Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3292899 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 20, 1966
Filing dateApr 4, 1966
Priority dateApr 4, 1966
Also published asCA951643A1, DE1551181A1
Publication numberUS 3292899 A, US 3292899A, US-A-3292899, US3292899 A, US3292899A
InventorsEgli Hans
Original AssigneeGarrett Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Energy transfer machine
US 3292899 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 20, 1966 H. EGLI ENERGY TRANSFER MACHINE Z'Sheets-Sheet l Filed April 4, 1966 www,

Dec. 20, 1966 H. EGLI ENERGY TRANSFER MACHINE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 4, 1966 INVENTOR. Y/QM United States Patent O fornia Filed Apr. 4, 1966, Ser. No. 539,947 16 Claims. (Cl. 253-20) This invention relates to machines for transferring energy, and more particularly to such machines wherein the energy transfer involves a fluid medium.

This invention is primarily concerned with the transfer of energy either to or from the iluid by a moving member.

This invention is further concerned with fluid handling machines wherein the relative fluid motion upon appropriate active working surfaces accomplishes the transfer of energy.

This invention lits into the general category of other successful fluid handling machines near the rotary and turbomachine category.

The categorization is accomplished by comparing a specific diameter and a specific speed of such lluid handling machines. In such a categorization, the piston type lluid handling machines have relatively large specific diameters and relatively low specific speeds with an etliciency factor approaching 80%. The rotary type machines, such as roots blowers or vane pumps or motors, have much smaller specific diameters and much higher specific speeds than piston type machines, and have an efficiency factor of approximately 60%. The terms specific diameter and speciilc speed are used in their well-known meaning to those familiar with the turbine art.

T urbomachines comprise a third broad category of lluid handling machines. They have larger specific speeds than rotary type turbomachines and these turbomachines have an elllciency factor of approximately 80%. Turbomachines, in general, consist of radial, axial and mixed llow types of machines.

This invention provides a fluid handling machine which has a range of specific diameters and specific speeds iitting between the conventional turbomachines and the rotary machines, and overlapping considerably into the category of rotary machines.

This invention occupies a useful application area which previously has been unsuccessfully occupied by lluid handling machines commonly called drag pumps and drag turbines. These prior art fluid handling machines have been characterized by relatively low efficiency factors. The eiliciency factor with which these machines have been known to operate has been approximately 40%, with the best alleged performance for a single drag type pump or friction pump, as it is sometimes so referred to, being approximately 50%. However, normal efficiencies of this Vtype of machine are 40% or lower.

This invention provides a fluid handling machine for the transfer of energy, which machine has an elliciency factor of between 65% and 70% with a potential for even better efficiencies over a relatively broad operating range.

This invention has as one of its advantages a much higher peak elliciency. It has a further advantage that it has a sizable region of operating conditions such as speed, llow and pressure ratios over which it will operate with a high etliciency.

A further advantage of this invention is that it will produce for a given tip speed of the active working surfaces a much higher head than `prior art machines, wherein head is defined as the energy transfer per pound of lluid. Thus, it becomes obvious that the advantages of this machine are manifold and of much practical importance over comparable prior art machines and that this machine, when compared to other types of turbomachinery, will Mice extend the range of useful fields of applications of turbomachines.

It is yet another advantage of this invention that a high head is obtained within a single stage. Thus, it is possible to utilize a single machine rather than a plurality of stages of conventional'machines to obtain the same head.

It is an object of this invention to provide a practical dynamic energy transfer machine with a high rate of energy transfer and a moderate capacity of tluid ilow.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide a simple vaneless machine which will transfer energy by forcing the lluid to travel between the active working surfaces of the machine at least twice, as the fluid passes from the inlet to the outlet of the machine.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide an energy transfer machine which has minimal losses within the machine, thereby increasing its elliciency.

It is another object of this invention to provide an energy transfer machine which is economical to manufacture, due to its inherent simplicity.

