US 3290884 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 13, 1966 J. c. RAIN EY 3 5 POWER SYSTEM Filed Feb. 2, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. (/4ME5 c. A AM/EV BY @mQQMu.
Dec. 13, 1966 c, RAINEY 3,290,884
POWER SYSTEM Filed Feb. 2, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 TO TURBINE 2 5 FROKIN SOURCE IN VENTOR. (14/1455 6 RAM/5V BY Wad United States Patent Ofiice 3,296,884 Patented Dec. 13, 1366 3,290,884 POWER fiYSTEM .lames C. Rainey, Grove titty, Pa. Filed Feb. 2, 1966, Ser. No. 533,748 6 Claims. ((11. 60-59) This invention relates to an improved power system and more particularly to an improved power system employing a turbine, which system is more etficient and operates more effectively than those heretofore known.
A power system in accordance with my invention employs the same exhaust air over again, thereby contributing to maximum efiiciency. My system utilizes a turbine which also has four air supply manifolds strategically placed around the turbine rotor and arranged to both supply and to recirculate air thereto. The supply of air to the manifolds can be controlled by a throttle to enable the turbine speed to be regulated as easily as in an automobile. Further, there is never any back pressure on the turbine rotor, thereby contributing to improved operation. My invention further contemplates an improved means for supplying power fluid, usually air, to the turbine.
It is, therefore, a principal object of my invention to provide an improved power system for supplying air to a turbine.
Other objects and advantatges of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment thereof, reference being made to the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is a somewhat schematic view in elevation of a turbine, an air supply tank, and a compressor embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary, enlarged view in cross section of the turbine shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, somewhat schematic view with parts broken away and with parts in vertical cross section of the air tank shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a detailed view in vertical cross section of a pressure valve used with the tank of FIG. 3; and
FIG. 5 is a detailed view in cross section taken along the line 5-5 of FIG. 3.
Referring more particularly to FIG. 1, my overall power system according to the invention includes a turbine 10, a power gas or air supply tank system 12, and a source 14 of power air, preferably in the form of a compressor. Referring also to FIG. 2, the turbine includes a turbine housing 16 and a turbine rotor 18. The rotor 18 is mounted on a power take-off shaft 20 rotatably carried by end walls of the housing 16 and includes a plurality of radially extending spokes 22 and a rim 24. A plurality of turbine blades 26 extend outwardly from the rib 24 toward an inner surface 28 of the housing 116.
Power air is supplied generally tangentially to the housing 16 from a supply inlet 34 positioned generally perpendicularly to the driving surface of the blades 26. An inlet line 36 communicates with the inlet 34 and is connected with a recirculating housing 38 forming a recirculating chamber 40. Near the other end of the chamber 40 is a return line 42 communicating with an exhaust outlet 44 in the housing 16. A check valve 45 also can be located in the line 42, if desired. A passage or nozzle 46 is located in the chamber 40 and is directed toward the line 36.
A branch supply line 48 is connected to the housing 38 and supplies power air to the passage 46. As this air is emitted from the passage 46 toward the line 36, it entrains return power air from that portion of the chamber 40 communicating with the return line 42 and the return outlet 44. Remaining air is exhausted through a main exhaust outlet 50 which preferably returns the air to the source 14 through lines 52 and a main line 54 (FIG. 1). By using the recirculating system, a maximum amount of energy is derived from the power air and yet the turbine rotor is not subjected to back pressure due to the low pressure achieved by the power air emitted through the passage. Supply of power air through the passage 46 can be controlled by valves 56 with the positions of the valves being determined by suitable linkages which enable the speed of the turbine rotor to be easily controlled. Also, if desired, a heating element 53 can be placed in the line 36 to supply additional heat and energy for the power air.
The power air for the turbine is supplied from a reservoir tank 60 (FIG. 3) constituting part of the system 12. For this purpose, the tank 60 is connected through a main supply line 62 and branch supply lines 64 as shown in FIG. 1. Liquid is located in the tank 66 and is held at a constant level by means of a valve 66, a valve seat 63, and a float 70 controlling the valve 66. A signal wire 71 energizes a signal when contacted by the float '76 if the valve 66 leaks. The tank has a liquid recirculating system provided by a first outlet line 72, a first return line 74, and a recirculating chamber 76, with the return line 74 terminating in a coil 77 (FIG. 5) having openings 78 which can be provided with tubes 79 extending above the level of the liquid. The chamber 76 has a restricted passage or nozzle iitl through which the liquid flows, being entrained by air from an additional return line 81. The air pressure in the tank 60 provides motivating force for recirculating the liquid in the tank 60. A pressure valve 82 regulates the flow through the line 72.
