US 329354 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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GLASHER & J. BUTTRESS.
7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
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ASHER & J. BUTT-BESS.
EXPLOSIVE ENGINE. No. 329,354.
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S 7-Sheets-Sheet 5. I G. ASHER & J. BUTTRESS.
No. 329,354. Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
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(No Model.) 7 SheetsSheet 6. G. ASHER 81; J. BUTTRESS.
Patented Oct. 27, 1885.
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7 Sheets-Sheet 7. G. ASHER & J. BUTTRESS.
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UNITED STATES PATENT: OFFICE.
GEORGE ASHER, on BALsALL HEATH, AND JOHN. BUTTRESS. or
SPARKBROOK, COUNTY OF WORCESTEB, ENGLAND.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 329,354, dated Qctoberz'l, 1885. I
Application filed April -16, was. Serial No.1fi2,448. (No model.) Patented in England February 2,1885,No.1,4%, 31111 in Belgium- May 2-1, 1825, No. 69,037.'
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that we, GEQBGE ASHER and J oHn BUTTRESS, subjects of HerMajesty the Queen of GreatBritain, residing, respectively, at Balsall Heath and Sparkbrook, both in the county of Worcester, England, have invented a certain new or Improved ExplosiveEngin'e, of which the following is a specification.
Our invention relates to a new or improved method of obtaining motive power by the explosive combination of substances; and the objects of our invention are, first, to utilize in a motor certain liquids, which, when brought in contact with each other, explode; second, to provide means whereby portions of such liquids may be intermittently brought together from general supplies, so as to cause successlve explosions to be utilized in forcing a piston along a cylinder for obtaining motive power; third, to provide means whereby the quantities of such liquids usediu each explos'ion may be varied automatically or banattendant, so as thereby to regulate the force of the explosions and power of the motor; fourth, to provide means for starting and stopping the motor; and, fifth,'to provide means whereby the direction of revolution of the motor may be reversed. We attain these objects by the mechanism illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which.-
Figure 1 is a side elevation of a singleacting stationary motor constructed in accordance with our invention, and arranged to be controlled by an attendant. Fig. 2 is a plan, and Fig. 3 an end elevation, of the same motor.- Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional elevation on line X X of Fig. 5. Fig. 5 is aplan of the same, partly in section, on line X X of Fig. 6. Fig. 6 is an elevation of the-same, partly in section, on line Y Y of Fig. 5. Fig. 6* shows one of the valves separately. Figs. 7, 8, and 8* are sectional views of part of the same motor, illustrating the relative position of the piston and valves, ashereinafter explained. Fig. 9 is a'plan (partly in section, 011 line X X of Fig. 10) of a double-acting stationary motor constructed in accordance with our invention. Fig. 10 is a sectional elevation of the same on lineX'Xof Fig. 9. Fig. 11 is a cross-sectional elevation of the same on line -5o Y Y of Fig. 9. Fig. 12 is a cross-sectional elevation of the same on line Z Z of Fig.9. Fig. 13 is a cross-sectional elevation of the same 'on line W W of Fig. 15. Fig. 14 is a general plan, and Fig. 15 a general side elevation, of
the same, and Fig. 16 is an end elevation of the'same. Figs. 17, 18,19, and 20 are part. sectionsof the cylinder of the double-acting. motor represented'by Figs. 9 to 16, both inclusive, and they illustrate the action of the valves and their positions relativeto-thei piston at diflerent points of its travel, as hereinafter fully explained. Fig; 21 'is a part plan of a modified form of double-acting motor constructed in accordance with our invention, the
valve-rod being in its extreme rearward posi tion. Fig. 22 is a part sectional plan, and Fig. '23 is a part elevation, of the same. Fig.