It is another object of this invention to provide an energy transfer machine wherein the elllciency obtainable is considerably greater than that of any presently known machine having similar specific speeds and specific diameters.

These and other objects of this invention become apparent as the following description is read in conjunction with the drawings in which:

FIG. l is a representation of one embodiment of this invention;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view of a plane passing through the line 2--2 of FIG. l, and

FIGS. 3a and 3b are representations of other embodiments of this invention taken through a section similar to but not taken at section 3-3 of FIG. l.

Referring now to the drawings, and more specifically to FIG. l, there is illustrated a plurality of driven means or shafts 10. At least one of these shafts 10 may be connected to a source of energy or to an output, depending upon whether or not the device of FIG. l is being used to transfer energy from or to the fluid medium. For purposes of illustration and description of this invention, it will be assumed that this invention is operating as a pump, and therefore at least one of the shafts 10 will be connected to some sort of driving or energy source. This energy source may be of any Well-known type, such as a motor.

In FIG. l there is also shown an inlet 11 and an outlet 12. It is through this inlet 11 that a source of working uid is available or is made available to the machine of this invention. The source of the fluid is not shown herein but may be any well-known source of iluid such as a tank of fluid. Further, this fluid will be exhausted to the outlet 12, with the outlet 12 of the machine of this invention connected to a Working device lto utilize the energy imparted to the iluid by this invention. The machine of this invention also has an inlet passage 13 and an outlet passage 14. These passages provide, in conjunction with the housing means 15, the required guidance for the fluid flowing between the active members 16. These active members 16 are mounted on a moving means such as a belt 17, which, in a pump, is rotated by the force applied to the shaft or shafts 10. The moving members or active members 16 are transported through the housing means 15 and through two sealed or relatively tight fitting openings 18 during ingress and egress. The housing 15 and the moving active members fit snugly at the points of ingress and egress. The active members 16 are arranged in a cascade fashion, the cascade being in the direction of motion of the active members 16. These active members 16 have a predetermined camber. The fluid enters the inlet 11 and proceeds through the inlet passage 13. The iluid particles are passed between different ones of the active members 16 and then proceed in a predetermined manner such that substantially all the fluid passes at least a second time between the active members. Due to the snug tit of the inlet and outlet passages, and the housing in relation to the active members at the points of ingress and egress, the fluid is substantially all forced to follow the path shown in FIGS.`

l and 2. The machine of this invention provides for a general lluid energy increase in the direction of motion of the active members. The energy level of the individual luid particles is increased in the pump means of this invention during each and every passage between the active members prior to entry into the outlet passage. The housing is provided with an aerodynamically smooth surface and is absolutely devoid of any vanes or guiding means within the housing.

The fluid, as it approaches for the first time part of the set of active members 16 at station A-A, has a uniform total energy distribution. The inlet passage 13 and the portion 19 of the housing 15 are shaped in such a fashion that the velocity vector distribution at station A-A is uneven. This velocity vector distribution is required in order that the lluid particles, after their rst passage between said active members at station B-B, have a total energy distribution conforming to the general total energy distribution throughout the machine in the direction of motion of the active members.

At the station C-C, immediately prior to the last pas- Y sage between part of the set of active members 16, the tluid has an uneven total energy distribution. The outlet passage 14 and the portion 20r of the housing 15 are shaped in such a fashion that the fluid particles, after the K let passage 14 until egress from the machine through outlet 12.

The cascaded active members 16 may follow any path i i between the ingress and egress openings 18. A machine of this invention will always have an ingress and egress opening and the active members, or the cascaded active members, will always pass these openings. If the path of the active members is rotary, then the openings 18 into the housing 15 will be connected.

