US 329292 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
- 4 Sheets-Sheet 1. T. W. EATON.
No. 329,292. Patented Oct. 27,1885.
4 Sheets-Sheet T. W. EATON.
No. 329,292. Patented 001;. 27, 1885.
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T. W. EATON.
No. 329,292. Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
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UNITED STATES PATENT EFIcE.
TIIoMAs w. EATON, OF CHICAGO, ASSIGNOR or ONE-HALF TO JOHN F. EATON, or CAMBRIDGE, ILLINoIs.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 329,292, dated October 27, 1885.
Application filed December 27, 1883. Serial No. 115,746. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, THOMAS WV. EATON, of Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Opera Chairs; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.
The object of this invention is to provide an improved construction in opera or other folding chairs; and it consists in the matters hereinafter described, and pointed out in the claims.
A principal feature of the invention con sists in the combination, with a spring or weight for throwing the seat of a pivoted chair into a vertical position, of means for tempo rarily holding the seat in position for use, so constructed that the application of a weight to the seat sufficiently heavy'to overcome the upward pressure of the seat-spring, as by a person sitting upon it, will cause the release of such holding devices, and thereby permit the seat to rise upon the removal of the weight therefrom.
Several different forms of holding devices operating in the manner above stated are herein shown as illustrating my invention, all of which embody the same general features of construction and comprise a movable detent upon the chairseat, a projection upon the frame adapted for engagement with the detent, so as to hold the seat, when thelatter is in its horizontal position, from rising under the action of the spring or weight mentioned, the said detent and projection being so arranged that a further downward movement of the seat from the position in which the detent and projection are engaged will carry the said detent out of engagement with the projection, and means constructed to prevent the teengagement of the detent and projection after they have become disengaged, so that the seat, when released, will be free to rise, as will hereinafter more fully appear.
A desirable form of device illustrating my invention is herein shown, in which a spring is applied to arrest the downward movement of the chair-seat at the time it reaches a position for the engagement of the detent with the projection upon the chair-frame, said spring being constructed to yield upon the application of considerable additional pressure to the chair-seat, so as to permit the seat to sink slightly, and to thereby cause a further move ment of the detent with reference to the projection, suitable means being provided, in connection with these devices, as above set forth, for preventing the re-engagement of the detent with the projection when the press ure upon the seat is released.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a central vertical section of an opera-chair, illustrating one form of my invention, taken upon line 00 x of Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a front or face view of the chair shown in Fig. 1. Figs. 3 and 4 are detail perspective views of devices for temporarily holding the chair in its horizontal position, which will be hereinafter more particularly described. Fig. 5 is a vertical detail section taken upon line on x of Fig. 1. Fig. 6 is adetail vertical section taken through the pivot of the chair-seat shown at the right hand in Fig. 2. Fig. 7 is a detail end view of the pivot-pin shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a view illustrating another form of a device embodying my invention. Fig. 9 is a section taken upon line was of Fig. 8. Fig. 10 is a detail view of another form of device, illustrating my invention. Fig. 11 is a fragmentary central vertical section of a chair, illustrating another form of my invention. Fig. 12 is a sectional view of the same, taken upon line a; x of Fig. 11. Fig. 13 is a vertical cross-section, illustrating the form of the device shown in Fig. 10, taken upon the line 00 00 of said figure. Fig. 14 is a sectional view of a chairseat, showing a weight applied to throw the seat upwardly.
A A are the side frames or standards of an opera-chair, generally of the usual construction. A is the back thereof, and B is the seat, which is pivotally connected with the said frame A, and is constructed to fold upwardly against the back A when not in use.