24 is a part-plan of the same, the valve-rod being in its extreme forward position. Fig. 25 is apart sectional plan, and Fig. 26a part 7 elevation, of the same; Fig. 27 is a part plan of a double-acting motor provided with means for automatically regulating its speed and power. Figs. 28 and 29 are part elevations of the same. Figs. 30 to 34, both inclusive, illustrate the action of the valves of the same, as hereinafter fully explained. Figs. 35 and 36 are part'sectional plans, and Fig. 37 a part end elevation, of a cylinder of a single-aoting motor illustrating a modification of our invention, as hereinafter fully described. Figs. 38 and 39 show the application of means for antomatically controlling the double-acting motor illustrated by Figs. 9 to 15, both inclusive. Fig.,4Q is a front elevation of a vertical s'ingleacting motor provided with sliding valves and reversing-gear, and constructed in accordance with our invention. Fig. 41 is" a sectional elevation of the same on line X X of Fig. 40, 90.
and Fig. 42 is a part sectional elevation of the same on line Y Y of Fig. 41. Fig. 43 shows 7 the valves separately, and Fig. 44 is a sectional plan of the cylinder of the same on line Z Z of Figs. 41 and 42: Fig.4?) is a frontelevation of a vertical double-acting motor provided with rotary valves, and constructed in'accordance with our invention. Fig. 46 is a sectional elevatiorfofthe same on line X X of Fig. 45. Fig. '47 is a part sectional elevation of the same on line Y Y of Fig. 46; and Fig. 48 is a sectional plan of the cylinder of the same on line Z Z of Figs. 46 and 47.
Similar letters refer to similar parts throughout the several views.
- \Ve will first describe how our invention may be carried into practice in the constructionof a single acting motor-that is to say, a motorin which force is applied on one side of the piston only. For this purpose we will describe as a type a horizontal stationary motor, and we shall refer more particularly to Figs 1 to 8*, both inclusive.
A is a metal cylinder contained within a cylindrical casing, B, fixed in a horizontal position to a frame, 0, and having an ordinary piston, D, free to slide therein and working through astufiing-box and gland, b, and forming in part a trunk to which is jointed by the pin 6 the ordinary connecting-rod, E, connecied to the crank-shaft F, provided with a fly-wheel, G; or other well-known means may be employed for converting the reciprocating motion of the piston'into rotary motion of the crank-shaft from which power is required to be taken off. H and H are two vessels, preferably of metal, attached to the outer casing, B, and provided with suitable covers, h
- h preferably screwed thereto. One of the vesselssay Hmay contain concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid in about equal portions,aud theother vessel, H, may contain oil of turpentine. From the lower part of each of the said vessels H H (see Fig. 4) wcprovide a passage, 1 1 which communicates with solid plugs or valves K K, two-in number,- one for each vessel, arranged to turn in vertical holes provided in the cylinder-casing B. The plugs or valves K K are each provided .with a spur-wheel, k W, which gear so that they revolve together, and they receive rotary motion from the crank-shai'tF by means of the bevel-'wheelsff, the shaft L, bevelwheels Z n(, vertical shaft N, and spur-wheel if. The diameters of the wheels are so an ranged that the plugs or valves K K revolve at the same speed as the crank-shaft F- The plugs or valves K K are free to be moved up and down within certain limits through the stuffing-boxes k k, by means of the forked leverPand screw and hand-wheelpfl'for the purpose of controlling the motor, as hereinafter described. The index 11* shows the position of the valves K K. Each plug or valve K K is provided with a groove or recess, r" and k (see Fig. 6*,) on one side thereoflcorrespond ing to the passages I l, and on the side of each plug or valve opposite to the passages l. l we provide two other passages, I I, which are directed toward each other and toward the back end of the cylinder A, where they meet, and there, forming a single passage, 0, communicate with the cylinder A behind the piston D. On the shaft L is an ordinary clutch, L, free to slide thereon and operated by a lever, L", and so arranged that it can be .piston Daloug the cylinder A, is, as follows:-
The plugs or valves K K are first turned so that their grooved or recessed parts k k correspond to the passages I l, leading to the vessels H 'H, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The
grooved or recessed part of the plug or valve V K will thus become filled by the liquid containcd in the vessel H, which may be a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid, and the grooved or recessed part-of the plug 01: valve K will befilled by the liquid con tained in the vessel H, which may be 'oil of turpentine. The plugs or valves K K are now turned round together until their-grooved or recessed parts k k correspond to the passages I 1, leading to the cylinder A, asshown in Fig. 7; A certain part of the contents of the grooves or recesses k k" are thus severally discharged and run along the passages until they meet in the passage 0, where they explode and drive the piston D along the cylin-' der A to makeits forward stroke. Before the explosion takes place, the plugs or valves have turned far enough round, as shown in Fig. 8,
, to close the connection between thepassages P I and the recessed parts It It", so as to prevent their remaining contents exploding also. Vhen t-he'piston D has traveled acertain distance along the cylinder A, as shown in Figs. 5 and 8*, an exhaust-passage, Q, is opened, so
that the partially-expanded gases may pass The exhaust-passage may be arranged as may be most convenient,
into the atmosphere.
