US 3297175 A
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Jan. 10,- 1967 w. H. (500mm; 3,297,175
BULKHEAD STRUCTURE Filed Nov. 5, 1964 5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. WILLARD H. GOODING BY EDWARD 0. O'BRIAN ATTORNEY Jan. 10, 1967 w. 5-1. GOODING BULKHEAD STRUCTURE 5 Sheets$heet 2 Filed Nov. 3, 1964 INVENTOR. WILLARD H. GOODING BY EDWARD D. O'BRIAN ATTORNEY W. H. GOQDING BULKHEAD STRUCTURE Jan. 10, 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Nov. 5, 1964 INVENTOR.
WILLARD H. GOODING BY EDWARD D. O'BRIAN ATTORNEY Jan. 10, 1967 w, GOODING 3,297,175
BULKHEAD STRUCTURE Filed Nov. 3, 196 v 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR.
WILLARD H. GOODING BY EDWARD D. O'BRIAN ATTORNEY Jan. 10, 1967 w, GOODlNG 3,297,175
BULKHEAD STRUCTURE Filed Nov. 5, 1964 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR.
WILLARD H. GOODING BY EDWARD D. O'BRIAN ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,297,175 BULKHEAD STRUCTURE Willard H. Gooding, Encino, Calif, assignor to Western Velo 8; Cement Specialties C0., Los Angeles, Calif, a corporation of California Filed Nov. 3, 1964, Ser. No. 408,571 Claims. (Cl. 214-10.5)
This invention is directed to a bulkhead type of structure particularly useful for the maintenance of integrity of a group of packages mounted on a pallet, particularly when such pallet loads of material are positioned within vehicles for their transportation. This invention is also directed to the method of using such bulkhead type of structures.
In the shipment of merchandise in commerce, two important factors must be considered in the overall cost of delivering such merchandise from the point of manufacture to the point of use. These two economic factors are the arrangement of merchandise in such units as can be handled with a minimum of labor while at the same time providing units of merchandise in such relationship to each other and to the transportation vehicle that damage is minimized in the transportation process. Damage in transportation is usually caused by the shifting of materials within the vehicle, and such shifting often causes difiiculties in the unloading of such material. Such is especially true in the case of packaged pulverulent material such as cement. When cement bags are placed on an ordinary pallet and a plurality of such pallets are placed on the floor of a box car, the movement of the box car often causes disarrangement of the cement bags. Such disarrangement prevents unloading of the box car on a pallet by pallet basis for the bags are so disarranged thereon that they often fall off of their supporting pallets when attempts are made to remove the pallets and their loads from the box car. Such shifting of the bags often causes bag breakage within the car and breakage of bags falling off of the pallet loads when the pallets are removed from the car. Of course, a considerable additional amount of labor is necessary to replace the bags in proper loading arrangement on the pallets, and in some cases it is necessary to unload a car substantially on a bag by bag basis. On these occasions the economy of labor provided by pallet handling is lost.
Accordingly it is an object of this invention to provide a bulkhead type structure for use in conjunction with pallet loads of material so that the bulkhead structure maintains the pallet loads properly and exactly positioned on the pallets even though the rigors of transportation tend to dipslace them.
It is another object of this invention to provide a bulkhead type structure which is held in place by a pallet load thereon and which restrains the pallet load with respect to the pallet so that shifting of the load is minimized.
It is another object of this invention to provide a bulkhead type structure which is of economic construction and light weight so that it may be readily and economically manufactured and may be used in transportation with a minimum of freight cost and with a minimum of labor expenditure in placement and disassembly.
It is another object of this invention to provide a bulkhead type structure which can be readily dismantled so that a plurality of such structures can be packed into a small space for reshipment and reuse.
