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Publication numberUS3299896 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 24, 1967
Filing dateOct 22, 1965
Priority dateJul 27, 1962
Publication numberUS 3299896 A, US 3299896A, US-A-3299896, US3299896 A, US3299896A
InventorsHans Sommer, Hippocrate Sabbaides
Original AssigneeHauni Werke Koerber & Co Kg
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for loosening or opening tobacco
US 3299896 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 24, 1967 H. SABBAIDES ETAL 3,299,896

APPARATUS FOR LOOSENING OR OPENING TOBACCO Original Filed July 27. 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet l 1967 H. SABBAIDES ETAL 3,299,895

APPARATUS FOR LOOSENING OR OPENING TOBACCO Original Filed July 27, 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 .Ztj" 25511721 1957 H. sABBAmEs ETAL APPARATUS FOR LOOSENING OH OPENING IOBACCC;

4 Sheets--Sheeah .i

Original Filed July 2 1962 Jan. 241, 1967 H. SABBAlDES ETAL 3,299,896

APPARATUS FOR LOOSENING OR OPENING TQBACCU 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Original Filed July 27. 1962 United States. Patent 3,299,896 APPARATUS FOR LOOSENING OR OPENING TOBACCO Hippocrate Sabbaides, Thessaloniki, and Hans Summer, Athens, Greece, assignors to Hauni-Werke Korber and Co. K.G., Hamburg-Bergedorf, Germany Original application July 27, 1962, Ser. No. 212,899. Divided and this application Oct. 22, 1965, Ser. No. 500,668 v Claims priority, application Greece, July 27, 1961, 22,131; May 12, 1962, 23,483; Great Britain, May 23, 1962, 19,826/62 17 Claims. (Cl. 131-149) This is a division of our copending application Serial No. 212,899, filed July 27, 1962, now abandoned.

The present invention relates to an apparatus for loosening or opening tobacco growers baleswhich which are to be realt with the bale treatment plant.

According to the present invention, the cohering tobacco parts to be loosened or opened are guided along the conveyance path along which the tobacco causes vibratory movements on the part of boundary elements defining in part the feed path and, in turn, the tobacco is again set into vibratory motion by these boundary elements whereby, as a result of the reciprocal action of the vibratory movements, the cohering leaf particles are displaced relative to one another and are thereby loosened or opened up.

These oscillatory or vibratory movements are assisted in accordance with a further embodiment of the invention by means of additional impact movements. For further improving the opening procedure, provision is made according to a further feature of the present invention of means to cause air currents, particularly turbulentair currents to act upon the cohering tobacco particles which are to be opened.

, If the cohering tobacco particles to be opened are moved along one or more curved paths, provision is made according to the invention that the tobacco particles when falling out of such curved conveyance paths are led back by a rebound action.and by an air current, especially by air turbulence action, or the falling back of these particles into the feed track is assisted thereby. In this case the resulting loosening action is assisted during the movement externally of these curved feed tracks, by the rebound action and by the action of the air currents or turbulences.

The loosening or opening operation is assisted by encountering surfaces having a high frictional resistance and consisting for example of rubber, which operate upon the tobacco particles to be opened, with a substantial drag action.

According to a further feature of the invention two or more sections of curved conveyor paths are arranged in succession. According to a particular feature of the invention provision is also made that the cohering tobacco parts to be opened or loosened are first moved at a low speed through one or more of the aforesaid feed paths whereby material which is only slightly coherent is released and separated, after which the remaining more strongly cohering material is led through one or more of said feed paths at a higher speed so that these more strongly cohering tobacco particles are released and separated.

The separation of the released leaf material from the portions which are not yet released can be effected by any suitable mechanical or pneumatic separating procedure. Preferably this material is separated in an air current whereby this air current carries away the released material while the not yet loosened or opened tobacco particles fall out of the air current into a further "ice feed path. .In this case provision is also made that the heavy particles which fall during separation from the mixedmaterial delivered from the last feed track are returned to one of the feed paths for further treatment. Ovbiously they are returned to the feed path along which they are treated at the speed necessary for re-cycling in order that unnecessary loading of the other feed paths is avoided.

