US 3299803 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 24, 1967 J. c. TAYLOR 3,299,803
ENGRAVING APPARATUS FOR MAKING MODEL BUILDING MATERIALS Filed May 3, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet J.
I4 I! I V////// /ZA FIG! T W 2% g i m; :t 3 I2 42 I i I IEIIEEEEEEEEEEEEEI I 442 V/ //////Z i 4 INVENTOR. I JAMES C. TAYLOR BY F I G- 2 mimsw'zl fl PETS ii A TTORNEYS Jan. 24, 1967 J. c. TAYLOR 3,299,803
ENGRAVING APPARATUS FOR MAKING MODEL BUILDING MATERIALS Filed May :3, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 F/G.5 FIG. 6
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INVENTOR. FIG. IO JAMES C. TAYLOR ATTORNEYS owvws'nd WW United States Patent 3,299,803 ENGRAVING APPARATUS FOR MAKING MODEL BUILDING MATERIALS James C. Taylor, 1594 Pleasant Hill Road, Lafayette, Calif. 94549 Filed May 3, 1965, Ser. No. 452,835 5 Claims. (Cl. 101-5) This invention relates to models such as scale models of homes, and more particularly relates to a method and tools for making novel materials to be employed in building such models which closely simulate the appearance of corresponding materials commonly used in the construction of full size homes and the like.
In designing and building homes, orthographic drawings are commonly employed to illustrate the various dimensions and details of the finished product. Such a type of drawing requires a plan view specifying the length and width of the different rooms of the house, and an elevational view specifying the height of the building in relation to either length or width. Many people are untrained in reading such drawings and find difi'iculty in coordinating both views in their minds in order to visualize the completed building.
As an aid for better visualization of the building of interest, isometric and perspective drawings have been employed with better results. Nevertheless, inherent limitations in illustration such as the impossibility of showing all the sides of the house in a single drawing, and thus the difficulty of illustrating important details, render such drawings relatively inadequate.
On the other hand, a model of the house at a suitable scale permits a true showing of all the dimensions and details of the house that is easy for all to see and appreciate. Heretofore, however, scale models have been utilized almost exclusively by architects because the materials commonly used for the models such as balsa wood, cardboard and plastics, require a high degree of skill in their use to obtain a realistic appearance.
This present invention is intended to provide materials that can be used easily and quickly for constructing models of homes, buildings and other objects. They are designed for use by the average person not skilled in the model building art, although not restricted thereto, for building models from orthographic drawings obtained from architects, or from plans found in various places such as magazines specialized in home building and furnishings. Despite the ease of fabrication, the invention provides finished models in which the material employed closely resembles the materials used in building the actual fullsize structure.
To this end, the method embodying the invention includes the step of grooving or engraving a rigid material, of the type having relatively low resistance to compressive forces and which permanently maintains the ensuing deformation, to simulate the joints of brick, stone, concrete, and other similar structural materials.
To form the grooves, the present invention provides an engraving roller which selectively deforms the sheet of material used in building the model in predetermined areas. An engraving roller incorporating the present invention may comprise a substantially cylindrical drum made of aluminum, plastic, wood or other suitable material having outwardly extending circumferential ribs arranged on the periphery thereof in a predetermined pattern., The ribs are located on the periphery of the drum in the pattern desired on the surfaces of the model.
In view of the foregoing, one method for manufacturing materials for use in the construction of models in accordance with the invention comprises the steps of:
(1) Providing a sheet of material of the type deformable in selected areas by pressure and which retains cement, or fasteners such as pins.
3,299,803 Patented Jan. 24, 1967 such deformation permanently, such as a rigid urethane foam,
(2) Coloring said sheet of material with a first colored surface coating such as the color of structural joints,
(3) Engraving simulated structural joints on the sheet with a roller including outwardly extending ribs disposed on the periphery thereof in a preselected pattern by applying compressive forces to said sheet with said roller, and
(4) Coloring only the nonengraved areas of the sheet with a second color, such as the color of siding material employed in the construction of a full-size structure.
The finished sheet may then be cut as for use in building models.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent upon reading the following specification in reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary side elevational view partly in cross section of an engraving roller apparatus embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is a front view partly in cross section of the engraving roller apparatus shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of another roller usable in the engraving roller apparatus shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along section line 4-4 shown in FIG. 3; and
FIGS. 5-10 are fragmentary views of typical alternate patterns which may be employed in the engraving roller apparatus shown in FIG. 1.
