US 3290845 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 13, 196 M. K. sNmER 3,290,845
PREFABRICATED INSULATED PANEL SYSTEM :original 'Filed Jam. s, 1965 ssheeis-sheeft "a n INVENTOR Man/ff? A( 5y/dew A TTQRALLEYS Dec. 13, 1966 M. K. SNYDER PREFABRICATED INSULATED PANEL SYSTEM Sheets-Sheet 5 Original Filed Jan. 8, 1963 I N VE N TOR. ///a/'w/Y f( Snyder l l l Y l j 7mm/zwem.
United States Patent C) PREFABRICATED INSUATED PANEL SYSTEM Marvin K. Snyder, Overland Park, Kans., assignor to Entier Manufacturing Company, Kansas City, Mo., a
corporation of Missouri Continuation of application Ser. No. 250,177, Ian. S,
1963. This application May 24, 1965, Ser. No. 461,595
7 Claims. (Cl. 52--478) This application is a continuation of my copending application Ser. No. 250,177, filed Ian. 8, 1963, now abandoned.
This invention relates generally to prefabricated buildings and deals more particularly with an improved construction therefor.
One object of the invention is to provide a building panel having special properties of strength, insulation and ease of handling which render it eminently suitable as a single curtain wall having inner and outer weather and puncture resistant surfaces separated by a lightweight insulating media. The panel, according to my invention, is distinguished from other panels principally by its simple construction, by the absence of heat loss paths in the direction of thickness of the panel and by the great facility with which it can be incorporated in walls or roofs.
Another object of the invention is to provide a panel type building construction in which a novel arrangement is employed for effecting a tight seal at fthe joints between adjacent panels. One of the features of the invention in this respect resides in the formation of each panel with joint forming components which cooperate to complete the joint and seal at the time of assembly.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a self-sealing joint for building panels, the joint including a sealing material which is made a component of and incorporated as a part of the panel structure prior to delivery to the place of assembly.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide an insulated, metal faced panel which is constructed as a unitary structure with a minimum of fasteners and which is capable of being handled, assembled in multiple as a wall structure and *used with little or no danger of delamination.
Other andfurther objects of the invention together with the features of novelty appurtenant thereto will appear in the course of the following description.
In the accompanying drawings which form a part of the specification and are to be read in conjunction therewith, and in which like reference numerals indicate like parts in the various views;
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a partially completed building embodying the panel system of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary perspective View looking downwardly toward the upper edge of the vertical side wall and illustrating the joint arrangement along the edges of the panels, the far right-hand panel fragment being shown in cross-section for purposes of illustration;
FIG. 3 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary cross-section taken through a joint between two panels, being taken alongv line 3 3 of FIG. 2 in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 4 is a reduced scale end view of a typical panel constructed according to the invention;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a ridge forming member embodying a modified form of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary transverse section showing a roof pur-1in and the joinder between the end edges of the ridge forming members and roof panels constructed according to the invention, being taken generally along line 6 6 of FIG. 1 in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 7 is a highly enlarged fragmentary cross-section ICC taken generally along the line 7-7 of FIG. S in the direction of the arrows; and
FIG. 8 is an enlarged cross-section through a joint utilizing the modied form of the invention of FIG. 7.
Referring now to the drawings and initially to FIGS. l-4 inclusive, there is shown in FIG. i, at a stage of partial completion, a typical building in which the walls and roof are constructed in accordance with the present invention. The building here shown has been chosen principally for purposes of illustration. As will become evident as the description proceeds, the invention is equally applicable to other shapes and sizes of buildings or other enclosures.
The building door 10 comprises in this instance a poured concrete slab having the near front edge 1l and side edge 12. A series of rigid arch-like frames 13 have columns 141 secured to the lloor. The crossbeams of the frames provide support for roof purlins 15. Additional columns or posts 16 and cooperating cross members may be used to complete the basic framework of the building as may the usual tie rods and braces. However, since these details play no part in the present invention, further description is believed unnecessary.
The typical side wall construction involves a plurality of elongate rectangular panels P which preferably are of a length to extend from the floor to the roof and which abut at their inside upper edges against an eave member i7, which in this case is a channel section (see FIG. 2) running along the outside edge of the rigid frame assembly. The lower edges of the panel are disposed in a corner of a Z member M running along and secured to the edge of the floor structure 10. n
The basic panel construction can best be seen in FIGS. 2-4 inclusive. Each panel is of rectangular configuration and has a central insulating core or slab 18 faced sition and thickness provided at uniform intervals with longitudinal grooves 19a. However, the external skin designs or proliles have no significance to the invention except to the extent that they cooperate at the longitudinal side edges to form the joints between adjacent panels. This will subsequently be brought out in greater detail. Moreover, the skins need not necessarily be metallic. They can be composed of any` protective material which will provide the wall with the desired attributes of strength, weather resistance and appearance.