In adevice for carrying out the method according to the invention vibratory bodies are provided extending into and engaging in the feed path and such bodies may be in the form of tubular casings loosely fitted to spindles moving in the feed direction, whereby such casings roll on the spindles without requiring any drive action and as a result of an external action by the tobacco particles execute radial and other composite movements relatively to the spindles.

For'producing a restoring action opposed to the external action, spring means are provided according to still a' further feature of the apparatus according to the invention, between the casing of each vibratory body and each spindle, which oppose the external action, and such spring means are interposed freely in any desired manner or can be fastened to the adjacent parts. Preferably these spring means are formed for example as a rubber tube and are fitted on to the spindles so that the spring means can also execute a relative movement to the spindles. When using a rubber tube the diameter of the spindle is smaller than the internal dimensions of the rubber tube. In like manner provision is made according to still another feature of the invention that a gap is left between the vibratory body and the spring means so that when using a rubber tube the outer diameter of this tube is maller than the free width of the casing of the vibratory body which is preferably in the form of a hollow tube.

, Such vibratory bodies can be provided on both sides of the conveyor path and engaging therein, Preferably however the vibratory bodies engage in or extend into the feed path only from one side while the opposite side of the feed path is defined by walls which embody projecting portions, in particular triangular fins the tips of which project into the feed track.

In order to impart to the tobacco particles to be loosened or opened the necessary feed movement in the feed path or to assist the falling movement of the downwardly moving tobacco, the vibratory bodies or the walls or both of them are provided with projections which in some cases are movable relatively one to the other, whereby the vibratory bodies and the projections move past one another at a small spacing so as to produce the impact or rebound action. In a preferred embodiment of the device according to the present invention the walls form a drum-like body to the inside of which the vibratory bodies are fastened concentrically to two discs of a rotor member, which form the end walls of this rotor. To assist further the opening or loosening action, freely rotatable paddles are supported in these two discs, having a rotary path of smaller diameter and of which the outer surface preferably consists of a rubber tube drawn over them. The tobacco particles falling onto the rotating paddles are opened by the impact action, and moreover the rotation of the paddles produces an air current of air turbulence.

For further assisting the loosening or opening movement further spindles are concentrically fastened to the two discs in a rotary path which is smaller than the rotary path of the paddles and onto which in the same way as with the first spindles, spring means are applied, especially rubber tubes, the internal diameter of which is greater than the diameter of the further spindles.

In a practical embodiment the number of vibratory 3 bodies on the largest circle path is greater than the number of paddles, and the number of paddles is greater than the number of further spindles provided with rubber tubes, the ratio being for example of the order of 7:625.

Such a drum provided with an internally arranged rotating rotor will hereinafter be referred to as the opening or loosening drum. For loosening strongly coherent tobacco parts several such loosening drums are arranged one behind the other and are preferably rotated in the same direction by a common drive. A variable speed drive is interposed in the drive for the loosening drum or drums, by which the rotary speed can be adjusted according to the nature of the tobacco to be loosened. The setting of the speed is determined empirically.

In loosening equipment utilizing drums according to the present invention it is preferred that the first loosening drum operates at a lower speed and the following drums operate at higher speeds. In this case it is advantageous for the first loosening procedure to employ a single drum and for the second stage to employ two successive drums. Preferably a sorting or separating operation is included between each loosening stage, for example by the inclusion of separator means between the drums. If already loosened leaf material is present in the material supplied to the loosening drums, a separator may also be provided in advance of the first loosening drum by which the already loosened leaf material is'separated from the cohering material. This is the case in particular if the first loosening drum is preceded by a jigging screen where the tobacco is subjected to vibratory influences of substantial amplitude and frequency. The take-off device of the final separator of the loosening equipment is followed by a conveyor device which returns to one loosening drum any material which has not yet been sufficiently openedor loosened, and in which this latter material is re-treated.

The invention is not limited to the constructional embodiments to be described but it relates in the broadest sense to an apparatus by which cohering parts of to bacco, Whether tobacco bales or portions "thereof as well as tobacco bundles or bands, that is cohering tobacco particles, generally, are separated into individual tobacco leaves or leaf portions. j

One constructional embodiment of opening drums as well as loosening equipment provided with opening drums is shown diagrammatically on the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 shows two successively arranged opening drums in perspective;

FIG. 2 shows the rotor of an opening drum in-perspective on a larger scale,

FIG. 3 is a partial axial cross-sectionalview of an opening-drum in vertical section,

FIG. 4 is a partial cross-sectional view of an opening drum in section taken along the plane of the line IVIV in FIG. 3,

FIG. 5 shows the three operative elements of the opening drum according to FIG. 4, and

FIG. 6 shows an opening plant with several opening drums with their associated separators.

