US 3298450 A
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5 Sheets-Sheet 1 "ATTORNEYS Jan- 17, 1967 l-llsAMA'rsu sATo l APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING SOIL SAMPLES n Filed oct.' s, 1963 Jan.\17, 1967 l Hl-sAMATsU sA'ro 3,298,450
Y APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING SOL SAMPLES Filed om. s, 1965 5 sheets-sheet zl Flg 5G.
Jan 17, 1967 `r-llaAwl/n'su sATo 3,298,450
APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING SO`IL SAMPLES 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed oct, v:5, 1963 INVENTOR f//S f? ifsu 47? ATroRNEYj United States Patent O 3,298,450 APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING SOIL SAMPLES Hisamatsu Sato, 3 S-chome, Higashiyama-dori,
` Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Japan Filed Oct. 3, 1963, Ser. No. 313,540 tflairnsV priority, application Japan, Oct. 10, 1962,
- 37/45,043; Mar. 19, 1963, Sti/14,706
7 Claims. (Cl. 175-226) This invention relates to apparatus for collecting samples when samples are gathered from earth strata in geological surveys, and has for its object the provision of means to pull up to the earths surface; samples of optional lengths while maintaining the actual soil strata formation. t n
In conducting a geological survey each hole is dug to the4 necessary depth below the surface of the earth, ,the sample is raised up, and by observations and tests the various physical and `dynamic characteristics of earth strata are judged. Therefore it is necessary that the samples supplied for this purpose remain identical to the formation of the ground and also be as long and continuous as possible.
With the presently practiced sample collection methods, although it is possible to obtain longrsamples, in View of the inability to enfold them in a watertight, airtight manner on the way as they are being pulled up to the earths surface, they may receive the effects of vacuum phenomena, or under water they may be washed away due to eddy currents. Since accurate observations cannot be made the results of the tests tend to become inaccuratel n The present invention relates to an apparatus for collecting soil samples in which such disadvantages have been eradicated. n ,v p
, For a better understanding ofthe invention reference is taken to the accompanying drawings, in which, l
FIG.` l is a vertical cross-sectional view of a prior apparatus in which the collected soil sample (hereinafter referred to as sample) is wrapped with metal foil;
FIGS. 2 and 2a are enlarged cross-sectional views of that part of the same apparatus which cuts-of and retains the sample;
FIGS. 3 and 3a are vertical cross-sectional views of a part of the apparatus of the present invention;
FIGS. 4 and 4a are horizontal cross-sectional views of the sample cutting-off part;
FIGS. 5 and 5a are vertical cross-sectional views of a second embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 6 and 6a arevertical cross-sectional views of a third embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 7 and 7a are cross-sectional views along A-A;
FIGS. 8 and 8a are vertical cross-sectional Views of a fourth embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 9 and 9a are vertical cross-sectional views of afifth embodiment of the present invention and FIGS.v 10 and 10a are vertical cross-sectional views of a sixth embodiment of the present invention.
In past collection of samples, such as for example with the apparatus depicted -in FIG. 1, rotor 2 is caused to rotate about sampler 1, pressurized water is supplied into the space between 1 and 2, and as the hole is drilled by bit 4, the sample is caused to progressively enter into interior 5 of sampler 1 and the sample is wrapped by a narrow long metal foil 6. At the same time as shown in FIGS. 2 and 2a, due to a spring contrivance such as coil spring 7, steel band 8 is caused to advance toward the center of the cross-section of the sample, thus cutting it off. Also a method is employed to support that end and pull it up to the earths surface, but according to this method the sample is not wrapped up in a Watertight or airtight manner and will be disturbed due to water and air. Also the end portion cannot avoid being washed out by disturbances such as vacuum and eddy currents.
The above facts are detailed in the following publication: Royal Swedish Geotechnical Institute Proceedings, No. l, Soil Sampler with Metal Foils, W. Kjellman, T. Kallstenius and O. Wager, Stockholm, 1950.