In the form of device illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 a spring, 0, is applied to a stationary part connected with the side frame, A, and having attachment with the seat B in such manner as to tend to throw the front edge of the said seat upwardly and backwardly and to retain the seat in a vertical position. The said spring, as herein shown, and as illustrated in Figs. 2 and 6, is of spiral form, and is placed upon a cylinder, to which it is connected at one end by means of a lug, c, engaged with the hooked end 00f the spring, and having its opposite projecting end,O ,engaged with a stud, 1), upon one of the side pieces, B, of the seat-frame, as illustrated in connection with the form of the device shown in Figs. 2 and 6, and also in connection with other devices embodying my invention in Figs. 8, 9, 11, and 12. The cylinder 0 may be attached to the standard A outside of the seat, and
concentric with the pivotal point thereof; but
as herein shown said cylinder is located inside of the side piece, B, of the seat-frame, and is provided with a cylindrical extension, 0 which passes through a bearing, B, upon the side piece B, and is secured to the standard A, forming one of the pivots of the seat. The cylinder 0 and pivot-pin O are, as shown, attached to the standard A by means of a bolt, O, passing axially through said cylinder and secured in the said standard. 7 In order to enable the strength of the spring 0 to be adjusted to throw the seat upward with greater or less force, as desired, the end of the cylindrical extension 0 of the cylinder 0 is provided with radial corrugations c fitted to corresponding corrugations in a recess, a, in the standard A, whereby the lug c on the cylinder 0 may be held at any angular position found necessary in adjusting the Spring.
The seat-frame, as illustrated in the figures above mentioned, is provided with a pivoted detent, D, which is constructed to engage a stationary cam-plate, E, connected with the side frame, A, and which is shown as being located upon the inner face of the side piece, B, of the seat, and connected with the said side frame by means of a cylindrical projection, E, passing through a suitable bearing, B upon the said side piece B, so as toform the pivot upon which the seat turns. The detent D is preferably pivoted upon the in= ner surface of the side piece, B, of the seat, audits free end is bent at right angles, so as to form a projection, 01, for engagement with a notch, 6, upon the upper edge of the camplate E. The rear edge of the seat B is extended beyond the pivotal axis of the seat, and rests upwardly against a spring, 13*, (here in shown as being made of rubber,) which is inserted between the said seat and a stationary projection upon the chair-frame. Said spring is constructed to arrest the motion of the seat, when thrown downwardly, at the point at which the detent D is in position to engage the notch 6, but to yield upon additional pressure,so as to permit a further movement of the detent with reference to the notch. The front/wall ofthe notch e, as indicated at e in Figs. 3 and 4, is curved upwardly and forwardly, so that when the front edge of the chair is thrown downwardly from the point at whichthe said detent engages the notch said curved edge' E will cause the detent to rise out of the notch. The detent D may be of sufficient weight to operate by gravity; or, if preferred, a spring, as shown at F, Fig. 1, may be applied to throw the saiddetent down wardly and to retain its end d in engagement with the notch. Upon the inner face of the camplate E is pivoted a plate, G,which is provided with a notch, g, vertically above the pivotal point of the said plate G. The upper edge of the plate G extends slightly above .the upper edge of the cam-plate E, as indicated at g, and said. plate G is provided with a weight, G, which tends, when the said plate is in a forward position, to throw the notch 9 forward with reference to the notch e, and when swung backwardlypast the pivotal point of the said plateG to throw the plate in the other direction, or rearwardly. The plate G is also provided at the rear end of the upper surface, 9, with an upward projection or stop, 9 j
Whenthe parts are in the position illustrated in Figs. 1 and 3, and the detent Dis engaged with the notch 6, so as to prevent the upward movement of the outer end of the chair-seat, and also with the notch g, the weight G will be inposition forward of the pivotal point of the plate G, and will tend to throw said plate forward and the surface g be neath the end d of the said detent. If the outer end of the chair-seat is depressed by the yielding of the spring B, when the parts are in the position described, the action of the curved surface E will cause the detent to be lifted from engagement with the notch e, and the parts will take the position illustrated in Fig. 4, the weight G causing the plate G to be rotated, so as to bring it-supper surface, beneath the end of the projection d, and thereby prevent the return of the detent to engagement with the notch. Upon the release of the seat, when in the position last described, (shown in Fig. 4,) the seat will be pressed upward by the spring 0, and the detent, being held out of the notch e by the plate G, willbe permitted to pass back over the upper edge of the cam-plate G, so that the seat may rise to a vertical position. The purpose of the projection upon the plate Gis to engage the end of the detent, in order that the said plate may be thrown backwardly and the detent caused to engage the notch e when the seat is again thrown downwardly. The pivot-pin E, which supports the side of the chair-seat, as above stated, is provided with a square projection, e, upon its end, as shown more clearly in Figs. 3 and 4, which projection enters a corresponding recess, a, in the side A of the chair-frame. Said pivot-pin and the camplate E,attached thereto,ar'e held rigidly in place by means of a bolt, E herein shown as being se-- piece A and through the pivot-pin and cylinder G, for supporting the spring 0 of the adjacent chair-seat, so as to take the place of the bolt 0*, above described, in supporting said cylinder and pivot-pin.
