGURE 13, the ramp 121 comes into view at the vertical plane of the section line ZZ and winds around upwardly in a clockwise direction outside the columns 191 defining the well. The floor of the ramp is constituted by a reinforced concrete platform carried on the inner pillars 102 and the other pillars 102 which are seen in diminishing perspective on the section view of FIG- URE 13. The floor of the ramp, indicated extends outwardly at 136a for substantially the whole of the distance covered by the ramp, being cantilevered out from the columns 102 to the outer perimeter 103 of the main structure. As shown on FIGURE 9, radial parking space for two cars of an average size is provided in each bay between adjacent pillars 102, two such cars being shown on FIGURE 9 and indicated by the reference 137. These cars are parked radially and arranged in such a manner that clearance is provided for vehicles passing up and down the ramp. After completing three circuits the ramp reaches the area 134 in FIGURE 10, which is also indicated on the section on FIGURE 13. Referring to FIGURE 10 the ramp comes into view at 134a approximately eight feet below the average floor level of FIGURE 10. It rises upwardly on an average slope of 1 in 33 as far as the portion 13 1b where the end of the car park area is defined by a wall 138. Considering the remaining part of the plan of FIGURE 10, which may be termed the third floor of the building, the wall 138 is shown in perspective on FIGURE 13. Beyond the wall 138 is an area 139 for use as changing rooms and working accommodation for kitchen staff. The area 139 is approximately four feet below the average floor level of FIGURE 10. A wall 140 forms the other radial boundary of the area 139 and divides it from the area 141 which, in the embodiment being described, is intended as a commercial display room, being hired out to commercial firms for the purposes of advertising their goods. Continuing clockwise round the building, the area 141 is defined radially between the walls 140 and 142. Beyond the wall 142 in a clockwise direction is an area 143 for toilets intended to be used by the general public entering or leaving the car park area.
Considering next the arrangements for interfloor communication between the ground floor of FIGURE 8, the several circuits of the ramp of FIGURE 9 and the display room floor of FIGURE 10, the passenger lifts 124 have no communication with the first two circuits of the parking ramp, but one of them communicates with the floor of FIGURE 10 through a door 124a which allows passengers to emerge on to the landing of the cloakroom area 143. The goods lift 131 has no communication with any of the circuits of the ramp, but may, if desired, communicate with the floor of FIGURE 10 through a side door leading out on to a landing 145.
The main and escape staircases 125 and 128, respec tively illustrated in FIGURE 8, cross and re-cross one above the other as illustrated in FIGURE 13, these staircases being illustrated as they pass through FIGURE 9 and finally emerging respectively at 125a and 128a on FIGURE 10. The main staircase 125 emerges at the level of the display room on to a landing 146 from which doors 147 lead into the display room 141. The escape stair 128 arrives at the point 12811 at a level approximating to the end 1341: of the car park, which is some distance below the level of the display room (FIGURE 10). These escape stairs then proceed upwardly to a half landing 148 opposite the doors to the staff room 139 and again proceed upwardly to a landing 149 on the same level as the display room 141.
It will thus be seen that the staircases from the ground floor up to the level of FIGURE 10 are contained in the central'well of the structure, but from this point upwardly, the main and escape staircases are contained in an outer segmental portion of the structure that will be described later.
FIGURE 11 shows the restaurant floor of the hotel which is a continuous floor indicated by the reference on FIGURE 13, extending across the whole structure and forming a ceiling to the lower part of the central well. This restaurant floor comprises a restaurant 151 occupying a half-segment of the structure and communicating by doors 152 with the central servery 153 located over the top of the central well. On one side of the restaurant 151 in a clockwise direction is a kitchen and stores area 154 which communicates through a door 155 with the restaurant, and through doors 156 with the servery 153. Beyond the area 154 is a bar storage area 157 which communicates through a door 158 with a continuation of the lift lobby 159. The restaurant 151 extends in an anti-clockwise direction to the area 160 which forms a public bar served from the serving area 161, which communicates by a door 162 with the bar storage room 157. Doors 163 lead from the public bar 160 into the lift lobby 159. The passenger lifts 124 communicate with the lift lobby 159 through doors 164. Diametrically opposite, the goods lift 131 communicates with the landing 165 and thence through a door 166 with the resturant 151. There is an opening 167 from the landing 165 to an escape staircase 171, and an opening 168 from the lift lobby 159 to main staircase 170. Also adjacent the lift lobby is a cloakroom area 169. From the floor of FIGURE 10 to the floor of FIGURE 11, the main staircase 170 rises upwardly in the direction of the arrow and similarly the escape staircase 171 also rises upwardly, communicating with each floor by a landing.
A hoist 172 communicates from the kitchen 154 with the bedroom floors directly above, as will be later described.
The three bedroom floors above the restaurant are identical in layout and are described with reference to FIGURE 12. As was the case with the first embodiment of FIGURES l to 7, the bedrooms are largely modular in plan and include an inner ring of bedrooms disposed around the open well at the center and an outer ring of bedrooms disposed around the periphery of the building. The passenger lifts 124 which rise upwardly from the restaurant floor below open out on to a lift lobby 174 at one side of which is located a main staircase 170. An annular passageway 175 encircles the building running between the inner row and outer row of bedrooms. From the lift lob'by 174 access is gained to the passage 175 through swing doors 176, on one side of these swing doors there is a linen room 177 and on the other side a room 178 which may be used for cleaners. Diametrically opposite the lift lobby a short passage 179 leads ofif the annular passage 175 to the escape staircase 171. Along side this passage is a landing 180 giving access to the hoist 172 from the kitchen for the purpose of serving meals in bedrooms.
Typical bedroom layouts are shown for the single bedrooms 181 and 182 on the inner row and for the double bedrooms 183 and 184 on the outer row, and the single bedroom 185 on the outer row.
These bedrooms respectively have their own bathrooms 181A, 182A, 183A, 184A, 185A.
It is to be understood that the basic structure of the invention, including the central well surrounded by rings of columns, and an external rising spiral ramp for car parking, can be modified in numerous ways. The two embodiments described have both been for hotel types of building, but modifications in plan and layout which are obvious to the architect can easily be made to provide office or domestic accommodation in the upper floors.
Moreover, as will be seen from the diagrammatic FIG- URES 14 and 15, such structures can be grouped.
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|U.S. Classification||52/30, D25/5, 52/175, 52/73, 52/236.1|
|International Classification||E04H6/08, E04H3/00, E04H14/00|
|Cooperative Classification||E04H6/08, E04H14/00, E04H3/00|
|European Classification||E04H14/00, E04H6/08, E04H3/00|