In the first embodiment of the present invention as depicted in FIGS. 3 and 3a, there is shown two main parts inner cylinder 9 and outer cylinder 10. Inner cylinder 9 is divided into head part 9a possessing a thin cutting edge, and main part 9b. The joint of these two parts is comprised of conical frustum surfaces fitting into each other and, since they may be `tted in coaxially, they can readily be separated from each other. At the lower part of inner cylinder 9b and next to the joint is attached sample cutter 11, and immediately above it is the double walled cylinder for the purpose of forming the loading chamber 12 for the sample wrapping bag. At the upper end of loading chamber 12 is extension outlet 13 for the wrapping bag, facing toward the inside of inner cylinder 9b. The inside diameter of inner cylinder 9b is slightly larger from above the extension outlet 13.
Into `loading chamber 12 cylindrical wrapping bag 14 is pushed,with the end of the bag closed by tying so that the entire lateral cross-section of inner cylinder 9b will be wrapped and sealed off. On the outer part of the head part 9a of the inner cylinder is located flange 15.
Overlapping inner cylinder 9 is outer cylinder 10 which can freely rotate about the inner cylinder and which is equipped at its extremity with bit 4 for drilling, and located near this and facing inward is a ange for attaching bearing 16.
The head part of the inner cylinder near the joint increases in diameter so that, although outer cylinder 10 overlaps it with freely slidable rotation, the two parts cannot be mutually removed, and even when ball bearing 16 of the outer cylinder contacts outer flange 15, the cutting edge of the head part of the inner cylinder will always protrude beyond outer cylinder 10.
Near ball bearing 16, on the inner surface of outer cylinder 10, are four protrusions 17 facing inward. When outer cylinder 10 slidably moves so that the protrusions 17 are caused to engage with the indented and protruding part 11 on the outside of the rotating ring meshed with the cut-off blades attached to main part 9b of the inner cylinder, and the rotating ring of cutter 11 is rotated in the clockwise direction, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 4a the sixteen cut-off blades in four rows of the cutter move toward the center of the inner cylinder, cut off the sample, and moreover by means of the sixteen cutolf blades seal it within the inner cylinder.
Next the action of the apparatus of the present invention will be explained.
In the first embodiment of the invention outer cylinder 10 overlaps inner cylinder 9, and while supplying pressurized water into the space between inner cylinder 9 :and outer cylinder 10 and while pushing on outer cylinder 10, the periphery `of inner cylinder 9 is caused to rotate in the clockwise direction, and outer cylinder 10 will progressively dig into the earth.. In this instance flange 15, attached near the lower extremity of the head part 9a of the inner cylinder, will be pushed by ball bearing 16 near the internal extremity of outer cylinder 10, and, yaccompanying progressive digging by outer cylinder 10, will be pushed into the earth without rotation. At the same time the sample will progressively enter into the interior 5 of inner cylinder 9a.l t
The sample which has entered into interior 5 of the head part of the inner cylinder will reach the upper extremity, which is shaped like an inverted U, of the wrapping bag 14 which slides out from the upper portion of wrapping `bag loading chamber 12 that is attached to the lower extremity of main part 9b of the inner cylinder. Moreover, accompanying entrance of the sample, its top and sides are covered accordingly by the bag and in this manner advances into the interior of main part 9b' of the inner cylinder. By filling the space between the ibag and main part 9b of the inner cylinder with liquid of lubricat-v ing characteristics such as soap solution, caustic soda solution or some type of oil, friction is decreased together with prevention of injury to the sample due to shock.