It is another object of this invention to provide a novel method of shipment employing a bulkhead type structure in conjunction with the shipment of pallet size loads of material on common carriers.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from a study of the following portion 3,297,175 Patented Jan. 10, 1 96"? of the specification, the claims and the attached drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a railroad boxcar, with parts broken away, showing the use of the bulkhead structure of this invention;
FIG. 2 is an isometric view of the preferred embodiment of the bulkhead type structure of this invention in use in supporting a pallet load of bags of material;
FIG. 3 is an isometric view similar to the view of FIG. 2 showing the bulkhead type structure in conjunction with an empty pallet;
FIG. 4 is an exploded isometric view of the structure of FIG. 3; a
FIG. 5 is an isometric view of another embodiment of the bulkhead type structure of this invention shown in conjunction with a pallet which is partially broken away;
FIG. 6 is an isometric view of another embodiment of the bulkhead type structure;
FIG. 7 is an isometric view of still another embodiment of the bulkhead type structure of this invention; 7
FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the preferred embodiment, similar to FIG. 2, showing the bulkhead type structure of this invention used with a floor plate instead of a pallet.
FIG. 9 is a side elevational view of a plurality of units of another embodiment of the bulkhead structure in accordance with this invention;
FIG. 10 is a front elevational view of another embodiment of the bulkhead type structure of this invention;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the embodiment of the bulkhead structure of FIG. 9 showing one of such bulkhead structures engaged with another for the mutual support thereof; and
FIG. 12 is a side elevational view of a plurality of bulkhead structures, in accordance with FIG. 11.
As an aid to understanding this invention it can be stated in essentially summary form that it is directed to a bulkhead type of structure especially adapted'for use in restraining the movement of the bags of pulverulent material, particularly cement, during transportation. The bulkhead type structure comprises floor members which rest upon the floor of the vehicle which is used to carry the bagged material. The floor members have the material carried thereon so as to hold the floor members down. Upright members extend upward with respect to and are braced with respect to the floor members. The upright members and braces restrain the material which is resting on the floor members so that it cannot shift during the rigors of transportation. In the preferred embodiment a back rests against the upright members so as to provide additional support when the upright members are relatively narrow, The entire structure is of such size as to readily accept, carry and restrain during transportation a single load of material. In another embodhnent of the bulkhead structure of this invention the bulkhead structures overlap and inter-engage so that mutual restraint is obtained for greater rigidity.
This invention will be understood in greater detail by reference to the following portion of the specification wherein the drawings are described. Referring now to FIG. 1, a boxcar 10 of conventional configuration is shown. The boxcar 10 has a conventional floor 12, sides 14 and 16 and ends 18 and 20. The boxcar 10 is also provided with a conventional roof 22 to keep rain and other inclement weather from damaging the contents of the boxcar. At least one door 24 is provided in the side 14 of the boxcar 10 to permit loading and unloading of material with respect to the boxcar. The boxcar 10 is also provided with conventional running gear so that it may be moved from point to point along a railroad for the loading, transportation and unloading of material.
Experience has shown that when bags are loaded by hand into a boxcar such as boxcar and originally firmly hand packed between the end walls 18 and 20 and side walls 14 and 16, the motion of the boxcar during transportation causes some shifting of the load. Such shifting is even worse when standard pallet loads of material are set into the boxcar, even when the loads are set as closely as possible. This experience has been with bagged cement, and extensive shipment thereof on pallet loads has shown that shifting in the boxcar during normal transportation has been sufiicient to prevent the satisfactory removal of the bags on the pallets. Shifting is enough that bags fall off the pallets when their removal is attempted, and such falling, of course, causes breakage. Accordingly, a considerable amount of hand work in reloading the bags has raised the transportation cost. To overcome this difliculty the bulkhead type structure of this invention has been successfully used.
Referring now to FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, the preferred embodiment of the bulkhead type structure of this invention is seen as generally indicated by the numeral 26. The bulkhead structure 26 comprises first and second angle structures 28 and 30. Each of these angle structures is bi-laterally symmetrically similar to the other, and each comprises a floor plate 32 to which is secured upright 34. Angle braces 36 are secured to the floor plate 32 and uprights 34 so as to constrain them at a right angle with respect to each other. Preferably, the angle structures 28 and 30, which include the angle braces, are made out of steel with the floor plates and uprights bent out of a single piece of steel and the angle braces welded thereto. Thus, a very rigid structure is obtained. The uprights 34 terminate in hooks 38 bent forwardly so as to extend parallel to the floor plates 32.