FIGS. 1 and 2 show a linear motion of the cascade within the machine, whereas FIGS. 3a and 3b show a rotary motion. In FIGURE 3a or 3b the ,device comprises a single shaft 33 with a rotor disk or arms 34 secured to the shaft. In this embodiment, belt 17, which carries blades 16, is secured to the peripheral edge of the disk 34 or outer ends of the arms 34 and the housing 15 extends around the rotor and is obviously curved rather than elongated.

It is possible to have a shroud means such as the shroud means 31, as shown in FIG. 3a, connected to the active members 16. A shroud means may vary anywhere from a simple shroud performing strictly mechanical functions well known to persons skilled in turbomachinery, to a shroud which performs not only certain mechanical functions but also performs' additional functions within the concepts of this invention.

The additional function which a shroud means such as that shown in FIG. 3a performs is the assistance of the walls of the housing 15 in directing the iluid with a minimum of internal losses as the iluid flows from the inlet 11 to the outlet 12. The elliciency of the machine of this invention is improved with the addition of the shroud means 31, as shown in FIG. 3a, or of the separate stationary means 32, as shown in FIG. 3b. This stationary means 32 also may vary in shape. As shown in FIG. 3b,

.this inner stationary member 32 is completely disposed within the space bound by the inner surface of the housing 1,5. The housing 15 and the inner member, whether it be a shroud 31 or a separate member 32, form a passage 4 geometry which directs the tlow of the fluid to yield a minimum of separation and losses in the fluid. The inner wall, or surface of the housing 15, and the inlet and out let passages and the shroud means 31, or the separate member means 32, all co-operate in directing lthe lluid with minimum losses throughout the machine.

It is noted in the FIGS. 1 and 2 that the active members 16 are arranged in a cascade fashion. This cascade is in the direction of motion of the active members 16 as they pass through the housing 15. The active members 16 may be arranged at any position on the periphery of the channel cross section as shown in FIG. 3a or 3b of the housing 15 in a plane perpendicular to the direction of motion of the active members. However, with given shapes of channel cross sections, there exists a position on the periphery where the lluid approaches a majority of these active members along the cascade at a constant angle of incidence over a wide operating range of the machine. The angle of incidence isL preferably small. Each active member thus works within its optimum operating region. As the position of the active members 16 on the periphery is varied, the limits of practical incidence variation over the operating range of the machine may be controlled. If compressible fluids are used in the machine of this invention, the passage area may diminish in the direction of the increased lluid density. Such changes in the passage area are Well known` to those skilled in the turbomachinery art.

As is illustrated in FIGS. 3a and 3b, the projected area` of these active members 16 in a plane perpendicular to the direction of motion of the active members 16 is less than the projected area of the remainder of the flow channel in the housing means 15. The machine does not operate most elliciently if the remainder of the ilow channel area:

in the housing is less than the projected area of the active members-16 in the plane perpendicular to the direction of their motion.

Active members 16 have a predetermined configuration.

These active members 16 are normally of an air foil type shape and have an appropriate camber line with a thickness distribution superimposed on the camber line. Active members having a lat surface will not produce an eicient machine.

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the novel principles of the invention disclosed herein will suggest various other modifications and applications of the same. It is accordingly desired that the present invention shall not be limited to the specific embodiment thereof described herein.

What is claimed is:

1. A machine for transferring energy comprising:

inlet means, said inlet means connected to a source of working fluid;

an inlet passage;

outlet means, said outlet means for discharging `said working fluid;

an outlet passage;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means;

a plurality of active members, said active members mounted as a set on a moving means whereby said active members continuously traverse through said housing and past said inlet passage and said outlet passage, substantially all of said lluid forced to pass at least twice between said active members in its` travel between said inlet and said outlet whereby` energy is transferred between said fluid and said ac- Y tive members.