To raise the sample up to the surface of the earth, the supply of water is stopped, rotation of outer cylinder is stopped, and if outer cylinder 10 is moved until sloped surface 19 near the extremity of outer cylinder 1t) touches slope surface on the outside of head part 9a of the inner cylinder, projections 17 on the inside surface of outer cylinder 10 will engage teeth 11' which have been cut into the outer surface of the lower end of the inner cylinder. At this point if outer cylinder 10 is gradually rotated in the clockwise direction, movable part 11 provided on inner cylinder 9 will rotate in unison. time, gear 21 on inner face of movable part 11 rotates gear 22 which is integral with cut-off blades 18 attached in four rows to the inner face of movable part 11, and cut-off blades 18 will bite into the sample, moving toward the center of inner cylinder 9, and will cut-off the sarnple. When the tips of the cut-off blades reaches the center of the cross-sectional plane of thel inner cylinder, the extremities of cut-off blades 18 will abut against each other and outer cylinder 10 cannot be rotated further. Thus, the sixteen cut-off blades 18 which are provided in four rows will completely sever the sample and seal off the cut-olf face.
At this point if main part 9b of the inner cylinder is pulled up to the earths surface, the sample is wrapped around it and at the upper end by the bag, while the lower end is sealed by cut-off blades 18, and the sample can be collected in this state.
Next the details of the second embodiment of the present invention will be explained in conjunction with the drawing. As depicted in FIGS. 5 and 5a, in the second embodiment of the present invention, inner cylinder 9, head part 9a, which possesses a thin cutting edge, and main part 9b are connected together by an abutting sawtooth joint and can be separated. Also sample cutters 11 are provided on internal cylinders 9b zand 9a respectively. In other respects, it is identical to the first ernbodiment.
In the second embodiment of the present invention, if protruding parts of outer cylinder 10 and the indented and protruding part of the outer rotating ring of cutter 1 1 are 'caused to engage with each other and then rotated in the clockwise direction, the top and bottom two rows of cutters 11b and 11a will simultaneously cut-off the sample, and :at the same time seal it just the same as in the first embodiment. Thus, while cutting off with upper and lower two rows of cut-off blades, when main part 9b of the inner cylinder is pulled out from outer cylinder :10, the sample will be wrapped in wrapping bag 14, with its lower portion protected by cut-off blades 18, and the sample can be collected in an undisturbed condition.
Also after main part 9b of the inner cylinder has been removed, head part 9b of the inner cylinder remains in the earth, and since cut-off blades 18a of cutter 11a are hermetically closed, water or soil is prevented from invading into inner cylinder 9a.
After the sample in the main part 9b of the inner cylinder has been taken out as above mentioned, Wrapping `bag 14 is packed into loading chamber 12 `and the end is sealed off in an inverted U shape with cut-off blades 18h in hermetically closed position, and main part 9b of the inner cylinder is inserted into outer cylinder 10, and,
At this while quietly rotating in the clockwise direction, the parts interconnecting main part 9b and head part 9a of the inner cylinder are made to completely mesh together by means of the sawtootfh joint.
Subsequently if inner cylinder 9 is rotated in the counterclockwise direction, the upper and lower cut-off blades will simultaneously open up. Next the sending of water is commenced, outer cylinder 10 is pushed down, rotated, and collection of the next sample is conducted.
As aforementioned, in the first and second embodiments of the present invention, if the necessary length of wrapping bag 14 is loaded into the loading chamber 12, the above procedure can be continued and, no matter how long the sample, it can be collected in continuous form and, moreover, in an undisturbed state. Also cutoff blades 18 will mutually contact each other to her metically seal the sample within the inner cylinder and, because it will be cut-off from the exterior, there will be no fear that the sample, while being pulled up, will suffer disturbance or loss by washing out due to effects of vacuum phenomena or eddy currents during water immersion, and it is possible to collect perfect samples of earth strata, thus enabling conduction of effective geological surveys.
In the third embodiment of the present invention as` depicted in FIGS. 6 and 6a, the inner surface of cylinder 9 has valve 25 with blades having thin cutting edge tips and which are supported and free to rotate in a range from a position parallel to t-he cylinder wall to a direction at right angles to it, about sealing valve shaft (here-` inafter referred to -as shaft) 24, with chamber 12 constituting an integral part. The extension outlet for bag 14 is located at the vicinity where the valve tips contact the inner wall of the cylinder.l
In order to collect a sample, bag 14 is com-pressed and' packed into chamber 12 and its end is sealed off. The head part of cylinder 9 is held vertically in the ground or at the surface of the earth, and when the cylinder 9 is driven into the ground by striking its head with a hammer, the sample will progressively enter into cylinder 9. In this instance, if the valve is sealed cylinder 9, the sample will automatically push the valve lblades against the inner wall of the cylinder, and as in FIG. 6a, will advance into the cylinder.
