US 3302570 A
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Feb. 7, 1967 F. R. MARQUARDT ARMOR PIERCING, FRAGMENTING AND INCENDIARY PROJECTILE Filed July 23, 1965 RMK i?. M
INVENTOR United States Patent O 3,302,570 ARMOR PIERClNG, FRAGMENTING AND INCENDIARY PROJECTILE Frank R. Marquardt, Alexandria, Va., assiguor to Walter G. Finch, Baltimore, Md. Filed `Iuly 23, 1965, Ser. No. 474,329 12 Claims. (Cl. 1112-52) This invention relates generally to ammunition, and more particularly it pertains to armor piercing incendiary type projectiles.
Hardened steel armor has been and is still used as a countermeasure against receiving lethal projectile or shape charge damage against vulnerable components of, or people in intricate machines 4such as personnel carriers, tanks, and equivalent armored vehicles.
An object of this invention, therefore, 4is to provide a new type armor piercing, fragmenting and incendiary projectile which reduces the countermeasure effectiveness of hardened steel armor by minimizing the amount of projectile energy or impulse required to pass through the armor.
In addition, another object of this invention is to provide ia projectile which also maximizes the amount of darnage to components and people supposedly protected by the farmer.
maximum initial penetrator energy. A low-weight wind-l shield was used to reduce laerodynamic d r-ag, lthus reducing the amount of energy lost as a function of tiring range to target. In an attempt 'to increase damage iat the target, some of the former projectile designs contained `an incendiary material forward of the hardened steel penetrator and enclosed -by'the lightweight windshield.
`The net effect obtained was incendiary ilash on the outside of the armored target before theprojectile penetrator started to pierce the armor with the result that no incendiary material would.v pass through the armor and contact lcomponents or people behind the armor. Because the projectile penetrator was large in diameter, a large amount of armor would have to be displaced to allow penetration. 'Ihus the armor absorbed `a large -amount =of the penetrating energy ofthe project-ile and thinner armor could prevent passage of the projectile. Also by making the armor of a high hardness steel material, many such hardened steel projectiles would be shattered upon impact, reducing projectile penetration consideria-bly.
Accordingly, it is a further object of the present invention to provide a t projectile which will overcome the above-mentioned disadvantages :and -increase the penetration capability with less energy being expended.
Another object of this invention lis to provide an armor penetrating projectile which fragments in such a Way as t-o obtain greater after armor damage.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide in an armor piercing projectile, a pair of incendiary means, one of which follows through to be eifective on the far side of armor and one operating on the near side thereof.
Still another object of this invention'is to provide a follow-up plug cutter means to increase the fragmentation of armor in an armor penetrating projectile and cause more far side damage.
A further object of this invention is to provide a projectile which reduces the initial impact shattering by providing nose cushion :and lubrication means for the armor piercing element of the projectile.
Other objects and attendant advantages of this invention will vbecome more readily -apparent and understood from the following detailed specification and single sheet of accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal section of an armor piercing fragmenting incendiary projectile embodying features of this invention; and
FIG. 2 is a View similar to FIG. 1 of la modied embodiment of the invention.
Referring now to the details of the drawings, with special attention ot FIG. 1, reference numeral 10 is a projectile intended for tiring from a gun. This projectile 10 consists of an axially located penetrator 11 made of a rather slender but lrelatively very long rod of high density `hard metal such as depleted uranium or an alloy of tungsten car-bide and cobalt. This penetrator 11 is formed with an enlarged, tapered, blunt-pointed head 13.
A high density incendiary material, shown by reference numeral 12, surrounds the elongated portion of penetrator 11, but is slightly smaller in diameter than the forward head 13. The weight of the incendiary 12 assists penetration through the armor and passes through the hole.
Because ofl impact shocks and heat generated as the armor is pierced, the latter half of the long penetrator 11, as Well as the incendiary material 12, -surrounding the penetrator 11 fracture into lethal particles. The incendiary material is thus ignited and continued iiight of the fractured penetrator 11 and incendiary material 12 through the hole causes considerable damage to internal components and people.
To prevent complete fracture of the penetrator 11 at high angles of impact obliquely, a soft metal nose 18, is placed forward of the head 13 of the penetrator 11.
A light-weight windshield 15 is provided to reduce aerodynamic drag of the projectile 10 and thus minimize energy loss during ight to the target. Outside armor damage can -be obtained by placing a light-weight incendi-ary material 16 around the heavy incendiary 12, with the objective of not passing through the hole formed by the penetrator 11. i
A projectile body 17 is required to obtain a high launch velocity out of a gun barrel and to stabilize the projectile 10 during iiight to the target. By forming and hardening the front end 14 of the hollow projectile body 17 to a sharpened cookie-cutter" shape as shown, more internal dam-age is obtained when thin armor is impacted since a larger hole is formed in the armor by cutting out a plug which is also fractured and tossed internally `against components and people. The mass (weight) of the projectile body 17 adds energy to the penetrator 11 and incendiary 12, during the penetration process until the front end of the projectile body 14, contacts the target surface. Thus, still greater penetration and back-of-armor damage is obtained as a result of energy retention in the material passing through the hole made in the armor. The low density incendiary 16, is used to reduce weight during accelenation down the gun barrel and thus obtain a higher initial projectile velocity (higher initial energy).