2. A machine for transferring energy comprising:

inlet means, said inlet means connected to a source of working lluid;

an inlet passage;

outlet means, said `outlet means for discharging `sai Working tluid;

an outlet passage;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet passage and said outlet passage;

a plurality of active members, said active members mounted as a set on a moving means whereby said active members continuously traverse through said housing and past said inlet passage and said outlet passage, said active members including a shroud means, substantially all of said fluid forced to pass at least twice between said active members in its travel between said inlet and said outlet whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

3. A machine for transferring energy comprising:

inlet means, said inlet means connected to a source of working fluid;

an inlet passage;

outlet means, said outlet means for discharging said working fluid;

an outlet passage;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet passage and said outlet passage;

a plurality of active members, said active members mounted as a set on a moving means whereby said active members continuously traverse through said housing and past said inlet passage and said outlet passage, said active members including a shroud means, said shroud means formed so as to guide the ow of said working fluid, substantially allof said fluid passing at least twice between said active members in the travel of the fluid between .said inlet and said outlet whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

4. A machine for transferring energy comprising:

inlet means, said inlet means connected to a source of working fluid;

an inlet passage for guiding said working fluid;

outlet means, said outlet means for discharging said fluid from a housing;

an outlet passage, said outlet passage guiding said fluid from said housing;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet passage and said outlet passage, said housing means including a plurality of surfaces, said fluid contained between said surfaces;

a plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted on means for moving said members, said active members moving past said inlet passage and said outlet passage and through said housing means;

said fluid passing at least twice between said active members during the transfer of said fluid .between said inlet and said outlet whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

5. A machine for transferring energy comprising:

inlet means, said inlet means comprising an inlet and a passage connected to a source of working fluid, said passage guiding said working fluid;

outlet means, said outlet means comprising a passage for discharging said fluid from a housing, said outlet passage guiding said fluid from said housing in a predetermined manner;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means, said housing means including a plurality of surfaces, said housing surfaces including inner and outer surfaces defining a channel for the movement of said fluid between said inlet passage and said outlet passage;

a plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted on means for moving said members, said active members moving past said inlet passage and said outlet passage through said housing means, said fluid passing at least twice between said active members in thetravel of said fluid between said inlet and said outlet whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

`6. A machine for transferring energy comprising:

inlet means, said inlet means comprising an inlet and a passage connected to a source of working fluid, said passage guiding said working fluid in a predetermined manner;

outlet means, .said outlet rmeans comprising an outlet and a passage for discharging said fluid from a housing, said outlet passage guiding said fluid from said housing in a predetermined manner;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means, said housing means including a plurality of surfaces, said surfaces including inner and outer surfaces defining a continuous channel for movement of said fluid between said inlet and said outlet, said inner surface comprising a member disposed Within the space bound by said outer surface;

a plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted on means for moving said members, said active members moving past said inlet passage and said outlet passage and through the walls of said housing means; said fluid passing at least twice between said active members in the travel of said fluid between said inlet and said outlet whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

7. A machine for transferring energy comprising:

,inlet means, said inlet vmeans comprising an inlet and a passage connected to a source of working fluid, said lpassage guiding said working fluid in a predetermined manner;

outlet means, said outlet means comprising an outlet and a passage for discharging said fluid from a housing, said outlet passage guiding said fluid from said housing in a predetermined manner;

vaneless -housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means, said housing means including a plurality of surfaces, said housing surfaces including inner and outer surfaces, said inner surface comprising ya member disposed within the space bound by that outer surface;

a plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted on means for moving said members, said identical members arranged in a cascade fashion in the direction of motion of said active members, said active members passing said inlet passage and -said outlet passage and through the walls of said housing means;

said active members transferring said fluid between said inlet and said outlet passages, Vsubstantially all of said fluid forced to pass at least twice between said active members in the travel of said fluid between said inlet and said outlet, whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