When the sample reaches the sealed off end of bag 14, the bag will automatically, at the same speed as the entrance of soil and sand, extend out from chamber 12 and enfold the sample.
By continuing the above-mentioned yoperation the sam* ples of earth strata formation will all be of cylindrical rod form and successively stored in cylinder 9 as wrappedlin bag 14.
In this manner, when driving in to the specified depth has ended, vcylinder 9 is pulled up to the earths surface.v
When cylinder 9 is started to be pulled up, the sample within cylinder 9, -by its own weight, will tend to drop outside from the lower end of cylinder 9 but as soon as' even a small part of the sample shows a tendency to drop outside, valve 25 which has been pushed against the' inner wall of cylinder 9 will, due to friction with the sample, rotate so as to lean tow-ard the center of cylinder4 tion where it will ybe at right angles to the central axis of cylinder 9, fand as'in FIG. 6, will close off the interior-of cylinder 9 and completely prevent dropping out of the sample.
In the fourth embodiment of the present invention, as
depicted in FIGS. 8 and 8a, cylinders 9b and 9a Iare cou-V pled in a slidingly rotatable manner but will not come apart. At the lower extremity of cylinder 9b is chamberl 12 and at its lower end is the extension outlet for bag 14. From above chamber 12 the cylinder is single walled. .Also the extremity of cylinder 9a is a thin cutting edge while the upper portion is a partdoubly c-oupled to cylinder 9b withvalve 25.1'n the inner face prolvided tomakewpossiblqfby rotation about shaft'24, the
closing offof cylinder9a.
On the inner .faceof cylinder 9b,- at vthe lpartA opposite `tos,haft.24,is notch y26 and l.also at itsiextremity'is internalllange 27.
` .Attheupper end-of cylinder 9a isiattached shaft f2.4
Valve 25 is hinged to shaft 24 and the rear face ofthe vshaft part` ofvalve 25A -is a.:protru,ding-part which `will engage with thenotch in'cylinder9b.
. 10 f and, toengage withange 27 onthe'i-nner face of cylin- :der 9b, is notch 28..4 Y f t `In torder to collect the sam-ple, bag `14is- .compressed Aand `packed intochamber 12, and its end is sea-led'of.
i With cylinder 9a` on thebottom` andcylinder 9b- `at the top theyare mutually connected together, andwhen `placed vertically attthe earths surface orinthe ground,
the lower` extremity of cylinder y:9b closely .contacts-.the
.ing-ly valve 2 5-is pushed .against the inner face of cyii'n- '3 [der 9b and, as in FIG, 8a, vthe. interior of cylinder .9a
will be opened. At this point if tliefhead. of cylinder 9b is struck to drive-itinto the ground, the sampleenters vfrom cylinder 9a, into cylinder 9b, `reachesthesealed `off portion Vof bag 14, is shortly wrapped automatically by bag 14 and, enters into ,cylinder 9b. -In this manner, when drivin-g in rto the specified. depth has ended, cylinders 9b and 9.a,ar`e pulled u-p to the. earths surface.
-After'comrnencing t-o pull upcylinder 9b, at yabout the saine time its internal ange 27 contacts thelower face 28 of the external flange of cylinder 9a, the lower face of notchf26 on cylinder9b'wi-llpush up against the lower face of the .gprotrudingypalrt on the rear face of the shaft part of Valve 25, and due to lever action valve 25 departs from the inner wall of cylinder 9b and` leansin a direction .at right angles Atoward vthe center. of cylinder 9b, and `as in FIG. 8, will seal olfthe interior of cylinder-9b, thus preventing dropping out yofv the samplefrom cylinder 9b and enabling its perfect collection.
