US 3291229 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 13, 1966 R. T. HOUSTON 33 L DRILLING AND CURING APPARATUS AND METHOD Filed Nov. 4. 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTR.
BY Reese T Houston Atforneys Dec. 13, 1966 R. T. HOUSTON DRILLING AND CORING APPARATUS AND METHOD 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 4, 1963 INVENTOR.
Reese 7. Housfon Dec. 13, 1966 R. T. HOUSTON DRILLING AND CORING APPARATUS AND METHOD 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed. NOV. 4, 1963 a a u INVENTOR BY Reese I Housfon l @Ew/ Aiforneys United States Patent 3,291,229 DRILLING AND CURING APPARATUS AND METHUD Reese T. Houston, Santa Susana, Califi, assignor to Spencer Webb, Los Angeles, Calif. Filed Nov. 4, 1963, Ser. No. 321,243 6 Claims. ((31. 1175-60) This invention relates generally to a drilling and coring apparatus and method, and more particularly to a coring apparatus and method for continuously delivering core samples of earth strata as it is being drilled. The invention is also directed to a drill bit for use with the apparatus.
In the present state of the art, core samples are obtained by removal of the drill strand and bit from the drill hole and inserting into the drill hole a coring tool or bit. After the core sample is taken, the drill strand and drill bit must he reintroduced into the hole and drilling operation continued until the desired strata is reached. The latter can only be determined by taking successive core samples. The drilling operation is considerably delayed because of the time consumed in switching back and forth between the conventional drill bit and coring bit.
It is a general object of the present invention to provide a continuous coring apparatus and method.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a continuous coring apparatus and method in which core samples are continuously obtained during the drilling operation.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus and method in which core samples are floated through the drill bit and stem and collected at the top of the drill stem.
It is still a further object of the present invention to provide an improved drill bit.
These and other objects of the invention will become more clearly apparent from the following description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Referring to the drawing:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view showing a drilling apparatus suitable for use in the invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged view of a portion of the drilling apparatus showing the tower and drive motors associated therewith;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged view of the rotary seal at the upper end of the drill stern;
FIGURE 4 is a partial view showing the spaced rails which serve to receive the slide plate which mounts the drill stern drive for vertical movement;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view showing the pull-down and hoist gear box;
FIGURE 6 is a schematic view, partly in section, of the drilling apparatus showing coring during a drilling operation; and
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged View of the drill bit used in the present invention.
The drilling apparatus includes a supporting base 11 which serves to mount cyclonic separators 12, a vacuum pump 13, a dust bag 14, an oil bath 16, valves 17, and hydraulic cylinders 18 and 19. A lever 21 is pivoted on the frame 22 and engages a link 23 which is pivotally connected to the arm 24. By activating the hydraulic cylinder 18, the arm 24 can be lifted and lowered to position the tower 26 to be presently described in detail.
When the drilling apparatus is mounted on a truck 3,ZLZZ9 Patented Dec. 13, 1%66 bed, it may be desirable, when driving from one location to another, to rotate the tower 26 into a horizontal position as shown in dotted line. The hydraulic cylinder 19 operates to drive the piston and associated arm 27 to rotate the tower 26 about the pivot point 28 to rotate it into its horizontal position. The tower generally overlies the remainder of the apparatus.
The vacuum pump 13 is suitably driven by an internal combustion engine or the like through a belt which rides over the pulley 31.
The lower end of the tower 26 carries earth-engaging toes 37. Suitably attached to the tower is a plate 38 including a bracket 39. A suitable drill shaft bearing is carried by the plate. The bearing also guides the drill shaft or stem as it is moved up and down during a drilling operation.
At the top of the drill stem, there is provided a suitable motor 41, to be presently described in detail, which, through a transmission, drives the drill stem 42 and associated drill bit 43. A motor 44 is provided for lifting and lowering the motor 41 and drill stem 42 through a suitable transmission and chain drive.
