US 3292764 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 3,292,764 TYPESETTING SYSTEMS Ernst L. Midgette, Brooklyn, Richard C. OBrien, Huntington, and Neil Schleifman, Kew Gardens, N.Y., as-
signors to Harris-Intertype Corporation, Cleveland,
Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Filed June 11, 1965, Ser. No. 463,199 6 Claims. (Cl. 199-18) This application relates to a typesetting system, and particularly to equipment for remote direct control of a typesetting machine.
The present invention is particularly concerned with systems involving typesetting machines of the circulating matrix, linecasting variety, but it is adaptable to systems in which phototypesetting equipment is used, including phototypesetting machines of the recirculating matrix variety and of the common matrix variety, such as shown in US. Patents Nos. 2,395,659 and 3,141,395. For purposes of explanation a recirculating matrix linecasting machine will be described as is used in conjunction with automatic controls which enable the machines to be operated from a perforated tape input or the like.
As an example, a linecasting machine may be provided with tape reading and decoding units capable of accepting standard Teletypesetter (TTS) tape, usually employed by wire services and the like. The reading and decoding unit may incorporated as an integral part a so-called operating unit which governs the selection of matrices from the magazine of the linecasting machine in accordance with the codes read from the input tape, such as shown and described in copending application Serial No. 463,197. filed June 11, 1965, and assigned to the assignee of this application. Some machines of this type do not include a manual keyboard for direct control of any kind, while others embody a mechanical keyboard which either is constructed as an integral part of the linecasting machine or is provided with intricate mechanical connections which must be completed to adapt the keyboard to the machine, whereby it becomes in effect a mechanical part of the machine, and mounted directly on it.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide a remote keyboard operating unit which may have, for example, a standard keyboard layout of a linecasting machine, together with an encoding device which forms control or selection codes in response to manipulation of the keyboard, and with controls whereby the output of the encoding device can be easily fed into the decoding unit of a reader-decoder device on the typesetting machine.
In this manner, it is possible to provide a keyboard and encoding device which can control directly the operation of the linecasting machine, either instead of, or as an adjunct to, the automatic (i.e., tape operated) control, with the keyboard unit being portable if desired, and being mountable adjacent to the linecasting machine, or at some distance therefrom, and connected thereto only through a small cable. Thus, if it is desired to operate a linecasting machine directly from a keyboard it is possible to move a keyboard unit as provided by the invention into position and easily connect it directly into the machine, which is otherwise constructed and arranged for automatic control. It is also possible with the improved keyboard device provided by the invention to have the keyboard unit located some distance away from the machine, and one keyboard unit may be adaptable to control, on a part-time basis, several automatic linecasting machines.
Another object of the invention is to provide such a keyboard unit which can have its input connected to the linecasting machine without disrupting the input from the automatic decoding controls.
An additional object of the invention is to provide such Patented Dec. 20, 1966 a remote keyboard unit and controls therefor which accommodate manipulation of the keyboard in a somewhat irregular manner, and which controls operate to regulate the timing of the code signals to the operating unit of the linecasting machine, whereby such machine operates in a regularly timed manner at optimum speed.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel keyboard unit which incorporates logic circuits capable of detecting when a double letter is selected by the keyboard operator, and providing for a suitable delay in the transmission of control codes to a recirculating matrix typesetting machine, such that the necessary cycle delay is provided to assure that the machine will assemble two matrices to provide the double letter which has been selected.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel keyboard control unit for typesetting machines wherein a novel key memory is incorporated to retain for a short time the code relating to a selected key when the previously selected code has not yet cleared from the unit, and in this manner to provide an improved keyboard control which will accommodate somewhat irregular manipulation of the keys and transform this operation into output code signals at regular intervals.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description, the accompanying drawings and the appended claims.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a keyboard unit constructed according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic wiring diagram showing the connection of one AND gate circuit with the corresponding key switch on the keyboard and with the last closing switch on the keyboard;
FIG. 3 is a schematic wiring diagram showing a suitable double letter detector circuit which is shown in block form in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the zero detector circuit shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic wiring diagram showing one of the double letter detector AND gate circuits together with its connection to the delay circuit and to a corresponding one of the flip-flop circuits which are coupled to the double letter detector.