The central insulating core `13 is a foamed plastic, preferably a rigid polyurethane foam which is foamed in place between the two skins in order that the skins will be adhered to the foam core by the foam itself. While the method of manufacture plays no part in the present invention, it may be noted that the construction is achieved in one way of placing the inner skin v19 in the base of a suitable mold cavity, delivering the components of the polyurethane through a mixing head onto the skin and superimposing the outer skin thereon so that the expanding foam comes into contact therewith during its expansion. The entire panel is then subjected to curing in an oven as necessary. The foam is self-bonding to the skin and while, as will be seen, this bond is not in itself relied upon alone to provide the physical connection between the inner and outer skin, when the assembly is completed, it does provide a unitary panel structure which has suicient integrity to survive normal shipping and handling with a minimum of delamination.
The upright edges of the panels are so formed as t0 cooperate with the edges of adjacent like panels inthe formation of a weather-tight and neatly concealed joint. Extending along the right-hand edge (viewed in FIGS. 2-4 inclusive) of each panel is a member 22 which is generally Z-shaped in cross-section; in the preferred embodiment, this member, hereinafter sometimes called a tie member, extends the full length of the panel. Its lower or inner base leg 22a abuts the inside surface of skin 19 in an extension which projects beyond the foam body. It will be noted that the extension is of such width that it has a portion 19b reversely bent back over the Ibase leg 22a and conforming thereto, preferably extending slightly past the juncture of the base leg with the upstanding leg 22b and bent parallel therewith. The Z-shaped member 22 is therefore clamped firmly to the inner skin. It should be noted at this point that the Z-shaped or tie member is secured to the skin 19 prior to the formation of the cornplete panel so that the upstanding leg 22h serves to conne the foam against lateral expansion. The -outer leg 22C of the Z-shaped member underlies and closely abuts the underside of the outer face of a sidemost major corrugation 20a.
It will further 'be observed that in the reversely bent section 19b of the inner skin, a projection 19d is formed by doubling the material in the form of a longitudinal rib running parallel with and spaced laterally from the outstanding leg 22b of the tie member. In the .preferred embodiment, this rib 19d is spaced suiciently from the tie member as to permit the introduction therebetween of a fastener 2S. The fastener, however, is not a part of the panel per se but is added and incorporated at the time of assembly of the panel with the structure.
One of the important features of the invention is that the tie member 22 is constructed of nonmetallic material having low heat conductivity. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, I use a reinforced plastic composition, preferably a polyester resin reinforced by glass bers, molded into the cross-section. Other materials, so `long as they have good strength properties and are compatible with foam, will be suitable.
As can be seen from FIGS. 3 and 4 in particular, that edge of the panel opposite from the tie member 22 terminates in an outer skin extension extending past the central foam core and capable of overlapping and intertting with the outer skin of an adjacent panel, in this instance a major corrugation. The core edge 18a is so located as to permit interengagement of said skin extension with the adjacent edge of the next panel. It is cut away as at 1gb to provide a rabbeted recess proceeding along the panel edge and disposed to accommodate the fastener 25 and the sealing rib 19d when the panels are assembled. It will be noted that on that edge of the panel opposite from the rib 19d, the inner skin 19 is inset slightly as at 19e and continues inwardly and upwardly to form a generally U-shaped pocket 191i. Within this pocket is carried a yieldable sealing strip 26 which, when the panels are brought together, receives and surrounds the outer edge of the sealing rib 19d. The strip 26 can be composed of any suitable type of seal material for the purpose of sealing the joint against the entrance of water vapor from the inside of the building, for example closed cell vinyl foam or various butyl mastics which are available on the market. So long as the seal has the capacity for deformation as it engages with the rib 19d and will form a seal therearound, it is suitable.