In the fifth embodiment ofthe present invention, as i depicted in FIGS. 9 and 9a, cylinders 9b and 9a, which are mutually freely slidably rotatable-"are doubly connected, and form an integral body. In this embodiment, differently from the fourth embodiment, valve shaft 24 is attached to cylinder 9b and valve 25 is caused to be closed "by pushing up with the extremity of cylinder 9a.
Now if cylinders 9b and 9a are joined together by overlapping as in FIG. 9a, valve 25 is pushed against the inner wall of cylinder 9b by the tapered portion of cylinder 9a and the interior of cylinder 9b is open. In this condition, if the driving in work is continued, the same as with the other embodiments, the samples will all be of round rod shape, `and .as wrapped by bag 14 will successively be stored within cylinder 9b.
When `driven in to the specified depth, if cylinder 9 is pulled up, the internal flange 27 at its extremity will slide again-st the outer surface of cylinder 9a vand reach external ange 28 of cylinder 9a. At the same time, the tapered portion of cylinder 9a which had been pushing valve 25 against the inside wall of cylinder 9b slides past below the front face of valve 25, and valve 2.5 will commence to lean toward the center of cylinder 9b and finally as in the left 'hand side of FIG. 9, closes A olf cylinder 9b and completely prevents dropping out of the sample.
The sixth embodiment of the present invention is an instance where the present invention is employed in the rotary type and, as depicted in FIGS. l0 and 10a While delivering pressurized water 3 through the space between soil sample collectingcylinder 10 and drilling cylinder 9., drillingcylinder 9 is caused to rotate in the clockwise .direction.: lPressurized -water 3 passes through water `spray holes 29, spurts out in thevicinit-y of .drilling bits 4,'softeningearth strata randmakingV dri-lling progress easy, and return flows to the earths surface together with'wastesoil andsand. 1 f Y Inthis: manner, Yas drillingprogresses,lthe sample successively entersv into cylinder A9, and is automatically wrapped by the bag at the extensionoutlet ofthe chamber,and-isstored-within the cylinder..
Whenidrilling hasprogressed to they speciiiedd'ept-h,
`:when the `cylinderi-sv`v pulled up,external'ange' 27 at the flower extremity. of:l the, cylinder.: automatically engages -the 'protruding part on the-frontk face ofthe Vshaft part ofvalve 25providedattheinnerface of outer cylinder 10,fand' sinceit. will be pulled-up inthis rnanner, valve ,52S .will sealfoff outer. cylinder .10.
whatrciaimisr 1. An apparatus for collectingsoil samples comprising Va cylinder having an outer portion", and an inner portion mounte'dfor-limited slidablemovement-within said outer portion; soil cutting means-located at one endof said inner portion and extendingoutwardly from the adjacent end of said outer` portion; va wrapping bag loading c hamberdisposed on the inner wall of said'cylinder and lspaced 'from .said end;` a wrapping bag partially disposed in said chamber. and extending kacross said cylinder `in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis thereof; a plurality of drill bits disposed on said adjacent endof said outer portion; and means disposed on said cylinder to 'seal said soil4 sampleffrom 4the soilafter the-sample `has entered said cylinder upon insertion of saidcylinderinto the soil, said sealing means comprising a ring .rotatably mounted ion said inner portion, a plurality of cutting blades pivotallymounted on said ringnormally ,extending around the inner wall'thereofpand. adapted ,tov be pivoted about one e'nd in alplaneperpendicular to thelongitudinal axis-of l`said cylinder' to cut said sample and seal it from the soil 'upon 'rotationof saidring, and means to actuate said sealing means.
`means comprises a plurality of protrusions extending from the inner wall of said outer portion and adapted to engage said ring to transmit rotation of said outer por- 'tion to said ring.