Back plate 40 is of rectangular configuration and is of such dimensions as to fit against the uprights 34 so that when the back plate 40 is in engagement with floor plates 32 it rests under the hooks 38. Hooks 38 extend parallel to the floor plate 32 to such a distance that they terminate substantially even with the front side of back plate 40. Back plate 40 is preferably made of plywood or similar strong material, so as to provide adequate strength and conserve weight, but in some cases a metallic back plate 40 may be desirable. The dimensions of the bulkhead 26 are further such that when a standard pallet 42 is loaded in conventional interengaged manner with the bags of cement 44, as is seen in FIG. 2, the pallet can be set into the bulkhead 26 so that the cement bags 44 rest against the back plate 40 and the pallet 42 rests upon the floor plates 32. When so arranged, and when packed together with other pallet loads of cement bags and other bulkhead structures, within confining walls, such as the walls of a railroad boxcar, such a packing system maintains the cement bags 44 upon the pallets 42'with such conformity that the pallets 42 can be removed by con ventional fork-lift equipment and carry the entire load of cement bags upon the pallet. Such an arrangement is shown packed into the boxcar 10 in FIG. 1.
Referring again to FIG. 1, it is seen that the bulkhead structures 26 are assembled in a first row adjacent one end of the car 10 and the pallets with their loads of bags are set therein and thereagainst. Thereupon a second row of bulkhead structures 26 is set against the first row of cement bags upon pallets so that the back plate of the second row constrains the bags 44 upon the first row of pallets. Such loading is continued from both ends of the car until the car 10 is filled to the door opening. At the door opening the bulkhead structures 26 are set with their back plates parallel to the center line of the car so that the fork-lift equipment can set the pallets in place therein by simply entering the door opening.
Since boxcars are conventionally loaded from one side, it can be seen that the bulkheads 26 adjacent the far door, that is the door through which loading is not taking place, have their back plates adjacent the door opening. In the circumstances that the boxcar may be unloaded from the other side, the back plates 40 are provided with fork openings 46 and 48, see FIG. 4, so that conventional fork-lift equipment can approach the pallet 42 from the back plate side of the pallet and engage upon the pallet 42 with its forks through the openings 46 and 48. On this occasion the entire bulkhead structure 26 is lifted out with the pallet 42 and is separated therefrom exteriorly of car 10. Such separation can take place at a location where the fork-lift equipment can set down the load, turn around and approach freely from the other side so that the fork-lift picks up only the pallet 42 and leaves the bulkhead 26 in that location. Accordingly, loading is easily accomplished and ready unloading of properly stacked pallet loads is accomplished.
After the pallet loads of cement bags have been removed, the portions of the bulkhead 26 are placed in one location, half of the back plates 40 are stacked up, the angle structures 28 and 3! are nested within each other and laid upon the stacked back plates. Thereupon the remaining back plates 40 are placed on top and the entire bundle is strapped together so that a single, small unit can be shipped to the next location of need. The use of plywood as the back plate 40 reduces the total weight so that shipping is inexpensive.
Referring now to FIG. 9, the relative positions of the angle structures 28 are seen in their interrelationship when they are positioned in the end to end use relationship, as seen in FIG. 1.
Referring now to FIG. 8, the preferred embodiment of the bulkhead structure 26 is shown in use in supporting and retaining cement bags 44. In the arrangement shown, the cement bags 44 are particularly adapted to be transported on hand trucks and set in place thereby so that they are stacked in the manner shown. In this case, instead of a pallet 42, bottom plate 50 is used beneath the bags 44. The bottom plate 50 rests upon the floor plates 32 to retain the bulkhead structures 26 in place. In this use, a bulkhead structure 26 is positioned within the vehicle in which the cement bags 44 are to be transported, and the bottom plate 50 is positioned therein. Thereupon the cement bags 44 are hand loaded into position on the bottom plate 50, between the angle braces 36 and against back plate 40. This packing arrangement, in conjunction with the adjacent bulkhead structures 26, provides non-shifting packing of the cement bags 44 and is useful where fork-lift equipment is not available for loading or unloading.
