US 3302497 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent This invention relates to chain wrenches of the type used on pipe and more particularly it is an obect of this invention to provide a chain Wrench which is more versatile in its use.
An important object of this invention is to provide a chain wrench having an elongated handle with a threaded shaft extending longitudinally therethrough, the shaft having a handgrip on its outer end rotatable with respect to the shaft and with respect to the remainder of the handle for drawing the shaft through the handle, the wrench having a pipe-engaging surface with teeth disposed to one side of the elongated handle, and with a chain having one end attached to the threaded shaft, the chain being adapted to extend around the pipe and with means for anchoring the other end of the chain to the handle and with the toothed pipe-engaging surface disposed approximately at a right angle to 'the handle elongation whereby when the chain is tightened, the full grip of the operators hand is used in contrast to a tightening by means of the use of the ends of the fingers only, so that a sufficient grip is immediately achieved for the prevention of slippage of the pipe so that the wrench can be used as a vise at times, the construction being such that wrench rotation with respect to the pipe is not necessary to obtain a grip as in certain prior art wrenches, whereby the effect is more like that of a vise.
A further particular object is to provide a wrench as above described which can also he used with its chain loose so that its action is not like that of a vise, but instead, its action'is to release a pipe on a back stroke while gripping it in a forward stroke for achieving a ratchet action as well with the same wrench.
Another object is to provide a wrench as described with a hand grip of sufficient size for applying a sufficient force that a work-piece pipe will be effectively held back from rotation at times when another part attached to the work-piece pipe is being rotated so that even if the other part is rusted, motion of the handle with respect to the workpiece pipe will be substantially absent so that in a tight place where there is little working room, an immediate firm grip is achieved by use of the hand grip alone and no handle swinging is needed.
A particular object is to achieve the full hand grip effect above described with the hand grip at the outer end of the handle and with the threaded shaft freely slidable in the handle for econnomy of construction.
In the prior art when it has been desired to place a threaded object such as an internally threaded sleeve on an externally threaded piece of pipe, certain problems arise. If the pipe is not anchored to ahouse, but is free, then an attempt to place a common pipe wrench on it and then to hold the pipe in another pipe wrench will usually result in the slipping of one wrench from its object. The faster the combined wrenching motion of the two wrenches is made, the less chance of slipping, but slipping is never the less most common.
Chain pipe wrenches have been of two types heretofore. One of the types holding a pipe between the chain and a jaw having teeth, and with means for moving the chain and jaw relative to each other. With this type of pipe wrench, a firm grip on a pipe can be had without slippage in much the same way that a pipe can be held in a vise. This latter type of chain wrench can be referred to as a threaded adjustment chain wrench. Although such a wrench will firmly grip a pipe it has another serious disadvantage that will be later mentioned.
The other type of chain wrench that has been marketed involves impinging pipe between a. chain and a surface having teeth in which the impingement of the pipe is not accomplished by :a threaded adjustment, but is instead accomplished by a longitudinal motion of the chain wrench either toward or away from the pipe. For purposes of discussion, this latter type can be called the ram-on type or the ram-impingement type.
The ram-impingement type can be rammed on a fixed pipe attached to a house, for example, to accomplish the impingement and holding of the pipe. But the ramimpingement type will not be handy for holding a free pipe that is unattached. To hold a free pipe that is unattached with the ram-on type, it is necessary to hold it against some work surface like a work bench, using the left hand to hold the wrench in impingement position, and then the other hand is used to hold another wrench to rotate a sleeve being threadedly emplaced. But wit-hout a handy work surface such as a work bench, then three hands would be needed for this operation with the ram-on or ram-impingement type.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a chain wrench which has all of the firm holding advantages of the threaded adjustment type chain wrench, but which eliminates the disadvantage thereof, It is an object of my invention to provide a threaded adjustment chain wrench which can be swung in one direction for rotating a pipe in the usual manner, but which need not be loosened in its adjustment in order to swing the wrench back in a return stroke for a new bite and without rotating the pipe. In other words, it is an object of this invention to provide a chain wrench that will have a function similar to ratchet wrench or similar to the common double-jawed conventional pipe wrench.
In still other words, it is an object of this invention to provide a chain Wrench which will automatically loosen with respect to a pipe during a return stroke of a wrench; this happening automatically and without need for a loosening of the adjustment by threaded means.
I am aware of a Patent No. 2,577,861, titled, Adjusting Means for Chain Wrench, issued to L. K. Selfridge, December 11, 1951, in which a wrench is shown which has this automatic release upon a return stroke, which, however, does not have threaded adjustment for gripping a pipe like a vise, and it is an object of this invention to provide a wrench which has both automatic loosening on return stroke and also which will grip a pipe like a vise so that in order to make a grip on a free pipe, one hand need not be needed for the holding of the pipe, and another for the wrench, leaving no hand available for the handling of another wrench to apply a threaded sleeve onto the pipe.