according to circumstances; but we prefer to place it at the bottom of the cylinder and to provide a valve, q, so-arranged that by means of the lever q", centered on the pin 1 the eanr g on the shaft L will maintain it closed while an explosion is taking place and allow it to be opened by the spring q after the piston has traveled a certain distance, as above described. The momentum of the fly-wheel G causes the piston D to make its backward stroke, alter which another explosion takes. place and the piston is again driven forward, as above described, the successive explosions thus causing continuous rotary motion of the crankshaft. The widths of the grooves or recesses Ic k at so arranged that there is at no part of. the revolution of the plugs or valves K K any direct communication between the cylinder A and the vessels H H 'containing the liquids for causing" the explosions. The grooves or recesscs k k extend below the bottom of the passages 1'1, so that the whole of their contents may not be discharged for asingle explosion. It will be seen. that if the plugs or valves K K are raised in their holes by means of the lever P and hand-wheel and-screw p the quantity of the explosive liquid dischargedfrom the grooves k k and used for each explo- 4 recesses 76' k are below the passages I" I, and} sion will be increased, and that if they are lowered the quantity will be diminished. The force of the explosion and the power and speed of the motor are thus un'der perfect control. In order to stop the motor the plugs or valves K K are lowered so that their grooves or will take in no supply of explosive liquid. \Ve prefer to provide an ordinary valve, R, which is weighted by means of the spring r and so arranged that it will open at a pressure lower than the bursting-pressure of the cylinder.. In order that the cylinder A may be kept cool we admit water into the space a. by means of the inlet-pipea, which circulates around the cylinder A and escapes by the outlet-pipe a We sometimes protect those parts of the motor which come into contact with the acids byelectrically depositing. or coating them with aluminium, or other substances not af-.
The proportions of the fccted by the acids. nitric and sulphuric acids may be varied as desired, and instead of using oil of turpentine, we may use azo-diphenyl-diamine, or chloride of kakodyle; or we may use other liquids which, when brought in contact with each other, cause an explosion.
\Ve will now describe how a double-acting motor-that is to say, amotor in which force is applied on both sides of the piston alternatelymay be constructed in accordance with our invention, and for this purpose we shall refer more particularly to Figs. 9 to 20, both. inclusive, which illustrate as a type a double-acting horizontal motor. We provide two plugs or valves, K K, at the back of the cylinder, and two plugs or'valves, K K", at the front of the cylinder, all similar and operated by similar means to the plugs or valves K K in the single-acting motor illustrated by Figs. 1 to 8*, both inclusive, hcreinbefore described, and-we provide an exhaust-passage, Q, for the back, and an exhaust-passage, Q,
. for the front, of the cylinder, each having a valve and lever similar, and operated by similar means to the exhaust-passage Q in the aforesaid single-acting motor. The vessels H H are preferably made large enough to serve for both the back and front plugs or valves,
(see Fig. 9,) and passages I I are made from each vessel respectively to the plugs onvalves K K" K K, (see Figs. 12 and 13,) and continued to the passages O and O, commnnicat ing wit-h the cylinder A. At the outward end of each passage 0 O we provide a reliefvalve,
It. The plugs or valves K K K K are so arranged relatively to each other and to the piston D that they cause explosions on each side of the piston D alternately and drive it backward and forward. This is clearly illus trated byFigs. 17 to 20, both inclusive. The passage Ois below the center of the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 12; but in Figs. 17 to 20 it appears as on the center line for the sake of position shown in Fig. 18. The exhaust-passage. Q is closed, as hereinbefore described, while the explosion takes place, and it may remainclosed until the piston arrives at the end bf its stroke, as shown in Fig. 1.9,wheu it opens and allows the partlvexpa-nded gases to escape. The valves K K are now in, a position to partly discharge their contents,which may meet and explode when the piston is returning, as shown in Fig. 20, the exhaustpassage Q remaining. closed until the piston reaches the endof its stroke, as shown in Fig. 17.