In FIG. 1 two opening drums, generally designated by reference numerals 1 and 11 are arranged sequentially. They comprise a common casing generally designated by reference numeral 12, in the two end walls 13 and 14 of which bearingslS and 16 are fastened in which are rotatably supported the spindles 21 and 31 for the rotors, generally designated by reference numerals 2 and 3. Rotary discs such as the discs 32 and 33 of the rotor 3 of FIG. 1, are fastenedto these spindles internally of the casing 12 andadjacent the end walls 1-3 and 14, which form the end walls of the rotor. Between these rotary discs there is provided the system of loosely mounted bodies 4 to be described below, paddles 5 and spindles 6. Chain wheels24 and 34'are mounted on the spindles .21

and 31, the chain 71 of the drum drive system 7 passing over these chain wheels. This chain 71 passes over a chain wheel 72 mounted on a driving shaft 73 of a variable speed gear 74. The latter is driven by means of a motor 75. The wholedrive. system 7 for the drum is mounted on a carrier 76. A jockey wheel 77 serves for tensioning the chain 71, being adjustable and adapted to r be fastened after adjustment in a slot 78 of an adjuster arm 79 fastened to the casing 1-2.'

The upper end portion of the casing 12 comprises an entry or inlet duct 17 and its lower end portion a takeoff shaft or outlet funnel 18 to which is fastened the entry nozzle of the duct portion 19 of a pneumatic feed pipe. A photo-control device 8 is inserted in the take-off shaft or outlet funnel 18 which energizes output leads 81 leading to suitable indicating or control means in order to indicate a stoppage in the take-off shaft 18.

A part of the arcuate inner wall 9 (FIGURES 1 and 4) of the casing 12 forms the stationary counter surface pertaining to the aforesaid feed path. Triangular fins 91 (FIGURES 1' and 4) are fastened to this inner wall 9 in the path of travel of .the' tobacco, spaced one from the other. Between the two rotors 2 and 3 there is provided in the inner wall 9 a V-shaped guide plate 92 which transfers the tobacco from the opening drum 1 to the opening drum 11. At the part of the inner wall 9 which lies opposite to the triangular fins 91 there is provided a stripper rail 93 adjacent the delivery opening for the tobacco from the opening drum 1, and adjacent the delivery opening for the tobacco from the opening drum 11 there is provided a stripper rail 94.

Further details of the rotors will now be explained on the basis of FIG. 2. This figure shows the rotor 2 comprising rotary discs 22 -and 23 to which are fitted seven loosely mounted bodies 4, six paddles 5 and five spindles 6, in concentric circles of different diameter. The bodies 4, the paddles 5 and the spindles 6 lie in different radial planes and they .are'thus offset one from the other.

In FIGURE 3- is shown the mounting of the rotor 2 within the casing 12 together-with the entry duct 17. Bearings 15 are mounted-on the two end walls 13 and 14 in which-is carried the spindle 21. The discs 22 and 23 are fastened to flanges 25 and 26 located on the spindle 21. FIG. 3 also shows the radii of the various rotary paths of the loosely mounted bodies 4, the paddles 5 and the spindles 6. The triangular fins 91 extend between the discs 22 and 23 and their length is greater than their mutual spacing. Inclined guide plates 171 and 172 (FIG- URE 3) are fastened to the entry duct 17 the ends of which are directed towards the rotor 2 and which guide the material into the space between the rotary discs 22 and 23.