Particular objects of the invention are to provide a chain wrench which is particularly well-adapted to grip a range of pipe sizes from very small to very large, this range being made possible by having teeth of a jaw portion extending away from the handle axis substantially as far as the position of the adjustable anchoring of the chain is from the handle axis, and preferably with the teeth extending even along side of and beyond the chain that is farthest from the handle axis, this being preferably achieved by providing a wrench head having a notch therein for receiving the chain, the wrench head being provided with teeth on one and preferably on both sides of the notch.
A further object of the invention is to provide a wrench head having teeth extending substantially to the position a chain wrench which has a jaw which is provided with 61 teeth which are disposed in the same plane generally, to make the manufacture of the jaw as economical as possible.
Still another object is to provide a chain wrench having an improved quickly releasable latch, which can be operated by a simple pressing of the finger.
Still another object is to provide a chain wrench of the threaded adjustment type, in which an adjusting portion has flat surfaces arranged in preferably polygonal form such as a hexagonal shape for reception of a wrench thereon for making possible a maximum tightening where very extreme pressure is desired.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a chain wrench which when it is somewhat loosened will permit a pipe received therein to roll along the teeth of the jaw surface before the pipe becomes gripped between chain and teeth, whereby a reverse motion will release the pipe by allowing it to roll in a reverse direction along the jaw surface, whereby during a return stroke of the handle, the pipe is released so that the wrench can move with respect to the pipe during back stroke to get a new grip on the pipe, for the further rotation thereof on the next turning stroke.
Other and further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following detailed description, drawings and claims, the scope of the invention not being limited to the drawings themselves as the drawings are only for the purpose of illustrating a way in which the principles of this invention can be applied.
Other embodiments of the invention utilizing the same or equivalent principles may be used and structural changes may be made as desired by those skilled in the art without departing from the present invention and the purview of the appended claims.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a frontal elevation of the wrench of this invention shown as applied to a pipe, portions of the wrench being broken away.
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view of the wrench of this invention as it would be seen along the line 2-2, but with the chain and bolt portions thereof shown in full lines. Dotted lines in FIGURE 2 indicate the position of the pipe with respect to a wrench at times when the wrench is free to rotate with respect to the pipe. The full line position of the chain of FIGURE 2 shows its position at a time when the pipe is gripped by the wrench and is rotating therewith.
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of the jaw as it would be seen along the lines 3-3, FIGURE 2.
The wrench of this invention is generally indicated at in FIGURES 1 and 2 and it has an elongated hollow handle 12 having a section 14 which is formed of a straight pipe. A hand grip or pressure control member 16 is disposed at one end of the handle 12 and has a rough outer surface 20 for gripping by the hand; the pressure control portion 16 has a section 22 which is threadedly interconnected at 42 to the threaded exterior of a bolt 30, which latter extends through sections 14 and 16 and has a forward end 34 connected at 36 to the rearward end 40 of a first portion 44 of a chain 50. The threaded bolt 30 can also be called a threaded shaft and it is freely slidable in the hollow handle section 14.
The wrench further has a head 60 which has a receiving section 64 into which is received a forward portion 66 of the pipe 14 Which forms the handle.
For purposes of terminology, that part of the forward portion 66 of the pipe 14 shall be called a part of the head and it is fixed to the remainder of the head which is, namely, the receiving or pipe-receiving section 64 by suitable securing means at 70.
As thus described, the head 60 is attached to the outer end of the handle 12.
A jaw 90 is attached to the head 60 by suitable means such as welding at 94 and the jaw has a gripping surface 96 having teeth 98 thereon.
The gripping surface 96 is disposed transversely to the elongation of the handle 12 and facing away from the gripping or grip end 20 of the handle 12. The gripping surface 96 is preferably lying substantially in a plane except for the effect of the teeth 98 and such plane is preferably disposed normally to the elongation of the handle 12. The outer ends of the teeth 98 can be regarded as being in a same plane therefore, that is, disposed normal to the elongation of the handle 12.
The chain 50 can also be called an elongated flexible puller and the puller 50 has its first portion 44 disposed adjacent one end 100 of the gripping surface 96.