3. An apparatus for collecting soil samples comprising a cylinder having an outer portion, and an inner portion mounted for limited slidable movement within said outer portion, said inner .portion comprising an upper portion :on which said chamber is disposed, and a lower portion, adjacent ends of said upper portion and said lower por- 'tions forming a sawtooth joint to quick detachably connect said portions; soil cutting means located on said 'lower portion and extending outwardly from the adjacent end of said outer portion; a wrapping bag loading chamber disposed on the inner wall of said cylinder and spaced from said end; a wrapping bag partially disposed in said chamber and extending across said cylinder in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis thereof; a plurality of drill bits disposed on said adjacent end of said outer portion; and means disposed on said cylinder to seal said soil sample from the soil after the sample has entered said cylinder upon insertion of said cylinder into the soil.
4. An apparatus for collecting soil samples compris- 2. The apparatus of claim 1l wherein said actuating end; a wrapping bag partially dis-posed in said chamber Iland extending across said cylinder in aplane perpendicu- 2lar to the longitudinal axis thereof; and means disposed on said cylinder to seal said soil sample from the soil after 'the sample has entered said cylinder upon insertion of `said cylinder into the soil, said ysealing means comprising a plurality `of blades pivotally mounted on said cylinder and adapted to be moved from a normal position parallel to said cylinder wall to a cutting and sealing position perpendicular to said cylinder wall, the movement of the sample upward into said cylinder retaining said blades in their normal position and thefmovement of said cylinder upward from the soil, causing the sample to engage said blades to cut the sample and seal it from the soil.
5. An apparatus for collecting soil samples comprising 'a cylinder having an outer portion, and an inner portion i 'mounted for limited slidable movement within said outer portion; soil cutting means located at one end of said 'disposedon said cylinder to seal said soil sample .from I the soil after the sample has entered said cylinder upon insertion of said cylinder into the soil, said sealing means comprisingfa plurality of cutting blades pivotally mounted on said inner portion and adapted to be pivoted from a normal position parallel to said cylinder wall to a cutting and sealing position perpendicular to said cylinder wall, l
and means on said outer portion adapted to engage and `move said blades upon relative movement between said inner and outer portions,
6. An apparatus for collecting vsoil samples comprising ia cylinder having an outer portion, 'and an inner portion 'mounted for limited `slidable movement within said outer portion; soil cutting meanslocated at one end of said vinner portion and'extendingl outwardly from the adjacent end'of said outer portion; a wrapping bag loading cham- `ber disposed on the inner wall of said cylinder and spaced from said end; a wrapping bag partially disposed in said 'chamber and extending across said cylinder in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis thereof; and means disposed onsaid cylinder to seal said soil sample from the soil after the sample has entered `said cylinder upon insertion of said cylinder into the soil, said sealing means comprising a plurality of cutting blades pivotally mountvved on said outer portion and adapted to be pivoted from a normal position parallel to Isaid cylinder wall-to a cutting and sealing position perpendicular to said cylinder wall, the outer end of said inner portion'normially retaining 'said blades in their normal position and releasing said blades upon relative movement between said inner and outer portions.
7.An apparatus for collecting soil samples comprising a cylinder having an outer portion, and an inner portion mounted for limited slidable movement within said outer portion; a soil cutting means located at one end of said inner portion and extending outwardly from the adjacent end of said outer portion; a wrapping bag loading chamber disposed on the inner wall of said cylinder and spaced 'from saidl end; a wrapping bag partially disposed in said 'chamber and extendingA across said cylinder ina plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis thereof;"and means disposed on said cylinder to seal said soil sample from the soil after the sample has entered said cylinder upon insertion vof said cylinder into the soil, said sealing means comprising a plurality of cutting blades pivotally mounted 'on said outer .portion and adapted to be pivoted from a normal position parallel to said cylinder wall to a cutting 'and sealing position perpendicular to said cylinder wall, 'a first projection extending from lone end of each of'said blade members, a projection extending from the outer wall of said inner portion adapted to engage said rst projection to move said blades to their cutting and sealing position upon relative movement between said inner and outer portions.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS '2,148,373
CHARLESE; OCONNELL,l Primary Examiner. R. E. FAVREAU, Assistant Examiner'.