The individual elements of the rotor 2 and a part of the casing 12 of the opening drum 1 are shown in all details in FIG. 4. Each loosely mounted body 4 consists of a spindle 41 on which a rubber tube 42 is mounted, the internal diameter of which is greater than the diameter of the spindle 41. A tube 43 is fitted over the rubber tube 42, the internal diameter of which is greater than the outer diameter of the rubber tube 42. When passing the triangular fins 91 the tube 43 is spaced at a small distance from the fins. The paddles 5 located offset from the bodies 4 consist of the paddle bar 51 with a paddle spindle 52 and a rubber paddle tube 53 drawn over the paddle bar 51. The spindles 6 arranged nearest the spindle 21 of the rotor 2 are fitted with rubber tubes 61 of greater diameter, in the same way as in the case of the bodies 4. FIG. 4 also shows how the triangular fin 91 is welded to the inner wall 9 of the casing 12.

FIG. 5 shows the manner of fastening or supporting the individual elements in the rotary discs 22 and 23. The support spindle 41 is of reduced diametric dimension at the ends, provided with threads, and fastened to the rotary disc 22 by means of nuts 44 and 48. In like manner the spindle 41. (see FIG. 3) is'fastened to, the disc 23 by means of nuts 45 and 49. The ends 46 and 47 of the tube 43 are widened out or flared towards the discs 22 and 23 in truncated conical form, in order that they have no contact with the nuts 48 and 49 located underneath the same-as indicated in the case of the nut 48and moreover the tobacco is thereby held as far as possible away from these ends 46 and 47.

In order to support the paddle spindles 52, the paddle bar 51 and the paddle tube 53, hearing sleeves 54 and 55 are fastened to the discs 22 and 23 in which the spindle 52 of the respective paddle 5 is easily rotatable. The spindle 6 is of reduced diametric dimension at its ends to fit into the discs 22 and 23 in the same way as spindle 41 and is provided with threads as well as with nuts 62, 63, 64 and 65 (see FIG. 3 in the same way as the support spindle 41. The length of the rubber tube 61 is somewhat less than the spacing between the nuts 63 and 64.

The operation of the opening drum described is as follows: The tobacco is introduced through the entry duct 17 into the opening drum 1. It falls onto the rotor 2 and thus hits against the loosely mounted bodies 4, and in part also against the other elements, namely the paddles 5 and the rubber tubes 61. Allthese parts are of yielding construction and throw the tobacco falling on to them in the opposite direction, whereby they execute rotary movements; By this rebounding and projection action, assisted by the air turbulence internally of the opening drum, the tobacco passes between the triangular fins 91 and the loosely mounted bodies 4. The tobacco thus applies to the tubes 43 and to the rubber tubes 42 of the bodies 4 a vibratory movement which is simultaneously a rotary movement. This vibratory movement is again imparted to the tobacco which is thus set strongly into vibration on passing the triangular fins 91. Nevertheless damage to the tobacco is avoided since the tubes 43 and also the rubber tubes 42 can yield. During the rotary movement of the rotor, the tubes 43 and the rubber tubes 42 are thrown outwardly by centrifugal force in the direction of the arrow (FIG. 4).

However as soon as the pressure by the tobacco between the triangular fins and the losely mounted bodies becomes too great, the tubes 43 and the rubber tubes 42 yield, in some cases by their rotation, so that the forces acting on the tobacco are extremely small with the best possible opening effect. The paddle tubes 53 of the paddles 51 and the rubber tubes 61 on the spindles 6 form moreover rubbing surfaces having a great frictional resistance, by which coherent leaf particles are slit relatively one to the other and are thus opened. This is the same effect as is obtained if two adhering pieces of paper, which cannot be released one from the other, are gripped in the two hands and slid relatively. The one hand surface is formed by the rubber tubes 53 or 61 and the other hand surface is represented by the kinetic energy by which the tobacco is thrown against the rubber tubes 53 or 61.

The partially opened tobacco passing through the opening drum 1 now passes over the V-shaped guide plate 92 into the opening drum 11. The stripper rail 93 hinders as far as possible the tobacco from being carried onward by the rotor 2. In the opening drum 11 the aforesaid procedure is repeated. The opened material is delivered through the take-off shaft or funnel 18 into the collecting nozzle 19 of the pneumatic feed pipe, and at this point the stripper rail 94 hinders as far as possible the tobacco from being carried onward by the rotor 3 of the opening drum 11. If for any reason the take-off shaft 18 is clogged for example owing to lack of conveying air, the photo-electric control 8 gives a signal through the output leads 81 which indicates faulty condition or can also be used to stop the opening drums.