Suitable means is provided for moving the first portion 44 of the puller 50 transversely of the gripping surface 96 in a direction toward the grip end 20 of the handle 12 and such means can be called a chain-moving generally indicated at and will be seen to include the bolt 30 and also the grip portion 16 of the handle so that at one time when the portion 20 of the handle is rotated in a desired direction, its threaded member 22 will slidably engage the adjacent end of the pipe 14 for causing the bolt 30 to move in the direction of the arrow 140 for pulling on the chain or puller 50.
The puller 50 has a second portion which is of approximately U-shape as seen from the side as in FIG- URE 2, when in use. The second portion 130 has one end 136 attached to the other end 140 of the first portion 44. The puller 50 further has a third portion having one end 152 attached to the other end 156 of the second portion 130.
Suitable means generally indicated at are provided for attaching the third portion 150 of the puller or chain to the wrench head 60.
The wrench head 60 has an engaging portion disposed adjacent One end 100 of the gripping surface 96. It will be seen that the engaging portion 180 can be a part of the jaw 90 and in that sense, part of the jaw 90 adjacent to the engaging portion 180 is to be considered a part of the head 60.
Or, in a larger sense, the wrench has an engaging portion 180 disposed adjacent one end of the gripping surface 96 and the engaging portion 180 is suitably secured to what can now be called the main body of the wrench as indicated by the numeral 300, said main body including the handle 12, the head 60 and the jaw 90.
The engaging portion 180 can also be called a puller engaging portion 180 as it is in a position for engaging the first portion 44 of the puller 50 to hold the first portion 44 at a substantial spacing from the central portion of the gripping surface 96. The position of attachment of the third portion 150 of the chain or puller 50 to the head 60 is generally indicated at 200 and is substantially spaced from the engaging portion 180 of the head 60 in a direction transversely of the elongation of the handle 12.
The wrench 10 has an open space 230 on that side of the third portion 150 of the puller 50 which faces away from the first puller portion 44, the open space 230 being formed by a notch 250 and being for the purpose of permitting the third portion 150 to move laterally away from the engaging portion 180 of the head 60 so as to assume an inclined position with respect to the elongation of the handle, or more particularly, to assume positions of varying inclination with respect to the elongation of the handle, such positions being shown, for example, in FIG- URE 2 at A and at B, whereby when a cylindrical pipe P is disposed between the jaw 90 and the second portion 130 of the puller at a time when the puller has a slight amount of slack in it, as shown in the position A, so that slack exists between the chain or puller 50 and the pipe, then a rotating of the handle 12 in the direction of an arrow 300 around the axis of the cylindrical pipe P in a clockwise direction as the wrench is viewed from that side thereof which disposes the first puller portion 44 on the right-hand side of the second puller portion 130, will cause the pipe P to roll across the jaw 90 from a first position shown in dotted lines in FIGURE 2 to a second position shown in full lines in FIGURE '2.
When the pipe P is in the first position, its central axis 300 will be disposed at what will be called a first distance from the engaging portion 180 of the head, and when the pipe is in the said first position, the puller 50 can slide freely around the pipe because of the described slack.
However, when the pipe is moved along the gripping surface 96 to a second position, at which second position, the pipe P has its axis disposed at a second and sufficient distance from the engaging portion 180 of the head, then the slack will be removed from the puller 50, partly because the third portion 150 of the puller assumes a positionof greater inclination with respect to the elongation of the handle 12, whereby the slack is removed and the puller 50 presses the pipe P against the jaw 90 so that a further rotation of the handle 12 in the clockwise direction 300 will cause the pipe P to be rotated with and by the wrench 10.
Expressed in another way, the pipe is in a first position as shown in dotted lines in FIGURE 2 in which its far side is disposed a oertain distance from the engaging portion 180 and when the pipe moves to the full line position shown in FIGURE 2, then its side which is opposite from the engaging portion 180 is disposed still further from the engaging portion 180 causing the first portion 44 of the puller to assume a position of greater inclination with respect to a normal line 380 drawn through the puller portion 44, the normal line 380 being disposed normally with respect to the plane of the gripping surface 96. The normal line 380 can also be called the axis line 380 of the handle opening 500.
This change in the inclination of the first portion 44 causes slack to be removed pulling the second portion 130 against the pipe.
A similar change in position of the third portion 150 of the puller or chain 50 will cause a removal of slack from the third portion 150, also, combining with the removal of the slack in the first portion 44- to urge the pipe P against the surface 96 of the jaw 90. The pressure will cause the pipe to rotate with the wrench.
The notch 230 can also be called a chain-receiving opening 230 and it extends through the head 60 in the sense that the jaw 90 is a part of the head. The opening 230 also extends through the gripping surface 96 of the jaw 90.
