US 3296023 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
3,296,023 FABRIC COATED WITH LIGHT REFLECTING FILLER AND ACRYLEC POLYMER Alexander John Leaderman, Pikesville, and Gordon Loeh, Baltimore, Md, assignors to Rochland Bleach and Dye Works, Inc, Baltimore, Md., a corporation of Maryland No Drawing. Filed Mar. 11, 1964, Ser. No. 351,239 4 Claims. (Cl. 117-161) This invention relates to a novel fabric and more particularly to a fabric having a novel coating thereon and is a continuation-in-part of our copending application Serial No. 251,718, filed January 16, 1963, now abandoned.
Heretofore, fabrics have been coated and/ or lined with various materials in an attempt to impart thermal insulating characteristics thereto. As generally understood, the desired thermal insulating qualities of such a fabric is a balance of its reflectivity, transmittance and adsorptivity characteristics. Thus, an ideal fabric from a thermal insulating viewpoint is one which displays not only high reflectivity but also sufficient transmittance to permit natural light to pass therethrough in amounts sufiiciently ample so that complete dependence on artificial lighting systems is not required during daylight hours as well as a minimum absorptivity with minimum rereflectance of the energy or heat absorbed. Accordingly, fabrics provided with certain resinous materials, which are opaque, while they may impart high reflectivity to the fabric, they generally reduce its transmittance characteristics to a level, such that substantially no natural light passes through the material. In instances where such a fabric is employed as a drapery material or drapery liner material, artificial lighting systems must necessarily be employed to illuminate during daylight hours an area where such drapery fabrics are employed. Other fabrics have been treated with materials which, while providing advantageous reflectivity and transmittance characteristics, are objectionable with respect to their absorptivity properties. Thus the treated fabric not only absorbs a substantial amount of heat or energy but it also re-radiates it in an energy or heat-deficient direction. In other words, in an instance where a fabric is made into a drapery or drapery liner, and the conditions are such that a room in which such draperies are employed is at a norm-a1 room temperature and the temperature outside the room is considerably colder, the drapery material absorbs the energy or heat from the room in substantial quantities and reflects it to the colder area. Also, when the room temperature is cooler than an outside area, the drapery material absorbs heat or energy from the outside and reflects it within the room, thus disadvantageously causing an elevation of the room temperature. Obviously, this latter phenomenon is particularly disadvantageous when, for instance, the fabric is utilized in an air-conditioned enclosure.
In addition to the foregoing disadvantages of existing coated or treated fabrics, such fabrics generally are not considered to be washable or dry-cleanable which seriously impairs their practicality from an economic point of view.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a fabric with a novel coating which imparts thereto advantageous thermal insulating characteristics.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a coated fabric that is substantially opaque, yet possesses desirable reflectivity, transmittance and absorptivity characteristics and at the same time is washable and dry cleanable without losing its effectiveness.
ttes Patent M Patented Jan. 3, 1967 It is a further object of the invention to provide a coated fabric containing supplemental heat and light refiective constituents held in place on the fabric by a synthetic resin cured in situ.
Yet a further object of the invention is to provide a composition for coating a fabric.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a washing and dry cleaning resistant composition for coating a fabric wherein the composition can be applied to the fabric as a cold aqueous solution or dispersion.
These and other objects of the invention will appear and be more fully set forth in the following detailed description.
The fabric of the present invention can be a material which is, for instance, a woven, nonwoven or knitted fabric made of natural or synthetic fiber or blends thereof. For instance, the fabric can be a relatively open weave cotton material as bleached muslin, or it can be made of other fibers such as acetate, silk, acrylonitrile, vinyl chloride, polyethylene terephth-alate, polyethylene, vinylidene chloride, casein, viscose, and other fibers or blends of such fibers.