Obviously also several rows of loosely mounted bodies 4, paddles 5 and spindles 6 may be provided in one rotor and it should also be noted that the invention is not limited to any particular arrangement of these parts one relatively to the other or to their particular arrangement in space, what is decisive is the use of such yieldable spring-like elements which during their travel execute a rotary movement caused solely by the tobacco itself, which represents a rolling action. The surfaces of fins 91 and stripper rails 93, 94 offer substantial frictional resistance with large drag effect. Also, the fins 91 will return all such tobacco parts which tend to leave the curved conveyance path.

FIG. 6 shows an opening plant incorporating opening drums according to the invention. In this equipment the drums 1 and 11 form the second stage opening unit, the first component being formed by a first-stage opening drum 101. In the sequence of the tobacco feed, this equipment consists of the feed belt 111 the lower delivery end of which is associated with a vibrator conveyor 121. Beneath the delivery end of the vibrator conveyor 121 is the entry funnel 131 of a pneumatic feed pipe 130, which conveys the tobacco to a first stage separator 140. The tobacco delivered from the off-take extractor 141 of the first stage separator 140, which has not yet been opened, passes into the opening drum 101 and is delivered to a further pneumatic feed pipe 150 after passing through the drum 101, entering through an entry funnel 151, the feed pipe 150 delivering this tobacco to the separator 160.

The tobacco delivered by the delivery extractor 161 of the separator 160 is fed in the manner described into the successive opening drums 1 and 11 and supplied to the entry funnel 171 of the pneumatic feed pipe 170, which supplies tobacco to the following separator device 180. Beneath the extractor device 181 of this separator 180 there is provided a rising conveyor 190 the delivery end of which is arranged above the entry duct of the opening drum l. The extractor ducts 142, 162 and 182 of the separator devices 140, 160, and 180 open into a collecting extractor pipe 200, to which an extractor device 210 is connected, beneath the delivery end of which a collecting conveyor belt 222 travels.

The operation of the opening plant shown in FIG. 6 is as follows. The tobacco particles supplied on the feed belt 111, for example parts of tobacco bales, are delivered to the vibrator conveyor 121. If sand and/or dust are present during the conveyance of the tobacco through the vibratory conveyor, the bottom of the latter may be of meshwork construction. As a result of the shaking movement of the vibratory conveyor, with great amplitude and frequency, the tobacco is pre-opened, and passes through the feed pipe into the first stage separator in which the leaf particles which have already been opened or released are sucked olf upwardly. The tobacco particles which have not been opened pass through the off-take extractor 141 into the opening drum 101, which rotates at a low speed, whereby further sensitive leaf material is released, without being damaged. This opened sensitive leaf material is sucked off in the following separator and the heavy loose tobacco particles which have not been opened pass through the delivery extractor 161 into the following opening drums 1 and 11, which operate at a higher speed, and are separated one from the other for the major part in these opening drums. In the following second stage separator device the opened leaf material is sucked off upwardly and very heavy to bacco particles which are capable of being opened and which may be present but which have not yet been opened are conveyed through the extractor device 181 along the rising conveyor and back to the opening drums 1 and 11, and further treated in the latter.

The opened leaf material sucked upwardly from the first stage separator 140, the separator 160 and the final stage separator 180 is fed through the extractor ducts 142, 162 and 182 through the collecting extractor pipe 200 and the extractor device 210 to the collecting belt 222 and further handled in the usual way. By this construction and arrangement of the opening plant, any sort of tobacco can be opened taking into account its sensitivity factor and the vibrator conveyor 121 represents the first opening stage and simultaneously serves for cleaning the tobacco if its bottom is of mesh-work or sievelike construction. The vibratory conveyor 121 executes vibrations the vibratory component of which in the direction perpendicular to the conveyance plane is greater than its vibratory component in the direction of advance toward the funnel 131.

Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can by applying current knowledge readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this invention and, therefore, such adaptations should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalence of the following claims.

What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:

1. Apparatus for loosening up and opening tobacco, such as tobacco growers bales, having means eflectively forming a conveyance path for the tobacco along which the cohering tobacco leaves are to be loosened, comprising vibratory means extending into said conveyance path and having loosely fitted tubular casings supported by spindles, means for moving said spindles substantially in the direction of the conveyance path for the tobacco feed, the tubular casings of said vibratory means rolling freely on said spindles in the absence of any external influence and said tubular casings carrying out on said spindles radial and other composite movements with respect to said spindles by engagement with the conveyed tobacco, and elastic means loosely interposed between a respective tubular casing and a corresponding spindle and operable to oppose the external influences by the tobacco parts.