The third portion of the chain extends through the opening or notch 230 and a catch lever 400 is disposed in the notch 230 and is secured to the head by a pivot pin 410, which latter extends through the head 60 on each side of the notch 230, and rotatably receives the catch lever 400 thereon. The pin 410 is disposed normally to the elongation of the handle 12 whereby the catch lever 170 is adapted to rotate about an axis represented by the pin 410 which is transverse and preferably normally disposed with respect to the handle 12.
As the puller 50 is actually a chain, it has a plurality of longitudinally spaced openings 414 extending therethrough, as best seen in FIGURE 2. The catch lever 400 has a dog 44 protruding from one end of the lever and spaced substantially from the pin 410, the dog 440 being adapted to extend through a selected one of the openings 414 in the puller as the dog 440 faces generally toward a longitudinal opening 500 in the handle 12, and more specifically, in that section 14 of the pipewhich forms part of the head 60 so that surface of the dog 440 which is disposed closest to the grip end 20 of the handle 12 lies approximately normally to the third portion 150 of the puller 50.
The head 60 has an abutment surface as indicated at 530 which is formed by a part of the inner wall 536 of the notch 230.
The abutment means 530 will be seen to be disposed on the head 60 opposite the dog 440 for bearing against the puller third portion 150 on the handle side of said third portion.
The dog 440 is so shaped that when the handle 12 side of the dog 440 and the abutment means or surface 530 impinge the puller therebetween, the said means for anchoring said third portion of said puller to the head is defined.
The handle opening 500 has that one of its ends which is adjacent the head 60 of a cross-sectional shape of approximately a circle providing an axis 380. That end of the gripping surface 96 which is: closest to the handle 14 is disposed substantially closer to the adjacent edge of the wall of the handle opening Silt] than to the axis 380 of the handle opening.
In operation, it will be seen that when an object is placed between the puller 50 and the jaw and the puller or chain 54) has the major part of its slack removed by selective positioning of the catch lever 400, then all remaining slack can be quickly removed by a twisting of the pressure control portion 16.
Thus the pressure can be made sufficient for completely clamping or else to an ideal amount to provide the slack for the rotation and release of the pipe as above described so that by turning the handle in the clockwise direction 300, the pipe is gripped and caused to turn in a clockwise direction and so that by swinging the handle back in the counterclockwise direction 700, the pipe will be caused to move relative to the gripping surface 96 until the pipe is again in the dotted line position of FIGURE 2 at which latter position there is so much slack that the handle 12 can be freely rotated in the counterclockwise direction 700 with respect to the pipe, and while the pipe remains stationary. This action enables the wrench of this invention to do what has been in slang terms called ratcheting, meaning the ability to grip when rotating in one direction and yet release when rotating in another.
For this reason, the pipe wrench of this invention can be operated with an oscillatory movement back and forth through a short are of a very minute number of degrees, substantially less than five degrees, for example, and this oscillatory movement will permit the pipe to be rotated and is very important and effective in areas in which obstructions are disposed on the two sides of the handle which would prevent large rotational movements of the handle.
-If difficulty should be experienced in getting a desired amount of clamping, then a hexagonal surface is provided at 702 around the exterior of the section 22 of the pressure control portion 16 for receiving a wrench for the application of greater leverage.
A spring steel clip 720 on the terminal end of the third section 150 of the chain has one end hooked pivotally to the chain and the other end 722 is of a size for reception between the sides 724 of any one of the larger links 730 of the chain for gaining a storage of the otherwise loosely hanging end of the third chain section 150.
The tip end 722 is curled away from the handle, as shown in FIGURE 2, in order to hook back toward a link of a inner intermediate section of the Wrench when the terminal end of the chain is stored by extending it in reverse upon itself back up to be hooked to an intermediate part of the chain as assisted by the hookin-g action of the curled end 722.
As thus described, this invention is believed to have fulfilled the objectives above set forth.
From the foregoing description, it is thought to be obvious that a chain pipe wrench constructed in accordance with my invention is particularly well adapted for use, by reason of the convenience and facility with which it may be assembled and operated, and it will also be obvious that my invention can be changed and modified without departing from the principles and spirit thereof, and for this reason, I do not wish to be understood as limiting myself to the precise arrangement and formation of the several parts herein shown in carrying out my invention in practice, except as claimed.