Referring to the drawings, which illustrate a preferred embodiment of the invention, and particularly with reference to FIG. 1, the keyboard 10 may be provided as any suitable keyboard arrangement. It may have the usual key banks and layout of a linecasting machine keyboard, or if desired it may take other forms such as the arrangement of a conventional typewriter keyboard. The keyboard arrangement used will depend upon the type of operation that is desired, for example either by an experienced printer, or by a relatively inexperienced typist who is not fully converstant with typesetting practices. In any event, the keyboard arrangement includes output switches 12-00 through 12-5 which can be closed according to a code pattern which is unique with respect to each key depressed by the keyboard operator. Thus, the keys will provide one or more completed circuits through the seven conductors of the output cable 15 which extends from the switches. A so-called last closing switch" 18 is also provided, and is arranged to close every time any key of the keyboard is depressed, but a mechanical lag is built into the unit such that the switch 18 closes slightly after the switches 12-00 through 12-5 are closed. Details of a suitable construction incorporating the encoding switches and the last closing switch are described in copending application Serial No. 463,200, filed June 11, 1965, which is assigned to the assignee of this application.
A circuit line 20 extends from switch 18, which has its normally open contact grounded, and through a capacitor 21 this circuit line is adapted to provide an enabling pulse to a control flip-flop circuit 25. For purposes of explanation, closing of switch 18 will set the flip-flop 24 to its on state. In its on state the flip-flop 25 provides an output through line 26 to AND gate 30, and the output of this AND gate circuit is connected through line 31 to each of the encoding switches 1200-12-5, and through line 32 to the input of a one microsecond delay circuit 34 and back to the control flipflop 25, to reset that flip-flop to its off condition.
Key memory The conductors of cable 15 extend to a first shift register, hereafter called the B register, which is made up of the seven shift register stages B--B-5. Thus, whenever a key is depressed on the keyboard a code pattern is set up by closing one or more of the encoding switches, then switch 18 closes, and, unless the AND gate 30 is inhibited it will provide an output through the closed encoding switches to the appropriate ones of the B registers.
The outputs of the B register are provided by the seven conductors of the cable 35, and these extend to the corresponding stages A-00 through A- of an A shift register. Shift pulses are provided for the A register through the shift input line 38 which receives clock pulses from a suitable source, and these clock pulses likewise are directed through line 39 to a control binary circuit 40, which in turn provides shift pulses through line 42 to the B register. The source of clock pulses preferably is timed to the operating cycle of the typesetting machine, for example by providing a pulse generator 43 coupled to the bail drive of the operating unit of a linecasting machine and its control decoder, shown schematically at 44, and as disclosed in greater detail in copending application Serial No. 463,198, filed June 11, 1965. This application is also assigned to the assignee of the present application.
As shown in FIG. 1, there is a six conductor cable 45 coupled into all of the lines of cable 35 except that line extending from the B-00 register. This cable 45 extends to the zero or no code detector circuit 50, of which details are shown in FIG. 4. A signal from the switch 12-00, which transmits through the B-00 and A-00 registers, is used to distinguish between shift and unshift positions. For example, in the six digit TTS code, the same six digit code is used to identify the two different characters, and they are distinguished by use of shift and unshift codes. In the case of letters of the alphabet, the code applies to an upper case or capital letter and to the corresponding lower case letter. Since there are very few instances where the same character appears in sequence in different cases, it is not of any practical value to distinguish between codes identifying the same letter in upper and lower case. Accordingly, the zero detector circuits and double letter detector circuits are not coupled into the B-00 registers, as hereafter explained.
It will be appreciated that in accordance with the teachings of the inventions, this could be done if desired, by merely adding another stage of detector and comparison circuits. However, particularly with respect to the double letter detector and control, the delay which might result from occasional detection of an upper and lower case letter as being a double letter" is so small as to be negligible, hence this detection is preferably made as shown in the drawings, using only the six digit identification code.
Each of the lines of the cable 45 is coupled through a separate diode into a common input line 51 which is connected to the base circuit of a suitable transistor 52. The output of the detector circuit is provided at the collector connection 53, and this line extends to the AND gate circuit 30, as shown in detail in FIG. 2.