Reference is made to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings wherein an engraving roller incorporating the invention is illustrated. The same numerals are employed to designate similar elements in both figures.
As shown in FIG. 1, an engraving roller assembly 10 embodying the invention comprises a substantially fiat base 12, adapted to contain a sheet of material 14, used in building a scale model of a desired object or structure such as a house, a roller drum 16 in pressure engagement with material 14, and a guide structure 20 for directing roller drum 16 in a predetermined path over material 14.
The sheet of material 14 may be made of any suitable material that can be easily deformed by compressing the material in selected areas and which maintains such deformation indefinitely or for long periods of time. Preferably the material should be easy to cut with a knife and be readily attached to other similar pieces with glue, Rigid urethane foam, for example, has been found to be very satisfactory.
Thus, by way of example, the sheet of material 14 may be a slab of rigid urethane foam having a nominal density of about four pounds per cu. ft., with a thickness varying from /s" to A" which is useful in building models at scales up to equals 1'0". A typical commercially available material of this type is CPR 9002-4B made by the CPR Division of The Upjohn Co.
A substantially cylindrical roller 16 is adapted to engage the sheet of material 14 to engrave the desired pattern therein. As illustrated in FIG. 2, the roller 16 includes a plurality of outwardly extending circumferential ribs 18 formed on the periphery of said drum in a predetermined pattern.
The pat-tern of the ribs 18 is determined by the type of material to be simulated in the model, and as it will be explained later, a roller in accordance with the invention may be designed to engrave patterns simulating brick, stonework, board siding, batten siding, shiplap siding, shingles, tile, concrete blocks and other similar type materials.
To engrave the desired pattern on the sheet 14, the roller 16 is pressed against the surface of the sheet 14 so that the ribs 18 form indentations in the areas in contact therewith providing a permanent deformation in the material. Linear deformations may thus be madeiby moving the roller 18 along the entire length of the sheet 14, or in the alternative by driving the sheet 14 on a moving platten under the pressure loaded roller 16. The engraving roller apparatus shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrates the former method.
In order to direct the engraving roller 16 in a desired path on the sheet 14, a guiding structureZt), mounted on the base 12, is coupled to the roller 16. The guiding structure includes a pair of guiding rails or angles 21 and 22 extending along the entire length of the base 12 and mounted on appropriate posts 23, in turn secured by conventional suitable means to the base 12. A pair of support rails 13, shown in cross section in FIG. 1, connect the posts 23 to each other to add strength to the structure 20.
A bracket 25, made of a rigid material such as aluminum or wood or any other suitable material, is coupled to the roller drum 16 and to the guiding rails 21 and 22 to insure that the drum 16 moves in a straight path.
As shown in FIG. 2 the bracket 25 comprises a pair of bars or legs 24 adapted to be coupled to a shaft 29, on which the drum 16 is slidably mounted, and a transverse bar 31 integrally formed with the legs 24 and perpendicular thereto.
The shaft 29 is rotatably mounted on the legs 24 by means of suitable bearings formed in the legs 24 and which permit free rotation of the shaft 29. Suitable spacing sleeves 42 are mounted on the shaft 29 in a well-known sliding-type fit between the engraving roller or drum 16 and the legs 24. The shaft 29 is held in the desired axial position relative to the legs 24 by suitable means such as a pair of nuts 43 in engagement with the threaded portions of the shaft 29 and by suitable well-known cotter pins, for example. I
It should be noted that the engraving roller drum 16 may be designed with different lengths so that, if desired, drums with different patterns may be used simultaneously to engrave a plurality of patterns on the same sheet 14.
The bracket or frame 25 is adapted for motion along the guiding rails 21 and 22 by means of two pairs of guide rollers 30 and 33 in rolling engagement therewith. To this end, the guide rollers 3d are made with a central groove 35 between a pair of suitable flanges to receive the upper narrow edge of the corresponding guiding rail, while the guide rollers 33 comprise a central cylindrical surface 34 formed between a pair of suitable flanges to receive the lower wide portion of the guiding rails as illustrated in FIG. 2.