Referring more particularly to FIGURES 2 and 5, the tower is shown partly in section. The motor 44 for lifting and lowering the drill stem and motor 41 comprises a hydraulic motor 44 driven by hydraulic fluid directed along lines 46 and 47. The motor drives the shaft 48. The gear 51 mounted on shaft 43 engages a gear 52 which rotates the shaft 53 and sprocket gear 54. This drives chain 56 which is guided over idler sprockets S7, 58 and attached to the upper and lower edges of the support plate 60 for motor 41. Thus, energization of the motor will serve to move the chain to move the plate up and down, and thus lift and lower the drill bit.
The motor 46 and associated gear means may also be used to drive the cable drum 61 which has wound thereon the cable 63. A hook 64- is used to lift heavy objects such as drill stem sections and the like.
The transmission associated with hydraulic fluid motor 41 drives the shaft 72 (FIGURE 2) which carries a plurality of gears. By selectively engaging the various gears 73 with associated idler gears, the gear 74 can be driven at any suitable speed for rotating the drill pipe and associated drill bit.
It is apparent that other types of motors and transmissions may be used and that the brief description above is directed to an illustrative arrangement for lifting, lowering and rotating the drill stem.
The upper end of the drill stem passes through spaced plates 76, 77 and 78 which include bearings 79, 8th and 81. The upper end of the drill stem 91 is accommodated in a rotary seal. The seal may include, for example, a plurality of spaced metal discs 92 interleaved with packing discs 93 to provide a relatively good seal. To provide better lubrication, the outside of the drill stem may be provided with a graphite sleeve 94. The upper end of the hollow drill stem opens into the chamber 96 to be presently described in detail.
The mounting plate 60 for the motor 41 and associated transmission is mounted for linear movement along the tower on a pair of spaced rails 99 as shown in FIGURE 4. A back-up plate (not shown) is mounted on the back side of the rails to limit movement of the plate 60 away from the rails.
Referring to FIGURES 6 and 7, the drill bit mounted at the end of the hollow drill stem is more clearly shown.
The drill bit is formed as a cylindrical body 101 threaded at its open end for threadably receiving the associated drill stem 42. At the lower end, the cylindrical body 101 carries cutters 102. The cutters are relatively thick to provide an opening 103 which has a diameter slightly less than the inside diameter of the drill stem 42. Spaced from the end of the drill bit, there is provided a deflector 106 which may, for example, comprise an egg-shaped member 107 rotatably mounted on the shaft 108 carried by the spaced lugs 109 and 110.
During a drilling operation, the drill bit forms a central core 112 which extends upwardly through the opening 103. As the drilling operation continues, this core extends further and further into the drill bit until it contacts the deflector 106 and is deflected as shown more clearly in FIGURE 6. The core sample 112 fractures and separates as shown at 113. The drill bit also includes ports or openings 116 adjacent its lower end to provide for air circulation through the drill stem, as will be presently described.
The drilling apparatus of the present invention employs a flotation principle for removing the cuttings through the hollow drill stem. In its normal operation, air movement is downward through the space 117 between the drill hole and the drill stem, inwardly through the ports or openings 116 and upwardly through the hollow drill stem. The air travels upwardly into the chamber 96 at the upper end of the drill stem. It travels through the hose 121 to the valve 17; from the valve 17 along the hose 122 to the top of one of the cyclonic separators 12. In the cyclonic separators 12, the heavier particles are removed by centrifugal forces. These particles are dropped down into the transparent plastic tube 124 wherein the various strata 125 can be observed. This gives a continuous display and exact representation of the materials of the strata being drilled.
The air leaving the separator travels back along the line 126 through the switch 17 and into the filter 14, previously described, which serves to remove finer particles and finally into the oil separator 16 where all dust is removed.
Referring now more particularly to FIGURES 6 and- 7, there is schematically shown the flow of cuttings. It is observed that as the drilling operation progresses, core samples 112 extend upwardly into the drill stem are broken away by the deflector 106 to form the core fragments 112. The air travelling inwardly through the openings 116 flows upwardly through the drill stem and causes the core samples 112 to be entrapped and travel upwardly in the drill stem as indicated. Adjacent the top end of the drill stem above the bearing 93 previously described, there is provided a deflector 131. The core fragments 112 strike the deflector 131, losing velocity, and drop down into the downwardly extending pipe 132 and are collected in a sample collecting tube 133.