The cam-plate E, instead of being located upon the inner face of the side piece B of the seatframe, may, obviously, be placed outside of said side piece, and be attached to or form a part of the side piece A, the detent D in such case, of course, being attached to the side piece B, upon the outer surface thereof. The construction first described is, however, preferred, for the reason that the cam-plate and devices connected therewith are thereby concealed from view, and are not liable to be interfered with by the occupant of the chair.
In Figs. 8 and 9 another form of the device is shown embodying the same principles of operation. In this case, however, the part containing the notch for engaging the detent upon the chair-seat, and corresponding with the stationary camplate E, above described, is movable, so that upon the withdrawal of the detent from the notch with which it is en gaged, by the application of additional pressure to the outer edge of the chair-seat, the said part containing the notch will be moved so as to prevent the return of the detent thereto, and thus permit the seat to return to its ven tical position.
As shown in Figs. Sand 9, the side piece A of the chair-frame is provided upon its inner face (adjacent to the pivotal point of the chair-seat at one side thereof) with a semicircular ring or projection, A, preferably, but not necessarily, concentric with said pivotal point. Upon the face of the said standard, and below the seat-pivot, is placed a pivoted dog, H, with its free end extended rearwardly, and having in such free end a notch, it, formed by means of a rearward]y-projecting part, it, at the top of the dog. Upon the seat-frame, at the rear of the pivotal point thereof, and preferably upon a downwardly projecting arm, I, thereon, is pivoted a detent-arm, I, which projects forwardly, and is provided upon its free end with a transverse projection or lug, i, which extends laterally to a point near the surface of the standard A, and into position to rest upon the annular projection A, so as to engage the notch h in the dog H. The said dog H is constructed to swing freely upon its pivotal point, and normally rests at its free end upon the projection A", said pr0 jection having a notch at a formed in its upper surface, constructed to receive the lower part of the free end of the dog, and to permit the projection h upon the said free end of the dog to rest upon the said projection A". The dog H may be made of sufficient wei ht to fall by gravity into the position described at a desired time; or, as shown, a spring, J, may be provided for throwing said dog downwardly, said spring, if present, being preferably formed of a leaf attached atj to the rear portion of the semicircular projection A and having its free end curved upwardly, so as to allow the detent projection to pass from beneath the same without noise, as will be hereinafter better understood. The chair-seat is in this construction thrown upwardly in a vertical position by means of a spring, 0, placed upon a cylinder, O, both similar to the corresponding parts first above described. Said spring and cylinder maybe placed at either side of the seat. As shown in the figures mentioned, however, the spring and supporting-cylinder therefor are placed at the side of the seat adjacent to the devices described, for holding the seat temporarily in a horizontal position.
In Figs. 8 and 9 of the drawings the parts of the device last described are shown in the position which they take when the seat is temporarily held horizontal, the lugi upon the detent I being engaged with the notch it upon the dog I1, and the said projection or lug i resting upon the upper surface ofthe semi circular projection A, upon which surface it travels when the chair-seat is rotated. The parts being in the position described, it is obvious that when an additional weight or pressure is put upon the outer edge of the chair-seat the spring B, between the rear edge of the seat and the chairframe above it, will yield and will permit the lug t to recede beyond the rear of the projection h. The dog H will then fall, and the point h thereof will rest upon the face of the annular projection A The parts will remain in the position last stated until the pressure is removed from the seat. When such pressure is removed, as by the rising of the occupant, the seat, by the action of the spring 0, is raised, the lug t, in this movement of the seat, passing over the projection h and dog H and beneaththe spring J. After passing the dog H the lug 1; falls to the upper surface of the projection A, and slides thereon until the chair has reached its vertical position. \Vhenit is again desired to place the seat in a horizontal position, a downward movement thereof will carry the detent-lugi backwardly upon the surface of the projection A", and beneath the dog H, so as to lift said dog until it reaches the notch h therein, which it will engage, as before described. The spring B is so located and is of such strength that it will naturally arrest the descending movement of the ehairseat at the moment the lugt engages the notch 11, considerable additional pressure being required to further compress said spring suffieiently to carry said lug beyond the dog. The spring J is preferably extended forwardly from its point of contact with the upper sur face of the lug, and its end portion,j, is inclined upwardly from said surface, as before mentioned, so that when the lug t' passes from beneath the spring the upturned portion thereof will rest upon the lug and permit the return of the spring to contact with the dog without the noise or click which might otherwise occur at such time.