In the mounting of the panels and formation of a wall structure, they are :progressively applied to the framework working, in the illustrated embodiment, from left to right as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 2. For example, referring to FIG. 2, lcentral panel P is applied with its left-hand edge overlapping and interengaging with the right-hand edge of the preceding panel. Blind rivets or fasteners 27 are then applied through the overlapping edge portions in order to secure them together. These fasteners extend not only through the overlapping outer skin portions but also through the outer leg 22C of the tie member 22, as
may be seen in FIG. 3. The right-hand edge of the panel 4is then secured to the frame support by the fasteners 25 which, as is evident, extend not only through the inner skin but also through the inner leg 22a of the tie member. Again, these may conveniently be of the so-called blind rivet type where it is necessary only to work from one side of the panel. However, obviously bolts or other more conventional fasteners may be used as desired.
The next panel can then be added as described above. As the left-hand edge of the panel is intertted with the right-hand edge of the preceding panel, the seal strip 26 interengages with the rib 19d to completely seal the joint. The overlapping portions of the panels are secured by fasteners 27 as previously described.
It will be apparent that Once the panels are assembled, the skins are held together not only by the bonding force of the intervening foam core 1S, but also by the interconnecting tie members 22. The outer skins are secured -by fasteners 27 to the outer legs 22e of the tie members and a direct connection is made with the structural through each tie member and the inner fasteners 25. Notwithstanding the direct connection that is made to the structural, still there is no path for heat transmission directly through the joint in the direction of the thickness of the panels since the tie member is nonmetallic and of extremely low heat conductance.
Turning now to FIGS. S and 6, these figures illustrate a somewhat diiferent form of panel P' which finds particular advantage in the roof construction, particularly at the ridge of the roof. As will be noted, the panel in this instance is curved or bent in an arcuate form, the inner and outer skins 11.9 and 12th having similar curvatures and a foam core 118 separating and being bonded to the skins. The cross-section of the right-l1and edge of the panel of FIG. 5 is shown in FIG. 7 while that of the left-hand edge is shown at the right-hand side of FIG. 8. It will `be noted that as in the preceding embodiment, the left-hand edge is provided with the extension adapted to overlie the right-hand edge of an adjacent panel on the outer surface thereof, while the right-hand edge has the inner skin extension which is reversely bent or folded as at 119a.
It will also be observed from FIGS. 5 and 7 that at the juncture between the foam and the inner skin extension, there is provided a triangular mass 126 of tacky, deformable sealing material which may be of the type generally described in connection with the preceding embodiment and which at the time of manufacture is covered with a removable paper covering llZa which facilitates shipping and handling of the panels without damage to the sealing material or undesirable sticking of the sealing material to items that may come into contact therewith prior to assembly.
It will also be observed from FIG. 5 that the end edges of the ridge panel P', that is those edges on opposite sides of the axis of curvature, are so constructed that the outer skin extends well beyond the foam structure and the inner skin. This is to provide overlapping portions 127 as illustrated in FIG. 5 which seal against rain intrusion when the assembly is completed.
In constructing the roof assembly, the procedure is generally the same as that described in connection with the walls. The outermost roof panels P are laid first, working upwardly toward the center of the roof and lengthwise of the building in progressive fashion. The roof panels can be identical to the side wall panels, with the exception that they can be provided, as shown in FIG. 6, with an outer skin extension on one end edge of the panel which is capable of overlying, in the fashion of a shingle, the adjacent end edge of the panel abutting such end edge. The s-ide edge joints yare the same as shown and described in conjunction with FIGS. 2-4, inlelusive. When the roof panels P have been put in position and have reached the point where the ridge panels P' are to be installed, these can be dropped in place as shown in FIG. l. The joints between the side edges of the ridge panels are formed as shown in FIG. 8. The left-hand inner edge of each panel is seated in the mastic sealing composition with the outer skin extension overlying and sealing against the outer right-hand edge of the panel.
Once the building is completed, the usual trim or flashing 30 can be added as illustrated. However, the trim plays no part in the present invention and, consequently, I have not described it further.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that this invention is one well adapted to attain all of the ends and objects hereinabove set forth together with other advantages which are obvious and which are inherent to ythe structure.
It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are yof utility and may be employed without reference to other features and subcombinations. This is contemplated by and is within the scope of the claims.
As many possible embodiments may be made of the invention without departing from the scope thereof, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted `as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A building construction including a support frame, a pair of building panels arranged with one side edge of each adjacent the other, each panel comprising an outer skin and an inner skin separated by and joined to an intermediate insulation body substantially lling the space between said skins, said side edge on one panel including an extension on the outer skin which overlaps the adjoining portion of the outer skin on the adjacent panel and said side edge on the adjacent panel including an extension on the inner skin overlapping the adjoining portion of the inner skin on said one panel, a rib on said last named extension running lengthwise thereof and extending outwardly, deformable sealing means carried by said one panel and engaged by the outer edge of said rib to form a moisture-tight joint.