8. A `machine for transferring energy comprising:

inlet means, said inlet means comprising an inlet and a passage connected to a source of working fluid, said passage guiding said working fluid to a plurality of active members, said fluid having an uneven velocity vector distribution such that after the first passage of said fluid between said active members the total energy distribution of said fluid is varied in the same manner as the general fluid energy distribution in the direction of motion of said active members;

outlet means, said outlet means comprising an outlet and a passage for discharging said fluid from said housing;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means;

a plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted on means for moving said active members, said identical members arranged in a cascade fashion in the direction of motion of said active members; said active members moving past said inlet passage and said outlet passage and through said housing means, said active members including a shroud means, said shroud means and said surface acting to direct the flow of said working .fluid whereby substantially all of said fluid is forced to pass at least twice in the same direction between said active members in the travel of said fluid between said inlet and said outlet whereby energy is transferred between said'uid and said active members.

9. A machine for transferring energy comprising: inlet means, said inlet means comprising an inlet and at least one passage connected to a source of working fluid, said passage guiding said working fluid to a plurality of active members with said fluid having. an uneven velocity vector distribution prior to passing through said active members such that after the the first passage of said fluid between said active members the distribution of total energy in said fluid is varied in the same manner as the general fluid energy distribution in the direction of motion of said active members;

outlet means, said outlet means comprising an outlet and at least one passage for discharging said fluid from said machine, said outlet passage influencing said fluid upstream of the last passage of said fluid through said active members whereby the particles of said working fluid within the fluid stream have a substantially uniform energy level upon egress;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means, said housing means including a plurality of surfaces, a plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted on means for moving said active members, said identical active members arranged in a cascade fashion in the direction of motion of said active members, said active members moving past said inlet passage and said outlet passage and through said lhousing means; said. surfaces directing the flow of substantially all of said fluid whereby said fluid is forced to pass at least twice between said active members in the travel of said fluid between said inlet and said outlet whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

10. A machine for transferring energy comprising: inlet means, said inlet means comprising an inlet and at least one passage connected to a source of working fluid, said passage guiding said working fluid to a plurality of active members whereby said fluid has an uneven velocity vector distribution prior to passing through said active members such that after the first passage of said fluid between said active members the distribution of total energy in said fluid is varied in the same manner as the general fluid energy distribution in the direction of motion of said active members;

outlet means, said outlet means comprising an outlet and at least one passage for discharging said fluid from said machine, said outlet passage influencing said fluid upstream of the last passage of said lfluid through said active members whereby the particles of said Working fluid within the fluid stream have a substantially uniform energy level upon egress;

vaneless housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means, said housing means including at least one surface; a plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted on means for moving said active members, said identical members arranged in a cascade fashion in the direction of motion of said active members whereby said active members are moved past said inlet passage,

.8 s said outlet passage and through said housing means, said active members including a shroud means; said surface and said active members defining `such a channel for the movement of said fluid between said inlet and said outlet whereby substantially all of said fluid is forced to pass at least twice in the same direction between said active members in the travel of the fluid between said inlet and said outlet means whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and said active members.

11. The machine for transferring energy of claim 10 in which said surface and said active members act upon said working fluid whereby the particles of fluid traverse at least twice around the inner member in the advance of said fluid particles between said inlet and said outlet means.

12. The machine for transferring energy as defined in claim 10, wherein the housing surface and the shroud surface of said active members are shaped and positioned f relative to each other to form a passage geometry having a mean shape whereby'the flow separation of and losses i in said fluid are substantially minimized.

13. A machine for transferring energy comprising: inlet means, said inlet means comprising an inlet and at least one passage connected to a source of work` ing fluid, said passage guiding said working fluid .to a plurality of active members with said fluid having an uneven velocity vector distribution prior to passing said active members such that after the first passage of said fluid between said active membersthe distribution of total energy in said fluid is varied in the same manner as the general fluid energy distribution in the direction of motion of said active members; outlet means, said outlet means comprising an outlet and at least one passage for discharging said fluid from said machine, said outlet passage influencing said fluid upstream of the last passage of said fluid through said active members whereby the particles of said working fluid within the fluid stream have a sub'v stantially uniform energy level upon egress; vaneless housing means connecting said inlet means and said outlet means, said housing means including a plurality of surfaces; a 4plurality of substantially identical active members, said active members mounted in a cascade fashion in the direction of motion of said active members on means for moving p said active members, said active members moved past said inlet passage, said outlet passage and` through at least one surface of said housing means;