Another recirculating system is provided for the power gas or air in the tank 64), with this system including a second recirculating outlet line 84, the main inlet line 81, and second and third recirculating chambers 86 and 88. The chamber 86 has a second restricted passage or nozzle 90 which causes additional air to be drawn through a vent passage 92 when a negative pressure is established by the air flowing through the passage 90 and directed into a connecting passage 94 connecting the two chambers 86 and 88. A check valve 96 is located in the passage 92 to aid in controlling flow therethrough and preventing flow in the reverse direction. However, the check valve 96 can have a pin hole therein to relieve pressure, as will be more apparent subsequently. In the connecting passage 94, a heating element 98 is positioned to heat the air passing thereby and provide additional energy. The heated air then flows through a restricted passage Mill in the chamber 88, being entrained by main supply power air supplied from the source 14 through a main supply line 102. The main supply air and the recirculated air are then supplied through the chamber 76 Where the air entrains the liquid from the line 72, with both the air and liquid then supplied to the tank 60 where the air and liquid are separated by the openings 78 in the coil 77. The coil 77 then discharges the liquid near the inlet for the line 72. A valve 104 controls flow through the power fluid or air recirculating system and is similar in construction to the valve 82. The continuous circulation of liquid and air through the lines 72 and 84 establishes what I term an auto-dynamic force which greatly reduces the energy necessary to drive the compressor by relieving back pressure on the compressor.
Beside additional air being drawn through the passage 92, air can also be drawn through an L-shaped drain passage 106, being entrained by the liquid as it flows around an elbow 108. Additional check valves 110 and 112 are located in the lines 74 and 106 to prevent opposite flow when the air from the main source 14 is shut off. Spring operated check valves 114 and 116 at the ends of the restricted passages 80 and prevent the air from entering the restricted passages of the chambers or injectors when the power air is again supplied from the source 14 to the unit 12.
The valve 104 is shown more particularly in FIG. 4. This valve opens when power air is supplied under pressure through the line 102 from the source 14 and closes when the source of supply is shut off. In the embodiment shown, the valve 104 includes a housing 118 forming a cylinder 120 receiving air through a line 122 from the line 102. A plunger 124 is located in the cylinder with a stem 126 extending upwardly through a blind passage 128 and across the line 84. The stem 126 has an orifice 130 which is aligned with the recirculating line 84 when pressure is applied to the plunger 124. When no pressure is exerted on the plunger, a spring 132 urges the plunger and the stem downwardly so that the stem then blocks the line 84. r
The valve 104 can be held in the open position by means of a lock pin 134 engaging a recess 136 in the plunger 124. The pin will then hold the plunger in the upper, open position until a magnetic coil 138 is energized which will withdraw the pin 134 normally held in by a spring 140.
The plunger also can he held in the closed position until a pressure of a predetermined magnitude is exerted on it. For this purpose, a holding pin 142 is received in the recess 136 and urged into the recess by a spring 144. The compressive force on the spring 144 is controlled by an adjusting screw 146 which determines the amount of pressure needed to overcome the force of the spring 144 and move the plunger 124 to the open position. The valve 82 is similar to the valve 104 but has no locking arrangements.
When the source of air is shut off, a check valve 146 closes and the pressure upstream thereof drops, thus permitting the valve 104- to close. The valve 82 then closes as pressure in a line 148 drops, with liquid in that portion of the line '72 therebelow draining into the line 106, the line 72 having a pin hole or vent 150 to aid the draining. This leaves the line 72 empty when the air is again supplied to the system. The line 106 will be emptied again when the air and liquid are recirculated.
A resume of the power system follows: Power air is supplied tangentially to the housing 16 from the inlet 34 directed perpendicularly to the driving surface of the blades 26 with the air exhausted through the outlets 4-4 and 50. The air is supplied from the reservoir tank 60 and the exhausted air from the turbine is returned to the source 14 and then supplied through the line 102. Heated air from the passage 100 is entrained by the main power supply air with the supplied air and recirculated air in turn entraining recirculated liquid from the line 72. The air and liquid are subsequently separated in the tank 60 with the air supplied to the turbine. Additional air can be drawn through the passages 92 and 106.