The tube 133 includes at the upper end thereof a valve 134, and at the lower end, a door 136. By closing the valve 134 and opening the door 136, the core fragments may be removed. The door 136 is then closed and valve 134 opened to collect further samples.
It is, therefore, seen that core fragments 112 are obtained while the drilling progresses. Of course, during the drilling operation, there will be produced fine particles. These particles will be floated past the deflector 131 into the chamber 96 and drawn outwardly in the pipe 121 to the cyclonic separators where these particles are collected in layers 125 in the tube 124, as previously described.
Thus, there is a dual representation: one of the fine particles as they are drilled from the strata; while the other representation is of core samples 112. The core samples 112 will, therefore, competently represent the character of the material being drilled, its hardness, density and other characteristics.
Thus, it is seen that there is provided an improved drilling apparatus in which continuous core samples are removed during a drilling operation to give an exact representation of the strata being drilled. In addition, particles are collected in layers which are also representative of the strata. These may be chemically analyzed and compared to the core fragments. Thus, both the hardness, density, etc., of the strata may be obtained as well as a chemical analysis through analysis of the particles collected. Both types of samples, core fragments and particles, may be saved for reference purposes.
1. An apparatus of the type described including a hollow drill stem, drive means for supporting and rotating said drill stem, means for raising and lowering said drill stem, a rotary seal disposed in sealing engagement with the upper end of said drill stem, a drill bit secured to the lower end of said drill stem, said drill bit including a cylindrical member having an axial opening, cutters carried at the lower end of said cylindrical member, means for securing the upper end of said cylindrical member to the lower end of said drill stem, means disposed within said axial opening adjacent the lower end of the bit for deflecting a core sample which extends upwardly into the opening, means providing a vacuum to the upper end of said hollow drill stem to draw cuttings upwardly through the drill stem, means located adjacent the top of said drill stem for deflecting core fragments into a collecting means, and means in fluid communication with the upper end of said drill stem for collecting core particles.
2. An apparatus of the type described including a hollow drill stem having a predetermined internal diameter, a drill 'bit carried at the lower end of said drill stem, said drill bit including a cylindrical member having an axial opening with a diameter not greater than the internal diameter of said drill bit, cutters carried at the lower end of said drill bit, means for securing the other end of said drill bit to the hollow drill steam, means disposed within said drill bit opening for deflecting and breaking core samples which extend upwardly into the opening to form core fragments, means for rotating the drill stem, means providing a vacuum at the upper end of said hollow drill stem to draw core fragments and core particles upwardly through the drill stem, means disposed adjacent the upper end of said drill stem for collecting the core fragments, and a cyclonic separator in fluid comm-unication with the upper end of the drill stem for collecting core particles.
3. An apparatus of the type described, including a hollow drill stem; a hollow drill bit carried at the lower end of said drill stem; cutters carried at one end of said drill bit; means disposed within said hollow drill bit for deflecting a core sample which extends upwardly into the same; means for rotating the drill stem and drill bit; means providing a vacuum at the upper end of the hollow drill stem to draw cuttings upwardly through the drill stem, said cuttings including core fragments provided by said deflecting means breaking off a portion of said core sample and including core particles; and means associated with the top of the drill stem for collecting such cuttings, said means including a deflector for separating said core fragments from said particles by deflecting such fragments.
4. A drill bit as in claim 3 including additionally at least one opening communicating between the outside and inside of the drill bit disposed above said cutters.
5. Apparatus as in claim 3 where said collecting means include means for collecting said core fragments, and means in communication with the drill stem for recovering said core particles.
6. Apparatus as in claim 5 in which said last named means comprises a cyclonic separator.
(References on following page) 5 6 References Cited by the Examiner 2,918,260 12/1959 Tilden 175-213 X Henderson X 8/1909 McLoughlin et a1. 175-433 X FOREIGN PATENTS 3/1936 Wright 175404 X 5 1 7/1939 Muncy 175-60 X 1,155,672 12/1957 France. 1/1951 Sewell 175404 X 6/1958 Holman 175206 CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner. 10/1958 Tengbery 175404 X 7 195 McGuire 75 7 X 10 R. E. FAVREAU, Examzner.