The zero detector circuit 50 operates as a NOT-OR gate which samples all of the B registers to which it is connected. If any of these B registers is on," signifying that a code is still in the B register, then the output of the detector circuit 50 will be a logical zero, and this will inhibit the AND gate 30 until the B register is cleared. If the B register is clear, or when it is cleared, the detector circuit output is a logical "one, and as a result a pulse is transmitted through AND gate 30 and through those of the encoding switches 1200125 which are closed to appropriate ones of the B registers, thereby placing the selected code in the B register. Since the 00 registers are used for shift and unshift function information, the A or B registers will not have a code stored in them which uses a signal only in the 00 registers.
In normal operation, the codes will be shifted from the B register to the A register by the last clock pulse, and the code in the A register will be shifted out and transmitted through its output cable 60 which leads to the electromechanical decoding unit on the typesetting machine. This unit may take various forms, one suitable construction being described in detail in said copending application Serial No. 463,198, filed June 11, 1965. It will be apparent that if the actuation of the keys on the keyboard is somewhat irregular, for example the operation is not rhythmical as required for mechanical typesetting machine keyboards, the zero detector circuits and the AND gate circuit 30, in conjunction with the last closing switch arrangement, will retain the code sufficiently to assure that the codes placed in the B register are not overlapped, and in turn the codes are shifted out of this register in a regular fashion in response to the controlling clock pulses.
Double letter detection The present invention also provides in the keyboard control a double letter delay which permits the typesetting machine to pass through an extra operating cycle. This feature is of particular value in connection with the operation of a recirculating matrix typesetting machine. In such machines if the same letter is selected in sequence, for example ee, two like matrices must be dropped from the same channel, and in order to assure this operation it is generally desirable to permit the machine to slcip" a cycle before dropping the second matrix.
Assuming that the B registers are cleared, the encoding switch 12-1 is closed, and the operation transferring this code into the B register is as previously described. The code for e in the TTS code involves switch 121 closed, and the other switches open. This code also is set into the bank of double letter detector flip-flops FF0'-FF-5. The appropriate conductors of the encoding switch output cable 50 are connected through cable to the corresponding ones of these flip-flops. Also providing inputs to these flip-flops are a bank of double letter detector AND gate circuits 67-0675. Exemplary connections are shown also on FF0 in FIG. 3. Each one of these AND gate circuits has a corresponding input from the cable 45, which extends from the output connections of the B register. These AND gates are normally inhibited, but will be enabled by an output from line 68, which is the output of the delay circuit 34.
Thus, prior to a shift pulse to the B registers, the double letter detector flip-flops are set to the number which is stored in the B registers. When the next code appears at the encoding switches, it is set up in the double letter detector flip-flops, and the double letter detector circuits 70 (shown in FIG. 3) detect any change in the incoming code to the B register. Then these circuits provide an enabling output through line 72 to the control binary 40, permitting it to pass a shift pulse through line 42 with the corresponding incoming clock pulse. In other words, the next clock pulse will reset binary 40 and as a result there will be almost simultaneous shift pulses to the A and B registers.
If the code set up in the encoding switches is the same as in the B register, there will be no transitions from any of the detector flip-flops FF00FF-5, there will be no output from the double letter detector through line 72, the binary 40 will not be set, and two clock pulses will be required before a shift pulse will pass via line 42 to clear the B register. In other words, the double letter detector circuit together with the binary 40 forms a pulse sink arrangement which prevents one shift pulse from reaching the B register when a double letter is detected.
Summary The present invention. as will be appreciated from the previous description, provides a novel contror keyboard arrangement for typesetting machines, whereby the keyboard can easily be connected for direct manual control of a typesetting machine using only a cable with the necessary conductors. For example, it is possible to have the electronic gear mounted at the typesetting machine, with a connecting cable such as cable to the encoding switches at the keyboard, together with connectlons to the .last closing switch, etc. It is also possible to have the electronic gear located at the remote keyboard, with extension of cable 60 and the feedback control from the pulse generator 43 providing the sole connection between the keyboard control unit and the typesetting machine. Various forms of well-known multi-conductor plug units can readily be provided for easy connection and disconnection of the keyboard control to the typesetting machine.
The electronic circuitry, which supplies the control information to the typesetting machine, is regulated by the cyclic operation of the typesetting machine to supply the control information at a regular rate, which can be described as on demand" from the typesetting machine. The register circuits, therefore, provide a buffer arrangement which is capable of modifying a somewhat irregular keyboard operation into a more rhythmic input to the typesetting machine. Other advantages of the system, including the use of solid state and non-moving electronic apparatus with resultant low maintenance, will be apparent from the previous description.