Although we have described plugs or valves having a continuous-rotary motion as a means as shown by Figs. 21 to 26, both inclusive, their motion being obtained from a rod, n (which receives vibratory motion from a crank or eccentric or other equivalent means on the crankshaft of the motor,) through the levers a, connected by the link a vertical shaft'n and toothed quadrants a gearing into the .spurwheels k. In Figs. 21,22, and 23 the rod n" has just completed its backward stroke, and the plugs or valves K K have partly dis- K K are in communication with the vessels H H", and the piston D is just commencing its forward stroke, the exhaust-passage Q being closed. In Figs. 24, 25, and 26 the rod n" is in its extreme forward position and the plugs or valves have been moved through a halt-circle,
charged their contents, the plugs or valves I K K being'now' in communication with the vessels H H, and K K ready to discharge, the piston D being about to move on its backward stroke. The rod n is made preferably forked, as shown in Fig. 26, so that it can be readily disconnected when the valves are being turned for obtaining tie first explosion for starting the motor. The oscillating plugs or valves can be moved up or down for controlling the motor, similarly to the rotating plugsor valves hereinbefou described. 1
The plugsor valves K K K K, instead of being arranged to rotate (1 oscillate about:-
their axes for obtaining succ- :ssive explosions,
as above described, may, according to our invention,bc moved longitudinally to obtain the same rcsult,such longitudinal motion being increased or diminished either by an attendant or automatically for controlling the motor.
Figs. 27 to 3;, both inclusive, illustrate how a doubleacting motor having slidingvalves and means for regulating its speed and power may be constructed in accordance with our the vessels'H H through the passages 1 Hand then, on being moved'upward, they severally either partly or wholly discharge their contents into the passages 1 I, to meet in the passages O 0', there to explode for acting on.
the piston, as above described. We provide aserewed handle, P, 'for the rod P, so that its position on the slotted lever P maybe varied by an attendant to increase or diminish the travel of the plugs or valves K K K K.
Fig. and 31 show in sect-ion the plugs or valves at the bottom and top of their stroke, respectively, when the end of the rod 1: acts on the lever P in the position shown in Fig.
' 28; but-if the rod P? be moved higher up the slotted lever P, as shown in Fig. 29, then the plugs or valves will have a longer travel, as shown in Figs. 32 and 33, and more liquid will be discharged from the slots, and theforce of the explosion and power of the motor thereby increased. The force of the explosion can be diminished by moving the rod P to operate nearer to the end of the lever P, and the motor can be stopped by moving the rod to the extreme end of thelever, as the plugs or valves will not then'move far enough to discharge any of their contents.
A motor constructed in accordance with our invention may be automatically controlled by means of an ordinary governor acting-on the plugs or valves and regulating the quantity of explosive liquid discharged. For instance, in the motor illustrated by Figs. 27 to 34, both inclusive, we provide an ordinary governor,
S, which receives rotary motion by means ofthe bevel-wheels s from the shaft L. We pro- .vide a-lever, S, which is centered at s and raised it the nominal speed is not attained.
Figs. 38 and 39 show how a governor may be applied for controlling a motor having rotary or oscillating valves, according to our invention, instead of the screw and hand-wheel hereiuhefore described. The levers P, actuating the lugs or valves, are caused to rise or fall by the slide 5 of the governor S, to which they are connected, thus regulating the amount of liquid discharged and-the power of the mo -tor. Between the plugs or valves K KK K and the vessels H H we sonietimes provide'sto'p-cocks '1" and T, (see Figs. 35, 36, and 37,) so that the supply from the vessels to the plugs or valves can be shut off, thereby regulating or stopping the motor. We prefer to provide them with levers t t, and to connect the levers together by a rod, t, so-that they will act together. 7
In constructing a vertical motorin accordance with our i nvention,we arrange the plugs I or valves to work parallel with the cylinder instead of at right angles thereto, as in the horizontal motors hereinbel'ore described.
Figs.4.0 to 44 illustrate as a type a vertical singleacting motor having sliding 'valves. The plugs or valves K K are connected together by the cross-piece K, (see Fig. 43,) which receives motion from an eccentric or its equivalenton the crank-shaft F, so that they move together..