The coating of the invention comprises a filler and a catalyzed synthetic resin binder, compounded preferably With a thickener and a plasticizer. Also the composition can, advantageously, contain other materials such as a light reflective constituent, an aqueous dispersion of a wear-resisting polymerized resin, and a wetting agent. Each of the above-mentioned components is preferably combined as an aqueous suspension, solution, dispersion or emulsion and the composition thus formed is applied to the fabric by conventional methods, such as doctoring, and knife or roller coating onto the fabric. The synthetic resin of the composition is cured as by passing the cloth through a heating zone. It is surprising that although the composition is Water based, it is not dissolved by washing or dry cleaning after having been cured.
The filler employed in the novel coating composition of the instant invention preferably is talc although other conventional fillers can also be used. For instance, titaniurn dioxide can also be employed, especially in instances where a Whitening effect or additional opacity is desirable. The filler is employed in amounts of about 50 to weight percent of the total composition and 1.2 to 2.8 pounds of filler per pound of synthetic resin binder on a water free basis are employed.
The synthetic resin binder is, preferably, selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal acrylic monomer and a lower alkyl acrylic monomer or a mixture of such monomers and is, preferably, in the form of about a 50% solids in aqueous dispersion. A particular resin, advantageously, is an aqueous solution or dispersion of monomers such as sodium acrylate and ethyl acrylate. Preferably, they are present, on an aqueous dispersionor solution-free basis, in amounts of about 25 to 50 Weight percent of the total composition. Additionally, the resin can be, for instance, sodium methacrylate, ammonium acrylate, ammonium methacrylate, methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, etc.
The polymerization catalyst employed in the instant invention, preferably, is an acid catalyst and can be for instance an organic or inorganic acid such as a di-carboxylic acid or mineral acid as phosphoric, sulfuric or even a halogen acid. Typical di-carboxylic acids useful with the present invention include oxalic, malonic,"succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, suberic, :azelaic, sebacic, etc. Monocarboxylic and other di-carboxylic acids can also be used. Generally the amount of catalyst used will depend on a number of factors, easily determined by those skilled in the art, such as the particular acrylic resin chosen, the amount of such resin, the curing temperature and time utilized, the fabric chosen, etc. Usually the amount employed will be such that on curing no excess remains which would otherwise, being in a crystalline state, attack the fibers of the fabric. Generally the amount will range from about 0.08 to 0.16 weight percent of the total coating composition.
A thickener, preferably a cellulose ether, is provided to impart to final composition the desired viscosity which will depend, again, on a number of easily ascertainable factors such as the physical characteristics of fabric being coated, i.e., open-weave, close-weave, nonwoven or knitted as well as the type, i.e., cotton, silk, synthetic fiber, etc. Also determinative of the amount of viscosity adjuster employed will be the amounts and types of resin as well as catalyst employed to produce the final composition. Generally, however, the amount used will be sufiicient to provide a composition sufliciently viscous to prevent striking through the face of the fabric but not so viscous that it prevents substantial filling of the interstices of the fabric. Usually this amount will be from about 2 to 6 weight percent, preferably about 4 weight percent of the final composition.
Other components of the novel coating composition which, advantageously, can be employed are a plasticizer such as a high molecular weight hydrocarbon oil or mixture of oils, used to soften the texture of the coated fabric, and employed in amounts, generally from about to 10 weight percent of the final composition. Typical commercially available plasticizers are AG55 and Paraplex G- (Rohm and Haas).
A wetting agent such as an ionic, nonionic or anionic dispersing agent can also be used. Preferably, a nonionic dispersing agent such as one obtainable by condensing ethylene oxide with (a) a fatty acid containing a chain of at least 10 carbon atoms starting from and including about 1 weight percent of the total composition. Also, if desired, conventional insulating constituents which supplement the thermal insulating properties achieved by the instant composition can also be used. Typical constituents are comminuted mica flakes, colloidal silica, comminuted asbestos and the like. When used, they will generally be present in amounts up to about 0.5 weight percent of the total composition. Each of the above-mentioned components is, preferably, combined as an aqueous suspension, solution or dispersion and the composition thus formed is applied to the fabric by doctoring, knife or roller coating or any other convenient method. The synthetic resin of the composition is subsequently cured by passing the fabric through a heating zone maintained at a temperature ranging, generally, from about 300400 F. for a period of up to about 1 minute. Preferably, the time of exposure of the coated fabric to any heating treatment is dependent, of course, on the exact temperature chosen. Thus an exposure time will generally be inversely proportional to the temperature employed. For instance, when a temperature of about 400 F. is employed, any given portion of the coated fabric will generally be exposed to this temperature for a period of about seconds. Preferably, the temperature of the heating treatment is about 375 to 380 F. and the time of exposure is about 1 minute.