In the alternative embodiment of the bulkhead structure shown in FIG. 5, such alternative embodiment is generally indicated at 52. Again, the bulkhead 52 is comprised of bi-laterally symmetric angle structures 54 and 56. Each of these angle structures comprises a floor plate 58 and an upright 60. The floor plates 58 and upright 60 are constrained at right angles with respect to each other by means of angle braces 62. Contrasted to the bulkhead structure 26, the bulkhead structure 52 is provided with floor plates and uprights which are relatively wide, so that they nearly touch each other when the angle braces 62 are positioned sufiiciently far apart as to just accept the pallet 42. In order to conserve weight, the floor plates and uprights are preferably made of wood, while the angle braces are made of steel. Openings 64 and 66 are provided in the uprights 60 in such a position and of such size as to permit entry of standard forks on fork-lift equipment so that the bulkhead 52 can be picked up together with the pallet 42, as has been previously described with respect to the bulkhead structure 26. The bulkhead structure 52 has the advantage of not requiring a separate back plate, but has the disadvantage of being more bulky E a.) when not assembled for use. It is used in the same manner as the bulkhead structure 26.
Referring now to FIG. 6, the bulkhead structure 68, shown therein, is of similar function to the bulkhead structures 26 and 52, previously described. The bulkhead structure 68 is comprised of a floor plate 70 and an upright 72. In this case the bulkhead 68 is built in one piece so that two bi-laterally symmetric parts are not necessary. Angle braces 74 are secured to the floor plates 70 and upright 72 to retain them at right angles with respect to each other. Preferably the entire structure of bulkhead 68 is made of plywood which is securely fastened together so as to remain a non-demountable, unitary structure. Again, the upright 72 is provided with openings, such as openings 76 to permit the entry of forks of a standard fork-lift truck and for the function previously described. Similarly, the bulkhead structure 68 is used in the manner of the previously described bulkhead structure, but cannot be so closely stacked for return shipment.
Referring now to FIG. 7, another embodiment of the bulkhead structure of this invention is generally indicated at 78. The bulkhead structure 78 is similar to bulkhead structure 68, except that it is formed in twobi-laterally symmetric angle structures 80 and 82 which do not quite touch each other when they are spaced apart a sufficient distance for the acceptance of the pallet, as indicated in FIG. 7. In all other respects, the bulkhead 78 is identical to the bulkhead 68 in that it is built of plywood, or similar material, rigidly secured together. Of course, the bulkhead structure 78 may be more closely packed for return shipment, but it is used in this shipping function as has been previously described with respect to bulkhead structure 26.
In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 9 the bulkhead structures 96 comprise two bi-laterally symmetrical angle structures 98 similar to the angle structure 28. The angle structures 98 comprise an upright 100 which is secured to, and preferably integral with floor plate 102. The upright 100 and floor plate 102 are secured at right angles with respect to each other by means of angle brace 104. Upright 100 is identical to the upright 34 and includes hook 106 which engages over the top of a suitable back plate, such as back plate 40, to retain the back plate in position.
In the embodiment of FIG. 9, the floor plate 102 is also provided with a hook 108. The dimension between the hook 108 and upright 100 is such that a standard pallet may be inserted therebetween. Thus, the pallet is restrained within the angle structure 98 for greater rigidity thereof. Alternatively to the use of a pallet engaged by the hook 108, a bottom plate such as bottom plate 50 may be inserted between the hook 108 and upright 100 for the restaint of the bottom plate. As is previously noted, a bottom plate is used where bags of material are to be handled by hand or by hand truck, and a pallet is used where the bagged material is to be handled in palletized loads. Another feature important to the bulkhead structures 96 is the fact that hooks 108 properly space the bulkhead structures, as is seen in FIG. 9, so that they may be solidly packed in a railroad car or a vehicle with a minimum amount of shifting.