2. Apparatus for loosening up and opening tobacco, such as tobacco growers bales, having means e fiectively forming a conveyance path for the tobacco along which the cohering tobacco leaves are to be loosened, comprising vibratory means extending into said conveyance path and having loosely fitted tubular casings supported by spindles, means for moving said spindles substantially in the direction of the conveyance path for the tobacco feed, the tubular casings of said vibratory means rolling freely on said spindles in the absence of any external influence and said tubular casings carrying out on said spindles radial and other composite movements with respect to said spindles by engagement with the conveyed tobacco, and elastic means loosely interposed between a respective tubular casing and a corresponding spindle and operable to oppose the external influences by the tobacco parts, said elastic means being arranged with a spacing from a part of the respective tubular casing and of the corresponding spindle.

3. Apparatus for loosening up and opening tobacco, such as tobacco growers bales, having means effectively forming a conveyance path for the tobacco along which the cohering tobacco leaves are to be loosened, comprising vibratory means extending into said conveyance path and having loosely fitted tubular casings supported by spindles, means for moving said spindles substantially in the direction of the conveyance path for the tobacco feed, the tubular casings of said vibratory means rolling freely on said spindles in the absence of any external influence and said tubular casings carrying out on said spindles radial and other composite movements with respect to said spindles by engagement with the conveyed tobacco, and elastic means loosely interposed between a respective tubular casing and a corresponding spindle and operable to oppose the external influences by the tobacco parts, said elastic means being arranged with a spacing from a part of the respective tubular casing and of the corresponding spindle, said elastic means being constituted by a rubberthose.

4. Apparatus for loosening up and opening tobacco, such as tobacco growers bales, having means effectively forming a conveyance path for the tobacco along which the cohering tobacco leaves are to be loosened, comprising vibratory means extending into said conveyance path and having loosely fitted tubular casings supported by spindles, means for moving said spindles substantially in the direction of the conveyance path for the tobacco feed, the tubular casings of said vibratory means rolling freely on said spindles in the absence of any external influence and said tubular casings carrying out on said spindles radial and other composite movements with respect to said spindles by engagement with the conveyed tobacco, and elastic means loosely interposed between a respective tubular casing and a corresponding spindle and operable to oppose the external influences by the tobacco parts, said elastic means being arranged with a spacing from a part of the respective tubular casing and of the corresponding spindle, said elastic means being constituted by a rubber hose, the diameter of said spindle being smaller than the insidediameter of said rubber hose.

5. Apparatus for loosening up and opening tobacco, such as tobacco growers bales, having means eflectively forming a conveyance path for the tobacco along which the cohering tobacco leaves are to be loosened, comprising vibratory means extending into said conveyance path and having loosely fitted tubular casings supported by spindles, means for moving said spindles substantially in the direction of the conveyance path for the tobacco feed, the tubular casings of said vibratory means rolling freely on said spindles in the absence of any external influence and said tubular casings carrying out on said spindles radial and other composite movements with respect to said spindles by engagement with the conveyed tobacco, and elastic means loosely interposed between a respective tubular casing and a corresponding spindle and operable to oppose the external influences by the tobacco parts, said elastic means being arranged with a spacing from a part of the respective tubular casing and of the corresponding spindle, said elastic means being constituted by a rubber hose, the diameter of said spindle being smaller than the inside diameter of said rubber hose, and the outside diameter of said rubber hose being smaller than the inside diameter of said tubular casing.

6. Apparatus for loosening up and opening tobacco, such as tobacco growers bales, having means effectively forming a conveyance path for the tobacco along whichthe cohering tobacco leaves are to be loosened, comprising vibratory means extending into said'conveyance path and having loosely fitted tubular casings supported by spindles, elastic means between a respective tubular casing and a corresponding spindle, means for moving said spindles substantially in the direction of the conveyance path for the tobacco feed, the tubular casings of said vibratory means rolling freely on said spindles in the absence of any external influence and said tubular casings carrying out on said spindles radial and other composite movements with respect to said spindles by engagement with the conveyed tobacco, and said elastic means opposing said external influence'of the tobacco parts.