said surfaces including inner and outer surfaces dei lining a channel for the movement of said fluid be-` tween said inlet and said outlet means, said surface 1 and said active members acting on said working` fluid whereby the particles of fluid traverse a path repeatedly around the inner surface and through said` active members as said fluid advances from said inlet means to said outlet means, said inner and said outer surfaces being shaped and positioned relative to each other to form a passage geometry having such a mean shape that the flow separation of or losses in said fluid are substantially minimized, substantially all of said fluid passing at least twice in the same direction between said active members in the travel of said fluid between said inlet means and said outlet means whereby energy is transferred between said fluid and 1 said active members.

14. The machine for transferring energy of claim `13 i in which said active members are arranged with relation i to the periphery of the cross section in a plane perpen` dicular to the direction of motion of said active members whereby said fluid approaches a majority of the active members along the cascade at a constant angle `of incidence.

15. The machine for transferring energy of claim 13 in which the projected area of said active members in a 9 10 plane perpendicular to the direction of motion of said References Cited by the Examiner active members always being less than the projected area UNITED STATES PATENTS of the remainder of said channel in said plane. 16. The machine for transferring energy of claim 13, lzemblek. herein said active members have a thickness congura- 5 uraws 1 w W 3,070,349 12/1962 stewart et a1 253.46

tion of an air foil, said thickness configuration superimposed on the camber line to produce substantially zero MARTIN P' SCHWADRON, Pflmy Examine!"- incidence between said Huid and said active members. E A. POWELL, JR Assistant Examine,

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US659930 *Nov 17, 1898Oct 16, 1900Duston KembleSteam-turbine.
US789197 *Mar 21, 1904May 9, 1905Stanislaus M ZurawskiTurbine.
US3070349 *Apr 27, 1960Dec 25, 1962Warner L StewartMultistage multiple-reentry turbine
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3782850 *Aug 9, 1971Jan 1, 1974Garrett CorpEnergy transfer machine
US3869220 *Feb 23, 1973Mar 4, 1975Secr Defence BritRotary machines
US3932064 *Oct 8, 1974Jan 13, 1976The Secretary Of State For Defense In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern IrelandRotary bladed fluid flow machine
US4197051 *Mar 31, 1978Apr 8, 1980The Garrett CorporationEnergy transfer machine
US4248567 *Jul 25, 1979Feb 3, 1981The Garrett CorporationEnergy transfer machine
US4261685 *Jul 25, 1979Apr 14, 1981The Garrett Corp.Energy transfer machine
US4279570 *Jul 25, 1979Jul 21, 1981The Garrett CorporationEnergy transfer machine
US4519373 *Sep 30, 1982May 28, 1985The Garrett CorporationInternal combustion engine having a variably engagable slipping wet clutch for driving a supercharger
US4630995 *Aug 23, 1984Dec 23, 1986Mtu Motoren- Und Turbinen-Union Muenchen GmbhFluid flow engine, especially power engine acted upon by gas
US5143511 *Sep 28, 1990Sep 1, 1992Lamson CorporationRegenerative centrifugal compressor
WO2000019099A1 *Sep 27, 1999Apr 6, 2000Cetus Innovation AbA device for moving a liquid or a gas
Classifications
U.S. Classification415/5, 415/910
International ClassificationF01D1/12, F01D23/00, F03B9/00, F03B3/00
Cooperative ClassificationF01D1/12, F03B3/00, Y02E10/20, F03B17/06, Y10S415/91, Y02E10/223, F01D23/00
European ClassificationF03B17/06, F01D23/00, F03B3/00, F01D1/12