In Figs. 10 and 13 still another equivalent form of device embodying the same general features of construction before described is illustrated. The chair-seat B may in this case be thrown upwardly by a spring or weight applied in any desired or preferred manner; but, as shown in said figure, a spring, (3, constructed and operating in a manner previously described, is used for this purpose. Upon the rear edge of the chair-seat is placed a stationary lug or projection, K, formed, as shown, upon the bearing block B of the chair-seat, and constructed to engage a projection, Z, upon a swinging arm or plate, L, which is pivotally connected with the side piece A of the cha r-frame at the rear of the said projection. The plate L is arranged in a vertical position at some distance below the rear edge of the seat, when the latter is horizontal, and the upper end of said plate is constructed to swing freely, and is held normally in position to engage the lug K by means of a spring, L, which may be of any desired construction, but which, as herein shown, is similar to the spring 0, previously described, and is located at the pivotal point Z of the plate. The forward motion of the upper and free end of the plate L is preferably limited by means of a stop, Z upon the standard A. The projection Z is located near the upper end-of the plate L, and its lower surface is inclined in such a manner that when the free edge of the chair-seat is thrown downwardly the lug K, operating upon said inclined surface, will throw the plate L backwardly and permit the automatic engagement of the said lug with the said projection Z, so as to hold the chair-seat in its horizontal position. Upon the upper end of the plate Lisa pivoted dog, M, arranged in a generally horizontal position, and pivoted at its rearend, by means of a pivot-pin, m, to the plate L. The dog M is supported in a horizontal position by a stop, Z upon the plate L, and when it is in its normal position its forward or free end extends beyond the front edge of the plate L and the projection Z thereon. By this construction,when the lug K is carried upwardly along the lower inclined surface of the projection Z in lowering the seat, the upper edge of the said lug K will engage and lift the free end of the said dog, and support the latter in its raised position during the time that the'said dog is engaged with the projection Z, at which time the parts will bein the position illustrated in Fig. 10,and the seat will be held temporarily in its horizontal position. If, when the parts are in the position above mentioned, an additional movement of the seat takes place by the ap plication of an increased pressure thereto,and the consequent yielding of the spring B the lug K will move upwardly and throw the free 7 end of the dog M upwardly with it until the forward and upward movement of the said lug K brings its end beyond the free end of the said dog, when the latter will drop and its end face will engage the said lug K. If, now, the front edge of the seat is released by the removal of pressure therefrom, the lug K will swing downwardly and carry the free end of the dog M downwardly with it until the motion of said dog is arrested by the stop Z This movement of the lug and the dog M will obviously throw the upper end of the plate L backwardly into the position indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 10, and will thereby cause the release of the lug K from the projection Z, so that said lug will be free to pass downwardly over said projection,and thus permit the seat to rise under the action of the spring. The dog M is preferably, as shown, provided. with a projection, m, at its upper and free end, so that when the said free end of the dog drops into engagement with the lug K, in the manner above described,its downward motion will be arrested by the contact of the said projection m with the lug K, and it will remain properlyin engagement with said lug until the dog has reached its horizontal position and the lug is disengaged therefrom.