The guide rollers 30 and 33 are respectively mounted on a pair of parallel shafts 32 and 37 coupled to the bracket 25. In order to permit free rotation of the guide rollers when the engraving apparatus 10 is in motion, the roller guides 30 and 33 are slidably mounted on the corresponding shaft, and suitable means are provided to secure their axial position relative to the corresponding shaft. To this end cotter pins or other suitable means may be used to limit the outward axial motion of the guide rollers.
In the case of the rollers 33, additional means such as the spacing sliding sleeves 41 and the nuts 43 are employed. It should be noted, however, that the engagement provide-d between the rollers 30 and 33 and the guiding rails 21 and 22 is sufiicient to maintain the rollers in the desired positions.
The shaft 29 is secured to the transverse bar 31 of the bracket 25 by suitable means such as welding. In turn, the shaft 37 is coupled to the legs 24 of the bracket 25 by means that control the angular position of the bracket 25 relative to the plane defined by the base 12, and which control the depth of deformation in the sheet 14.
Such depth control means includes a pair of shafts 50, each in threaded engagement with the spacing sleeve 51 at one end, and in sliding fitting engagement with a mounting sleeve 53 integrally formed with the corresponding leg 24 at the other end thereof. Suitable means such as nuts 55 and 57 are mounted in the shaft 50 to control the position of the shaft 50 relative to the mountingsleeve 53.
As illustrated in FIG. 1, the position of the bracket 25 relative to the plane defined by the base 12 is determined by the points of contact of the guide rollers 30 and 33 with the guide rails 21 and 22 and the point of contact of the drum 1-6 with the sheet 14. By adjusting the relative positions of nuts 57 and 55 with respect to the shaft 50, the angular position of the leg 24 is varied, which in turn varies the penetration of the ribs 18 into the sheet 14 (point of contact of the drum 16 with the sheet 14).
The roller 16, shown in FIG. 2, is suitable for indenting the sheet 14 in a pattern that simulates shingle roofing and siding for example. Thus, the ribs 18 are cylindrically shaped and made to extend outwardly-from the drum 16 the maximum amount of desired deformation, i.e. the diiference in radius between the drum 16 and the ribs 18.
Prior to engraving, in order to closely simulate the desired material, the sheet 14 is first painted to the color of structural joints which will remain at the completion of the process in the indented or deformed portions of material. After engraving, the n-ondeformed portions in the sheet 14 are again painted to the color of the particular material used in the construction of the object or building being simulated. Subsequently, the sheet 14 may be cut into the desired shape.
It should be noted that after the engraving operation is completed, the sheet 14 should be painted by means such as a roller of foam rubber which does not introduce paint into the engraved portions. These areas should retain the joint color that was applied before engraving.
FIGS. 3 and 4 of the drawings illustrate an alternate engraving roller 65 that may be used in the engraving apparatus 10 embodying the invention. The roller 45 is suitable for engraving a pattern that simulates a brick structure. As illustrated in FIG. 3, the roller 65 is mounted on a shaft 67 which is in turn rotatably mounted on the bracket 25, as described in connection with the embodiment shown in FIG. 1. The roller 65 includes a plurality of outwardly extending ribs 60a and 60b arranged in a pattern that is complementary to the brick-type pattern to be engraved in the sheet 14, shown in FIG. 1.
To this end, the ribs 60a comprise outwardly extending rings in concentric relation with the shaft 67, and are equally spaced from each other along the shaft 67. The ribs 60b, in turn, are disposed t-ransversally in relation to the concentric ribs 60a, and hence in parallel relationship with the longitudinal axis of the drum 65.
In addition, to provide the stagger joint effect of a brick structure, the transverse ribs 6012 are disposed between adacent concentric ribs in a plurality of rows, the ribs of every second row being in comm-on alignment while being in staggered relation with the ribs in the adjacent rows.
A variety of other patterns may be provided by the engraving rollers of this invention, as illustrated in FIGS. 5-10, in addition to the patterns illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. Such patterns may simulate concrete block, clay or concrete tile, shingle or bevel siding, board and batten siding, and V-type rustic siding as shown in FIGS. 5-7 and 9-l0, respectively. Engraving rollers made with the patterns illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6 would include transverse ribs formed in rows similar to the rows described above, except that the transverse ribs in each row would be aligned with all the corresponding ribs in the other rows.