After the synethic resin is cured on the fabric, the coated fabric advantageously is subjected to a mechanical treatment such as calendering or a mechanical or compressive shrinkage treatment depending, of course, on a number of easily ascertainable factors such as the residual shrinkage of the fabric.
Example I The invention is best illustrated by the following example of a drapery material. A coating composition was prepared from the constituents as set forth.
, Constituent Trade name Acrylic resin Oxalie acid 'I E32 (Rohm & Haas) (Mixture of Monomers).
Form Amount solids (43.7% acrylic 260 lbs.
and 2.3 emulsifier solids) in aqueous dispersion. Crystalline dihydrate. 14 ozs.
Liquid to make 100 gallons total coating composition.
Dry Dispersed in hot Wate the carbon atoms of the carboxyl group, e.g., lauric acid, palmitic acid or oleic acid with (b) a fatty alcohol containing a chain of at least 10 carbon atoms starting from and including the carbon atom carrying the hydroxyl group, e.g., lauryl alcohol, cetyl alcohol or oleyl alcohol, or with an alkyl phenol in which the alkyl group contains a chain of at least four carbon atoms. A commercial product representative of such a wetting agent is Triton X-lOO sold by Rohm and Haas. The wetting agent preferably is used in amount of up to about 1, preferably about 0.7 weight percent of the total composition.
In addition, the novel coating composition of this invention can also contain an aqueous dispersion of a wearresisting polymerized resin such as polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) or trifluorochloroethylene (Kel-F). Other fluorocarbons can also be used and they are employed to aid in providing ironability and dirt repellancy to the fabric. Generall the fluorocarbon on an aqueous dispersion-free basis is present in amounts of up to about 1 weight percent, preferably about 0.8 weight percent based on the total composition. 7
Aqueous emulsions of silicones, for instance, polydialkyl or diaryl-siloxanes such as polydimethylsiloxane and polydiphenylsiloxane can also be incorporated into the coating composition in amounts ranging, generally, up to The above composition was knife coated onto a continuously conveyed web of acetate drapery fabric as to substantially fill the interstices of the fabric. The pickup was found to be an approximate 50 percent of coating composition per weight of the fabric used. Cloth having more interstices would, of course, require a somewhat greater amount of coating composition. The coated fabric was then conveyed to a drying tower maintained at about 375380 P. where the coating was dried and the acrylic resin cured. The fabric was passed therethrough at a rate sutficient that any given portion of the fabric was exposed to this heating treatment for a period of about 1 minute.
The coated drapery fabric was found to be substantially opaque and possess effective thermal insulation. The drapery material coated with the above composition is repeatedly washable and dry cleanable without substan tial loss of its softness, opaqueness and its thermal insulating properties. The washed drapery material showed a shrinkage of less than 3 percent when tested according to method 5550, Federal Specification, CCC-T-l9lb (May 15, 1951) and the dry cleaned sample showed a shrinkage of less than /2 of 1 percent. Neither sample was puckered and both showed excellent shape retention.
Example II A coating composition as set forth in Example I was prepared and in addition it included the following conapparel lining, window shades, mattress covers, bedspreads, and supports for decorative fabrics in general. All parts and percentages recited herein are on a weight basis with respect to the final or total composition, which stituents. 5 in turn is on a water-free basis.
Constituent Trade name Form Amount, lbs.