Referring now to FIG. 10, another embodiment of the bulkhead structure of this invention is generally indicated at 84. The bulkhead structure 84 closely resembles the bulkhead structure 26 for it is comprised of metallic, bi-laterally symmetric angle structures 86 and 88 which are respectively identical to the angle structures 28 and 30 of the bulkhead structure 26. The angle structures 86 and 88 are comprised of a floor plate and an upright, preferably of metallic nature, which are rigidly secured to each other at right angular relationship and retained at such an angle by an appropriately secured angle brace. The distinction in the bulkhead structure 84 is that it is provided with a center divider 90 which acts as two angle 6 structures. The center divider has a floor plate 92, an upright 94 arranged at right angles with respect to each other and retained in this position by means of an angle brace 96 secured thereto between the edges thereof. Thus, the center divider acts as two angle structures secured together. Accordingly, the center divider 90 can be used in the appropriate combination with the angle structures 86 and 88 so as to provide inter-related rigidity between the other angle structures. In use, the angle structures and the center divider angle structure 90 are placed in appropriate positions and are provided with back plates. Thereupon pallets 42, carrying a load of cement bags, are set therein so that the entire structure acts in the manner described with respect to the bulkhead 26, but is provided with additional rigidity due to the fact that center divider 90 acts between adjacent pallet loads.
A further embodiment of the bulkhead structure of this invention is shown in FIGS. 11 and 12. In these figures the bulkhead structure is indicated generally by the numeral 110. The bulkhead structure also comprises first and second angle structures 112 and 114 which are bi-laterally symmetrical with respect to each other. Each of the angle structures 112 and 114 comprises a floor plate 116, an upright 118 and an angle brace 120. The angle brace 120 is secured to both the floor plate 116 and upright 118 to maintain them at right angles with respect to each other. The upright 118 cam'es a hook 122 at its termination and is of such height as to extend at least as high as a pallet load of bags, as is illustrated in a similar embodiment in FIG. 2. Back plate 124 has an appropriate height to engage between the books 122 and floor plates 116. Thus, the :back plate 124 serves as a back rest for material loaded into the bulkhead structure 110. In each of these respects the bulkhead structure 110 is similar to the preferred embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 through 4.
However, in the embodiment of FIGS. 11 and 12 the floor plates 116 are sufiiciently longer than the pallets 126 that in use, one bulkhead structure has the portion of its floor plates 116 closest to the uprights 118 resting upon the outer end of the floor plates 116 of the adjacent bulkhead structure 110. As is best seen in FIG. 12, the floor plates 116 extend beyond the pallets 126 so that when the bulkhead structures 110 are positioned for use, each such bulkhead structure, except the ones on the end, rests upon the end of the floor plates 116 of the adjacent bulkhead structure. Thus, interlocking of the bulkhead structure 110 is accomplished by such overlapping of the floor plates. This prevents tipping, sliding and misalignment of one such bulkhead structure 110 with respect to the next. Thus, the bulkhead structure 110 is particularly adapted for the support and transportation of bagged material on flat cars and flat bed trucks where the vehicle itself does not provide side support.
This invention having been described in its preferred embodiment, and several alternative embodiments, it is clear that it is susceptible to numerous modifications and changes without the exercise of the inventive faculty. Accordingly, the scope of this invention is defined by the scope of the following claims.
1. A bulkhead structure adapted to be used with pallet loads of material and adapted to be used in plural quantities within a vehicle so as to restrain the material upon the pallet, said bulkhead structure comprising first and second floor plates adapted to be positioned upon the floor of the vehicle, first and second uprights respectively secured to said first and second fioor plates at substantially right angles with respect thereto and first and second angle braces respectively secured to said first and second floor plates and to said first and second uprights to retain said uprights in substantially right angular relationship with respect to said floor plates, said floor plates being adapted to be engaged so as to carry the weight of the material and said uprights and said angle braces being adapted to restrain said material to prevent its shifting.
2. The bulkhead structure of claim 1 wherein a back plate is positioned against said two uprights so as to restrain material between said two uprights.
3. The bulkhead structure of claim 2 wherein said back plate is sufficiently wide so as to position said angle structure sufiiciently far apart so as to be adapted to accept a pallet between said angle structures so that it rests upon said floor plates.
4. The bulkhead structure of claim 3 wherein said back plate is provided with two openings, said two openings being adapted to receive the forks of forklift equipment.
5. The structures of claim 2 wherein said angle structures are fabricated of metallic material and said back plates are fabricated of non-metallic materials.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,530,444 11/ 1950 Woods 105-367 2,765,137 10/1956 Tatko 10855 10 2,885,241 5/1959 Talley 294-67 2,918,183 12/1959 Petersen 2141 MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.