2. A building construction as in claim 1 including tie means connected respectively with and extending between said inner and outer skins and operable to hold said outer skin against separation from said insulation body.
3. A building construction as in claim 2 wherein said tie means is nonmetallic.
4. An insulated prefabricated building panel for use in multiple in side-by-side relationship to form a wall comprising inner and outer skins formed of sheet material and separated by and joined to an intermediate insulating layer, the outer skin projecting beyond the insulating layer along one side edge of the panel to form an outer sealing extension, the inner skin projecting beyond the insulating layer along the other side edge to form an inner sealing extension, and means operable to form a moisture-tight seal between said panels adjacent said inner skin when two of such panels are placed in sidebyside relationship with the inner sealing extension of one panel overlapping the inner skin 4of the other panel and the outer sealing extension of the other panel overlapping the outer skin lof said one panel, said means including a deformable sealing composition carried by the panel adjacent said one side edge and a sealing rib carried by the panel adjacent said other side edge, said rib adapted to engage and seat in said composition when said panels are placed in said side-by-side relationship.
5. An insulated prefalbricated building panel adapted to be secured in multiple in side-by-side relationship to an underlying support frame to form a wall comprising inner and outer skins formed of sheet material and separated by and joined to an intermediate insulating layer, the outer skin projecting beyond the insulating layer along one side edge of the panel to form an outer seal-ing extension, the inner skin projecting beyond the insulating layer along the other side edge of the panel to form an inner sealing extension, a rib formed on said inner sealing extension and extending outwardly therefrom, a deformable sealing composition disposed adjacent said one side edge and adapted to engage said rib when two of said panels are placed in sideby-side relationship with the sealing extensions respectively overlapping the inner and outer skins along the abutting side edges, fastener means operable to secure said inner sealing extension to said frame, and a tie member secured to said fastener means and extending outwardly to engage and hold said insulating' layer to said inner skin along said other side edge.
6. A prefabricated insulated building panel for use in multiple in side-by-side relationship to form a wall comprising inner and outer skins formed of sheet material and separated by and joined to an intermediate insulating layer,
the inner skin projecting beyond the insulating layer along one side of the edge of the panel to form an inner sealing extension,
`a tie member extending between said extension and the outer skin, said tie member being generally Z-shaped in cross section and running along one side edge with one transverse leg of the Z adjacent the extension and the opposite leg of the Z adjacent the 'outer skin between the skin and the insulation, said extension having a portion thereof folded back over said one leg of said tie member along the length thereof whereby to grip said one leg, the folded back portion having a projecting rib formed therein, the other edge of said panel having associated therewith a sealing composition engageable by said rib of another panel.
7. A building construction including a support frame, a pair of building panels arranged with one side edge of each adjacent the other, each panel comprising an outer metal skin and an inner metal. skin separated by and joined to an intermediate insulating body substantially filling the space between said skins, said side edge on one panel including an extension on the outer skin which overlaps the adjoining portion of the outer skin on the adjacent panel and said side edge on the adjacent panel including an extension on the inner skin overlapping the adjoining portion of the inner skin on said one panel, a tie member of nonrnetallic composition extending along said side edge of said adjacent panel and forming a part of said panel, said tie member extending between the inner skin extension and outer skin and generally Z-shaped in cross section with one transverse leg between the youter skin and insulation body and opposite transverse leg adjacent the inner skin extension, said inner skin extension having a portion folded back over said opposite leg along the length thereof whereby to grip and reinforce said tie member, inner fastener means securing the extension on the inner skin and leg of the tie member adjacent thereto to said frame, and -outer fastener means securing the extension on the outer skin of said one panel to the outer skin of the adjacent panel and leg of the tie member adjacent thereto.
References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,593,718 7/1926 Gehnrich 52-578 2,696,281 12/ 1954 `Hedgren et al 52-553 2,797,130 A6/19'57 Renno 52-620 X 2,912,725 1'1/1959l Ries 52-589 3,042,157 7/1962 Dorfman 52-579 3,045,293 7/1962 Potchen 52-30-9 3,048,244 y8/ 1962 Callahan et al. 52-408 3,059,734 10/1962 Tripp 52-86 3,123,186 3/ 1964 Adkinson et al 52--265 FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.
R. S. VERMUT, Assistant Examiner.