Polytetrafluoroethylene Teflon 30 (Du Pont) 16% solids in aqueous dis- 30 Polydimethylsiloxane A5333? emulsion 2 Plasticizer (hydrocarbon G-30 (Rohm & Haas) Hydocarbon oil 21 W f ting agent Triton X-100 (alkylaryl Liquid 4 polyether alcohol).
The above composition was knife coated onto a con- It should also be realized that the examples set forth tinuously conveyed web of preshrunk bleached cotton above do not represent a limitation of the scope of the muslin fabric as to substantially fill the interstices of the invention but only serve to illustrate the principles therefabric. The pickup was found to be an approximate 50 of and that many variations can be made of the specific percent of coating composition per weight of the bleached embodiments set forth without departing from the princloth used. The coated cloth was then conveyed to a ciples of the invention. Therefore, the invention is limdrying tower maintained at 350 F. where the coating was ited only by the spirit and scope of the appended claims. dried and the acrylic resin cured. The coated liner was We claim: conveyed through the tower at a rate such that each point 1. A flexible, drapeable, washable and dry cleanable thereon had a contact period of about one minute. coated fabric consisting essentially of a fabric completely The coated liner possessed substantially the same coated with a composition consisting essentially of a filler physical characteristics noted above. adapted to reflect a proportion of light waves while trans- Example "I mitting a proportion of said waves, with a minimum of heat absorption, and resinous binder consisting of an To a ooatlllg oomposltlon compounded as Set forth 111 acrylic polymer polymerized in situ on the fabric by an EXZHIIPIc II more Was additionally included two Pounds acid catalyst, the proportions by weight of filler to binder of y Colloidal Silica (LudoX-Du and two Pounds being from 1.2 to 2.8 parts of filler per part of binder. of y mioa flakes The composition Was roller Coated 2. A washable and dry cleanable coated fabric having onto a continuously conveyed Web and then heat treated a balance of light reflectance, transmittance and absorpat 8 r about minute to y and Cure the tion characteristics consisting essentially of a fabric comacrylic resin. The cured fabric exhibited substantially l l coated i h a composition comprising a hit the same advantageous characteristics described above. fill r d resinous bi consisting f an li poly- Example 1V mer polymerized in situ on the fabric by an acid catalyst,
d t f th the proportions by weight of filler to binder being from g fig i giggi g: 321 222 fi z gg g 1.2 to 2.8 of filler per part of hinder, the filler comprising was knife coated onto bleached muslin and dried and f Q to 75 percent by walght of the total lcomposl' cured in a drying tower as above. A sample of fabric sohds' h h so coated was washed and another sample was dry A fabljlc according to clfum W w 6 Proper cleaned. After one cleaning cycle both samples of th 011 by WeIght of filler to blnder is approximately two fabric were found to have lost a substantial portion of Parts filler P P of blodortheir coating. Upon examination, it appeared that the A fabric according to olalm 2 in Whloh the finer dry constituents of the coating, i.e., the mica, silica and is talc. g g g H s; -Fi f the i dThus f gg References Cited by the Examiner oun a e aci ac mg as a ca a ys an crossg agent for the polymerization of the acrylic resin, causes UNITED STATES PATENTS the resin to become a wash and dry clean-proof binder 2 129 5 9 1938 Barrett et 1 260 2 for the above-mentioned constituents. 1 9 5 1943 smith 117 143 X Results equally comparable to those out ined n E am- 2 467 341 4/1949 Seymour 3 0 41 ples I-III are achieved by using other acid catalysts such 2807865 10/1957 Shippee et aL X as a phosphoric acid or its salt, for instance, diammonium 28928O4 6/1959 Crissey 260 41 phosphate, or other di-carboxylic acids, such as malonic, 3003987 10/1961 Hager g "f 5 succinic adipic and the 3 035 002 5/1962 Brasure et a1 260-41 The coating composition of the invention can advantageously be used with other fabrics made of other natural and synthetic fibers or blends thereof to provide, not only drapery and drapery liner materials but, for instance,
WILLIAM D. MARTIN, Primary Examiner.
W. D. HERRICK, Assistant Examiner.