7. Apparatus for loosening up and opening tobacco, such as tobacco growers bales, having means eflectively forming a conveyance path for the tobacco along which the cohering tobacco leaves are to be loosened, comprising vibratory means extending into said conveyance path and having loosely fitted tubular casings supported by spindles, elastic means between a respective tubular casing and a corresponding spindle, means for moving said spindles substantially in the direction of the conveyance path for the tobacco feed, the tubular casings of said vibratory means rolling freely on said spindles inthe absence of any external influence and said tubular casings 9 carrying out on said spindles radial and other composite movements with respect to said spindles by engagement with the conveyed tobacco, and said elastic means opposing said external influence of the tobacco parts, the outer diameter of a spindle being smaller than the internal dimention of a respective elastic means, and the internal diameter of said tubular casing being larger than the external dimension of the corresponding elastic means.

8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, wherein the means forming said conveyance path further comprises wall means provided with pointed raised portions with the points thereof extending into said conveyance path.

9. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, wherein the means forming said conveyance path includes a drumshaped body and wherein said moving means comprises a rotor provided in said drum-shaped body and having two disk-like members supporting the ends of said spindles.

10. Apparatus as set forth in claim 9, wherein said spindles are disposed along a first circle and wherein said vibratory means further comprises a plurality of paddle means freely rotatably supported in said disk-like members along a second circle within said first circle, each of said paddle means having an outer surface formed by a rubber-like layer.

11. Apparatus as set forth in claim 9, wherein said spindles are disposed along a first circle and wherein said vibratory means further comprises additional spindles secured to said disk-like members along a second circle located within said first circle, and elastic means freely supported on said additional spindles.

12. Apparatus as set forth in claim 9, wherein said spindles are disposed along a first circle and wherein said vibratory means further comprises a plurality of paddle means freely rotatably supported in said dislclike members along a second circle within said first circle, each of said paddle means having an outer surface formed by a rubber-like layer. additional spindles secured to said disk-like members along a third circle, within said second circle, and elastic means freely supported 1*? on said additional spindles, the number of said casings being larger than the number of said paddle means and the number of said paddle means being larger than the number of said additional spindles.

13. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, wherein the means forming said conveyance path includes a series of drum-shaped separating bodies and wherein said moving means comprises a rotor in each of said drum-shaped bodies and a common drive for said rotors, said drive including change-speed means.

14. Apparatus as set forth in claim 13, wherein said drive is arranged to drive said rotors at different speeds.

15. Apparatus as set forth in claim 13, further comprising pneumatically operated sorting means between said drum-shaped bodies.

16. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, further comprising sorting means disposed ahead of said conveyance path and including means for subjecting the tobacco parts to be opened to shock-like impacts of large amplitude and frequency to effect preliminary loosening up of such parts.

17. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, further comprising a pair of sorting means respectively disposed upstream and downstream of said conveyance path, each of said sorting means including means for subjecting the tobacco parts to shock-like impacts.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,873,747 2/1959 Schlossmacher 131-149 2,911,981 10/1959 Bauer et a1. 131-149 2,942,607 6/1960 Skinner 131146 X FOREIGN PATENTS 209,239 5/1960 Austria.

SAMUEL KOREN, Primary Examiner.

H. P. DEELEY, IR., Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2873747 *Aug 26, 1955Feb 17, 1959Kurt Korber & Co K GMethod and apparatus for separating and loosening tobacco leaf bundles
US2911981 *Apr 1, 1958Nov 10, 1959Hauni Werke Koerber & Co KgMachines for loosening tobacco bales
US2942607 *Jul 8, 1957Jun 28, 1960W I Skinner And CompanyMachines for cleaning tobacco scrap
AT209239B * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4148590 *Nov 21, 1977Apr 10, 1979Dr. Ing. Hans MullerApparatus and method of stirring fluids
Classifications
U.S. Classification131/327, 366/154.2, 366/153.3, 366/307, 366/280, 366/142
International ClassificationA24B3/00, A24B3/06
Cooperative ClassificationA24B3/06
European ClassificationA24B3/06