Another equivalent construction to those already described is illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12, in which the release of the detent upon the seat from the projection or dog upon the chair-frame is accomplished by a movement of the cushion or part of the cushion instead of by a further movement of the entire seat-frame, as in the form of the device hereinbefore described, and shown in Figs. 8 and 9. In this case the seat-frame is constructed to rest at its rear edge'against a stationary cross piece or stop, A upon the chair-frame, no provision being made for supplemental movement thereof, and the part 1, carrying the detent I, is necessarily an arm, and is pivoted to a horizontal shaft, P, upon the chair-seat. The shaft 1? rotates in bearings 19 upon the rear lower edge of the chair-seat, said bearings being, as herein illustrated, made upon the cast- 1 ing B forming the bearing-box of the seat. At the middle of the shaft P, as shown more clearly in Fig. 12, is rigidly secured a forwardly-extending arm,- 19', which is engaged at its forward and free end with a lug, 10, secured at or near the middle of a board, B, which forms the foundation of the cushion of the seat, and which is made separate from and vertically movable with relation to the seatframe. The board B and the free end of the arm P may be held at the upper limit of theirv movement by any suitable spring applied between such parts and the said frame in any desired manner. As herein shown, however, a semi-elliptical spring, R, is employed, and secured by means of staples r at either end to the side pieces, B, of the seat-frame, and attached at its middle to the board B. A stop or ledge, b, is preferably secured to the inner surface of the seat-frame, in order to limit the downw M m r ward movement of the movable board, and l the spring R is so arranged as to hold said board slightly above the said ledge Z), in order that upon the weight of a person coming upon the seat the cushion may be depressed until it rests upon the said ledge. The arm P being connected with the board B" of the cushion in a manner described, this depression of said cushion will cause the shaft P to be rotatedand the arm I to be thrown backwardly, thus carrying the detent I to the rear and releasing its free end from engagement with the notch h, in the same manner that the detent is re leased from the dog H by the backward movement occasioned by the rotation of the entire seat-frame, as described in connection wit-h the device shown in Figs. 8 and 9. The spring for temporarily retaining the detent upon the seat in engagement with the projection or notch upon the chair-frame, or part connected there with, may in the device last described, and also in those before mentioned, be inserted between the movable part and a stationary part of the seat or chair frame at any desired place.
In Fig. 14 of the drawings a weight, Q, is shown as attached to the rear edge of the seat B, said weight serving, instead of the spring 0, (shown in the figures previously described,) to throw the seat upwardly when the latter is released.
In another application, Serial No. 146,741, for patent, filed by me October 29, 1884, is shown and described another way of carrying out theinvention herein broadly claimed. The mechanism shown and specifically claimed in said application embodies, however, the same general features of construction and operation as are present in the devices herein shown and above set forth, and said mechanism is therefore covered by the broad claims hereto appended.
I claim as my invention 1. The combination, with the chair-frame and pivoted seat, of a spring or weight applied to throw the seat upwardly, and mechanism for holding the seat in a horizontal po sition against the action of the said spring, comprisinga projection and a detent upon the seat and frame located in position for mutual engagement when the seat is horizontal, said projection and detent being relatively movable to permit their engagement with each other in the downward movement of the seat, a spring or its equivalent applied to hold the said projection and detent normally in position for engagement, and means constructed to move and hold the detent out of engagement with the projection when the said detent and projection are relatively moved by a downward movement of the seat from its horizontal position, whereby the seat will be free to rise when the pressure thereon is removed, substantially as described.
2. The combination, with the chair-frame and pivoted seat, of a spring or weight applied to throw the seat upwardly, mechanism for holding the seat in a horizontal position against the act-i011 of the said spring, comprising a detent and a projection upon the seat and frame located in position for mutual engagement when the seat is approximately horizontal, said projection and detent being relatively movable to permit their engage ment and disengagement with each other, a spring or its equivalent applied to hold the said detent and projection normally in position for engagement, and means constructed to move and hold the detent out of engagement with the projection when the said detent and projection are relatively moved by a downward movement of the chair-seat from its horizontal position, and a spring interposed between the seat and a part of the frame, constructed to arrest the downward movement of the seat in position for engagement of the detent and projection, and to yield when additional downward pressure is applied to the seat, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
3. The combination, with the chair-frame and pivoted seat and a spring or weight applied to throw the seat upwardly, of a notched plate upon the frame and a spring-actuated detent upon the seat, the said detent being located in position to engage the notch of the plate when the seat is approximately horizontal, and a movable part, as G, upon the said plate, located in position to engage the detent when the said detent has been carried out of the notch by a downward movement of its seat from its approXimately-horizontal position, and a spring or weight applied to throw said movable part G into position to engage said detent, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
THOMAS V. EATON.
(J. CLARENCE PooLn, PETER J. ELLERT.