1. A wrench comprising: an elongated handle having a gripping end and an outer end, a head attached to said outer end of said handle, a jaw forming a part of said head and attached to the remainder of said head, said jaw having a gripping surface, said gripping surface being disposed at approximately a right angle to the elongation of said handle and facing away from said gripping end thereof, an elongated flexible puller having a first portion disposed adjacent one end of said gripping surface, means for moving said first portion of said puller transversely of said gripping surface in a direction toward said gripping end of said handle, said puller having a second portion of approximately U-shape when in use and having one end attached to said first portion, said puller having a third portion having one end attached to the other end of said second portion, and means attaching said third portion of said puller to said wrench head, said head having a puller engaging portion disposed adjacent one end of said gripping surface, said puller engaging portion being in a position for engaging said first portion of said puller to hold said first portion of said puller at a substantial spacing from the central portion of said gripping surface, the position of attachment of said third portion of said puller to said head being substantially spaced from said engaging portion of said head in a direction transversely of said handle, said wrench having an open space on that side of said third portion of said puller which faces away from said first puller portion to permit said third portion to move laterally toward and away from said engaging portion of said head so as to assume positions of varying inclination with respect to the elongation of said handle, whereby when a cylindrical pipe is disposed between said jaw and said second portion of said puller at a time when said puller has a slight amount of slack between it and said pipe, a rotating of said handle around the axis of said pipe in a clockwise direction as said wrench is viewed from a side thereof which disposes said first puller portion on the right-hand side of said second puller portion will cause said pipe to roll across said jaw from a first position in which said pipe is disposed at a first distance from said engaging portion of said head, in which first position said puller can slide freely around said pipe because of said slack, to a second position in which the axis of said pipe is disposed at a second and sufiiciently greater distance from said engaging portion of said head that the slack is removed from said puller, said means for moving said first portion of said puller comprising the provision of an elongated opening through said handle extending transversely to said gripping surface, a threaded shaft extending longitudinally through said handle opening, said threaded shaft being freely slidable longitudinally of said handle, means attaching said threaded shaft to said first portion of said puller, a threaded hand grip threadedly attached to said threaded shaft and disposed at the outer end of said handle and rotatable with respect to the outer end of said handle, said hand grip being of a size sufiiciently large to receive the full grip of an operators hand, said handle opening having an end adjacent said head which has an approximate circular cross section providing an axis, that end of said gripping surface which is closest to said handle being disposed substantially closer to the adjacent edge of the wall of said handle opening than to the axis of the handle opening.
2. A chain wrench having a chain extending across a jaw, said wrench having an elongated hollow handle attached to said jaw, manipulatable means on said wrench operatively correlated with said chain for drawing an intermediate part of said chain toward said jaw at times and for introducing slack in said chain to allow it to move away from said jaw at other times, said jaw having an elongated work-engaging surface, means for anchoring ends of said chain at points on said wrench spaced substantially to that side of said work-engaging surface which is opposite said intermediate portion of said chain, and said work-engaging surface being disposed between said anchoring points as seen from a point on the opposite side of said anchoring points from said jaw surface, whereby when said chain is somewhat slack with an object between said jaw and said chain, and said handle is moved in one direction for causing the moving of said object along said surface closer to the point of connection of one of said ends than the position the object is at the beginning of such movement, then slack will be removed from said chain binding said object between puller and jaw, and whereby when said handle is moved in an opposite direction until said object is midway between said anchoring points then said object will be released suificiently for allowing movement of said wrench with respect to said object, said handle being disposed transversely to said work-engaging surface, said manipulatable means comprising a threaded shaft extending longitudinally through said handle and freely slidable longitudinally of said handle, said means for anchoring attaching one end of said chain to that end of said threaded shaft which is adjacent said chain, a hand grip threadedly attached to the outer end of said shaft and rotatable 'with respect to said shaft and with respect to said handle for drawing said shaft through said handle, said hand grip being of suflicient size to receive substantially the full grip of an operators hand whereby said hand grip is effective to tighten said chain against a work-piece disposed between said chain and said jaw, said handle opening having an end adjacent said head which has an approximate circular cross section providing an axis, that end of said work-engaging surface which is closest to said handle being disposed substantially closer to the adjacent edge of the wall of said handle opening than to the axis of the handle opening.
3. The combination of claim 2 in which said workengaging surface has a wrench head attached to it, and in which a pivoting latch dog is attached to said head and is substantially spaced from said handle and forms a part of said means for anchoring by cooperating 'with said head for releasably gripping of said chain at that chain anchor point which anchors that end of said chain which is farthest from said handle.
4. The combination of claim 2 in which one side of said chain is in alignment with said handle, said gripping surface being disposed approximately at a right angle to said handle.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 589,038 8/ 1897 Sheffy 8165 1,824,944 9/1931 Carnelli 81- 65 2,605,662 8/1952 Elder 8168 FOREIGN PATENTS 17,575 1912 Great Britain. 264,350 1/ 1927 Great Britain.
WILLIAM FEL'DMAN, Primary Examiner.
JAMES L. JONES, JR., Examiner.