Portions of the contents'of theyessels H H flow through the passages I I (see Fig. 42) into the slots k k when the plugs or valves are at tlie bottom of their stroke, and when they rise the said contents" are discharged through the passages l I into the passage 0, there to explode for operating the piston D, as hereinbefore described, for the horizontal motors.
Similar means may be employed for reversing a motor constructed in accordance with our invention as are nowv used for steam or other motors. For instance, two eccentrics, U U, jointed to a link,U and provided with a reversing-lever, U and connections U, may be used, as illustrated in Figs. 40, .1, and 42. The eccentrics are set on the crank-shaft so that if thelink U be brought over to its extreme position in one direction, as shown in Fig. 40, the eccentric U will operate the plugs or valves K K? and drive the motor but, it the link U be reversed, as shown in Fig. 42, the eccentric U, will operate the plugs or valves anddrive the motor in the opposite di-' rection. g
In constructing a double-acting vertical mo-' tor in accordance with our invention, with rotating or oscillating valves,we prefer to use two valves K K, as shown in Figs. 45 to 48, both inclusive, and to make each of them long enough to serve for causing an explosion at the top and bottom of the cylinder. The plugs or-valves K" K have each two grooves or recesses, 75 h on opposite sides thereof, so
as to cause explosions alternately on the top, v
and bottom of the piston D.
The operations of the plugs or valves K K, and the means for operating them, are similar to those hereinbefore described for horizontal motors having rotatingor oscillating valves K K K K.
- The cylinder and piston, instead of being in accordance with our invention,'or in apply-- iug, our invention to any of the purposes to which steam-enginesor other motors are now used.
In conclusion, wewish it to be understood I that we do not limit ourselves to the precise details as herein described and-illustrated, as the same may bevaried without departing from the nature of our invention.
We do not'in this application claim the method hereinbefore' described, as it is to be made the subject of a separate application.
\Vhat we claimas ourinvention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In a motor operated by the explosive combination of liquid substances, the combi nation of a vessel,H,having an outlet or outlets, I I and a ves'sel,H ,having an outlet or outlets, I I communicating with each other and with a cylinder containing a piston, as and for the purposes set forth. Y
2. In a motor, the combination ofa cylinder and piston with a pair of plugs or valves, K K,
arranged to continuously rotate or oscillate, so as to intermittently bring together portions of certain liquids from general supplies to cause successive explosions to act upon the said piston, as herein set forth.
In a motor, the combination of a cylin der and piston with two pairs of plugs or valves, K K" and K K*, arranged to continuously rotate or to oscillate, so as to intermittently bring together portions of certain liquids from general supplies, to cause successive explosions alternately on either side of the said piston, as herein set forth.
-5. In a motor, the combinatiop of a cylin-- der and piston with two pairs of plugs or valves, K K and K K, each having a slot, k is", arranged to slide longitudinally, so as to intermittently bring together portionsof liquids from general supplies, to cause successive explosions alternately on either side of the said piston, as herein set forth.
6. In a motor. operated by the explosive combination of substances, a pair or pairs of plugs or valves, K K, having grooves-or recesses 1: It, in combination with a lever, P, and a screw and hand-wheel, 12, so as to be adjustable longitudinally, to regulate the quantity of the explosive liquid or liquids used in'each explosion, as herein set forth.
7. In such a motor, a pair or pairs of plugs or valves, K K having grooves or recesses k Jr, in combination with a lever, P, and a governor, S, so as to be automatically adj 11stable longitudinally, to regulate the quantity of the explosive liquid or liquids used in each explosion as herein set fort-h.
8. Insuch a motor, a pairor pairs of plugs or valves, K K having slots k k, and receiving vibratory motion by means of levers P and a slotted lever, P, in combination with a governor, S, so as to automaticaliy obtain an increased or diminished length of travel of the plugs or valves, as and for the purposes specilied.
9. In a motor operated by the explosive combination of liquid substances, the combination of a governor with the plugs or valves, so as to automatically regulate the quantities of the explosive substances used in each explosion, as herein set forth.
In testimony whereof we have each signed in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
GEORGE ASHER. JOHN BUTTRESS.
CHARLES BOSWORTH KETLEY, WILLIAM CHARLES BATTEN.