It should be noted that in order to simulate wood, the sheet 14 shown in FIG. 1 is painted to the desired color before rolling, but no subsequent painting after engraving is necessarily needed in that case.
A peculiar problem is presented in engraving a sheet of the preferred rigid urethane foam type material to simulate shingle or bevel siding with a roller having the pattern shown in FIG. 7. The drum 16 is formed in such case with a plurality of cylindrical discs having a tapered surface axially aligned along the corresponding support shaft, or in the alternative, a single cylindrical drum having equally spaced surface portions ground at the desired slope may be utilized.
Because most of the surface of the sheet is compressed in such a case, and because the material is naturally resilient, the engraving roller must be made with a slightly convex surface, providing a slightly concave indentation in the sheet 14, to overcome the spring back characteristics of the material in order to obtain substantially linear tapering. Otherwise, the surface of the sheet 14 would spring back beyond the desired deformation, exhibiting a slightly convex surface.
Obviously, many modifications of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It should therefore be under-stood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for engraving a sheet of urethane foam type material to simulate part of a structure comprising in combination: an elongate base having a substantially flat surface adapted to support said material to be engraved, an engraving drum in rolling engagement with said sheet having a plurality of circumferential areas outwardly extending from the surface of said drum, said outwardly extending areas being spaced apart along the longitudinal axis of the drum and adapted for compressing portions of said sheet contacted thereby during rolling engagement, guiding rails mounted on said base extending along the edges of said base in parallel relation with the longitudinal axis thereof, a shaft, a bracket including first and second legs and a transverse bar integrally formed with said legs and substantially perpendicular thereto, said legs being adapted for rotatably mounting said shaft on said bracket in a sliding fit, said engraving drum slidably mounted on said shaft for rotation therewith, first and second guide rollers mounted in rolling engagement on the upper edge of said pair of rails, second and third guide rollers mounted in rolling engagement on the lower portion of said pair of rails, means for mounting said first and second guide rollers on said frame, means for mounting said third and fourth guide rollers on said frame, and means integrally formed with said transverse bar adapted to receive an impulse force to impart motion to said drum in the direction of said guiding rails.
2. Engraving roller apparatus for preparing materials for use in model building comprising: a smooth flat elongate base for receiving a sheet of material to be engraved; guide rail means spaced above said base along its longitudinal axis; means mounting said guide rail means on said base; a cylindrical engraving roller having outwardly extending portions for contacting said sheet of material to be engraved; means supporting said engraving roller on said guide rail transversely of said base so that the roller is spaced above and adjacent thereto, and movable back and forth over said base; said support means being adapted for adjusting the space between said roller and base and the pressure applied by the roller to a sheet of material which is on said base for engraving.
3. Engraving apparatus in accordance with claim 2 wherein the means for supporting said roller from said guide rail includes a bracket supporting the ends of said roller and guide rail engaging bearings for connecting said bracket to said guide rail to permit sliding movement of said bracket along said rail.
4. Engraving apparatus in accordance with claim 3 wherein said means adapted to adjust the space and pressure between the engraving roller and the base and a sheet which may be on said base for engraving comprises adjustable mounting means for mounting at selected ones of said guide bearings on said bracket to vary the distance of said bearings from said bracket.
5. Engraving apparatus in accordance with claim 4 wherein said guide rails comprise a pair of parallel, spaced-apart rails, said guide rail engaging bearings comprise two pairs of rollers with one pair above said guide rails and one pair below said guide rails, the pair of rollers below said guide rails being mounted on said adjustable mounting means.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 468,632 2/1892 Ethridge et al. 101269 X 2,122,577 7/1938 Mattes et al. 463 2,165,286 7/1939 Mattlage 10132 2,291,057 7/1942 Paschal 46-31 X 2,339,145 1/1944 Callum 101--32 2,931,130 4/1960 Rietz 4630 X 3,008,257 11/1961 Landgr af 10132 3,070,476 12/1962 Miller 1178 X 3,166,008 1/ 1965 Lewandoski l01269 X 3,209,686 10/1965 Arthurs 101368 ROBERT E. PULFREY, Primary Examiner.
W. F. MCCARTHY, Assistant Examiner.