While the form of the apparatus herein described constitutes a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to this precise form of apparatus, and that changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention which is defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a typesetting system, the combination of a keyboard for selection of a sequence of characters and spaces to make up lines of composition, an encoding device operated by said keyboard to produce a distinctive code for each operation of said keyboard identifying the character or function selected, shift register means for receiving the output of said encoding device and operating to retain each code therein, circuit connections extending directly from said encoding device to said shift register means to transfer a code from the encoding device into the shift register means directly as a result of a key operation, a typesetting machine operative to produce justified lines of type by assembling the individually selected characters and spaces in the order determined by operation of said keyboard, a decoding device controlling said typesetting machine and adapted to receive codes from said shift register means for decoding the codes stored therein into control signals for said typesetting machine, further circuit connections between said shift register means and said decoding device for direct transfer of codes into said decoding devioe, and control means operative on said decoding device and. said shift register means to read codes from said shift register means on demand from said decoding device according to the rate at which said typesetting machine can perform the operations directed by said decoding device whereby said typesetting machine is controlled directly by key operations on said keyboard and said shift register means provides a buffer between the encoding device and the decoding device.
2. In a typesetting system, the combination of a keyboard for selection of a sequence of characters and spaces to make up lines of composition, an encoding device operated by said keyboard to produce a distinctive code for operation of each key on said keyboard identifying the character or space or function selected, buffer means connccted to receive the output of said encoding device and operating to retain each code therein, circuit means providing a direct connection for transfer of each code resulting from operation of a key into said buffer means, a typesetting machine capable of assembling the individually selected characters and spaces into lines of composition in the order determined by operation of said keyboard, a decoding device controlling said typesetting machine and adapted for operation from said buffer means to translate the codes supplied from said encoding device into control signals for said typesetting machine, further circuit connections extending directly from said buffer to said decoding device, and electronic control circuit means operative in timed relation to said decoding device to cause reading of codes from said buffer means to operate said typesetting machine.
3. In a typesetting system, the combination of a keyboard for selection of a sequence of characters and spaces to make up lines of composition, an encoding device operated by said keyboard to produce a distinctive code Word for each operation of said keyboard and having an output for the code words identifying the character or function selected, electronic register means and first electrical cable input connections thereto from the output of said encoding device for storing each code word in said register means,
a typesetting machine operative to produce lines of composition by assembling the individually selected characters and spaces in the order determined by operation of said keyboard, a decoding device controlling said typesetting machine, second electrical cable connections from said register means to said decoding device for transmitting codes stored in said register means to produce control signals for said typesetting machine, and control circuit means operative on said decoding device and said register means to transfer codes from said register means on demand from said decoding device according to the maximum regular rate at which said typesetting device can perform the operations direced by said decoding device.
4. In a typesetting system as defined in claim 3, a detector circuit capable of producing an output whenever the same code word is encoded twice in succession, and a connection between said detector circuit and said control circuit means operable to cause a delay in transferring such successive code words to said decoding device.
5. In a control for a typesetting machine, the combination of a keyboard for selection of a sequence of characters and spaces to make up lines of composition, an encoding device operated by said keyboard to produce a distinctive code for each key on said keyboard identifying the character or function selected, electronic register means adapted to receive the output of said encoding device and operating to retain each code therein, circuit connections extending directly from said encoding device to said electronic register means to transfer a code from the encoding device directly to the register means as a result of each key operation, a decoding device for controlling the typesetting machine and adapted to receive codes from said register means for decoding into control signals for said typesetting machine, further circuit connections between said electronic register means and said decoding device for direct transfer of code words into said decoding device, control means operative on said decoding device and said register means to transfer codes from said register means into said decoding device according to the rate at which the typesetting machine can perform the operations directed by said decoding device, a detector circuit operable to sense whether said register means contains a code for transfer to said decoding device, and gating circuit means responsive to indication from said detector circuit that no code is contained in said register means and operable to cause said encoding device to transmit a code to said register means.
6. A control for a typesetting machine as defined in claim 5, wherein said gating circuit means is also responsive to formation of a complete code in said encoding device to transfer a code into said electronic register References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 9/1956 Bafour et al 197--20 4/1957 Higonnet et al. l9784.1 X
ROBERT E. PULFREY, Primary Examiner.
W. F. MCCARTHY, Assistant Examiner.