When the system of FIG. 3 is initially operated, the tank 60 is approximately one-fourth full of liquid. When the compressor or other power source 1 is started, the pressure in the tank 60 is raised to 35 p.s.i., for example. Pressure is transmitted through the line 122 to open the valve 104, with the pressure downstream of the valve 104- then serving to open valve 82. The portions of the lines 84 and 72 below the valves 104 and 82 are empty so that the air and liquid supplied to the lines 84 and 72 can flow with an initial rush through the system, opening the valves 116, 114, and 110 abruptly. The liquid discharges into an already established stream of liquid flowing upwardly through the line 72 from the discharge coil 77. This reduces effective tank pressure and reduces the energy necessary to drive the air compressor or other source, which is the main object of the special air tank circulating system. The air is separated by the tubes 79 and the openings 78 and again is recirculated through the line 84. When the compressor is stopped, the valve 146 is closed and valve 104 then close-s along with valve 82. Lines 72 and 84 empty or drain, with the spring-loaded valves 114 and 116 then closing to maintain empty the lower portions of the lines 72 and 84.
Various modifications of the above described embodiment of my invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art, and it is to be understood that such modifications can be made without departing from the scope of my invention, if they are within the spirit and tenor of the accompanying claims.
1. A power system comprising a turbine including a turbine housing, a shaft, a rotor mounted on said shaft, said rotor having a plurality of blades spaced around the periphery thereof, exhaust means for receiving power air from said turbine, and means for supplying power air to said turbine including a tank for containing power air and a liquid, means for controlling the level of liquid in said tank, means for recirculating liquid in said tank, means for circulating power air from said tank to said liquid recirculating means, and a supply passage for supplying power air to said turbine.
2. A power system according to claim 1 characterized by said liquid recirculating means comprising means forming a first recirculating chamber, first outlet passage means for circulating liquid from said tank to said first chamber, first return passage means connecting said first chamber and said tank, a nozzle in said first chamber communicating with said first outlet means and directed toward said first return passage means.
3. A power system according to claim 2 characterized by means forming additional recirculating chamber means, second outlet passage means for circulating power air from said tank to said additional chamber means, additional nozzle means in said additional chamber means communicating with said second outlet passage means, additional return passage means connecting said additional chamber means with said first chamber means around said first nozzle, whereby air in said additional return passage means aids in entraining liquid through said first nozzle, the recirculating of the air and liquid relieving the pressure of said tank, a compressor, and supply passage means for supplying power air to said additional chamber means from said compressor.
4. A power system according to claim 2 characterized by a coil in said tank below the level of the liquid therein,
said coil communicating with said first return passage, said coil having an opening below the liquid level in said tank and a plurality off passages extending to openings above the liquid level.
5. A turbine comprising a turbine housing, a shaft, a rotor mounted on said shaft, said rotor having a plurality of blades around the periphery thereof, an inlet in said housing for directing power air toward said blades, an exhaust passage in said housing for receiving air from the space between said blades, and means for supplying power air to said inlet, said power air supply means including a tank for containing power air and a liquid, means for controlling the level of liquid in said tank, means forming a first recirculating chamber, first outlet passage means for circulating liquid from said tank to said first chamber, first return passage means connecting said first chamber and said tank, a nozzle in said first chamber communicating with said first outlet passage means and directed toward said first return passage means, means forming a second recirculating chamber, second outlet passage means for circulating power air from said tank to said second chamber, connecting passage means connected to said second chamber, a second nozzle in said second chamber communicating with said second outlet passage means and directed toward said connecting passage means, means forming a third chamber communicating with said connecting passage means, second return passage means connecting said third chamber means with said first chamber means around said first nozzle whereby air in said seQQnd 6mm p ssage aneans aids in entraining liquid through said first nozzle, a third nozzle in said third chamber and directed toward said third return passage means, means in said connecting passage for heating power air passing therethrough, and a supply passage for supplying power air to said third chamber around said third nozzle.
6. A turbine comprising a turbine housing, a shaft, a rotor mounted on said shaft, said rotor having a plurality of blades uniformly spaced around the periphery thereof, an inlet in said housing for directing power air toward said blades, an exhaust passage in said housing for receiving part of the air from the space between said blades, means forming a recirculating chamber, a restricted passage in said chamber directed toward the inlet, a supply passage communicating with said restricted passage, means for supplying power air to said supply passage and said restricted passage for supplying air to said inlet along with air from said exhaust passage, and an additional exhaust passage spaced from said first exhaust passage to exhaust from said blade spaces power air not previously exhausted by said first exhaust passage.
No references cited.
EDGAR W. GEOGHEGAN, Primary Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,290,884 December 13, 1966 James C. Rainey certified that error appears in the above numbered pat- It is hereby id Letters Patent should read as ent requiring correction and that the sa corrected below.
Column 1, after line 5, insert the following paragraph:
This application is a continuation-in-part of my co-pendlng application, Serial No. 409,750 filed November 9, 1964, and now abandoned.
Signed and sealed this 26th day of September 1967.
ERNEST W. SW IDER Attesting Officer EDWARD J. BRENNER Commissioner of Patents