When it is desired to obtain the greatest penetration depth (defeat of thicker armor), the penetrator 21 can be made still longer in a projectile 20 as shown in FIG. 2. The rear end 23 of the dense incendiary 16, is tapered to form a wedging seal Iaround the rearwardly extended penetrator 21, when the projectile 20 is accelerated by the high pressure propellant gas.
The wedge surface 19 behind the enlarged head 13, applies support to accelerate the penetrator 11, at the same rate the rest of the projectile 20 is being accelerated. The longitudinal force cre-ated at wedge surface 19 is resisted at the slope of rear end 23 and is the source of force that creates the wedging seal, preventing high pressure propellant gas from entering the projectile 20 and igniting the light-weight incendiary material 16, and/or prevents the incendiary 16, and the light-weight windshield from being blown free of the rest of the projectile body and penetrator 21.
A third alternate design, not shown, Where it is not desirable to have incendiary pass through the hole made by the penetrator, would be to omit the material 12. This type of penetrator 11 or 21 would then have an elongated portion of slightly smaller diameter than the head 13 which is desirable because as penetration through armor takes place, the armor tends to recover (closing the hole slightly) trapping some of the fractured penetrator material in the armor cavity. The reduced after-portion of the penetrator fragments during the penetration process While the forward portion or head 13 remains intact as previously related.
It is well known that hardened armor plate that is free of low melting temperature impurities is more resistant to high density penetrators than hardened armor plate that contains a moderate amount of low melting temperature impurities. The soft nose 18 is not only a soft material to prevent initial shatter of the penetrator 11, but is also of a low melting temperature such that upon impact of the projectile 10, or 20 with hardened armor plate that is free of impurities, the nose 18 melts and forms an alloy and provides a lubricant for the penetrator 11 or 21 as it pierces the armor plate. Thus greater penetration is obtained and less energy is lost from the penetrator 11 or 21 with the result that greater after-armor damage can be accomplished by the partially fragmented penetrator after penetration.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is therefore, to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
What is claimed is:
1. A projectile for piercing armor, comprising structure defining a projectile body, an elongated penetrator of relatively smaller diameter extending forward from said body and terminating in an enlarged head for piercing said armor, incendiary material surrounding said penetrator and terminating at said enlarged head, said incendiary material having a smaller diameter than that of said enlarged head for piercing said armor therewith, and windshield structure defining a smooth surface of transition between said body and said enlarged head.
2. The projectile of claim 1 wherein the rearward end of said penetrator terminates in said projectile body.
3. The projectile of claim 1 wherein the rearward end 4 of said penetrator extends rearward of said projectile body.
4. The projectile of claim 3 wherein said incendiary material terminates at the end opposite said enlarged head in a tapered wedge within said projectile body.
5. The projectile of claim 1 wherein the forward end of said enlarged head terminates in a blunt point.
6. The projectile of claim 1 wherein the forward end of said projectile body terminates in a sharp edge.
7. The projectile of claim 1 and additionally, a soft metal nose positioned over the forward end of said enlarged head.
8. The projectile of claim 1 and additional incendiary material positioned in said projectile body and having a larger diameter than that of said enlarged head.
9. The projectile of claim 8 wherein the first mentioned incendiary material is of high density and said additional incendiary material is of low density.
10. The projectile of claim 1 wherein said penetrator is axially located with respe-ct to said projectile body.
11. A projectile for piercing armor, comprising structure defining a projectile body, an elongated penetrator of relatively smaller diameter extending axially forward from said body and terminating in an enlarged head for piercing said armor, high density incendiary material laterally surrounding said penetrator and terminating at said enlarged head, said incendiary material having a smaller diameter than that of said enlarged head for piercing said armor therewith, low density incendiary material positioned within said projectile body, and windshield structure defining a smooth transition between said body and said enlarged head.
12. The projectile of claim 11 wherein the forward edge of said projectile body is sharp-edged for piercing thin armor.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 577,183 2/1897 Borchardt 102-52 740,849 10/ 1903 Groff 102-52 1,150,667 8/1915 Dunwoody 102-52 2,724,334 1l/1955 Norton et al. 102-52 3,096,715 7/1963 Du Four 102-52 FOREIGN PATENTS 125,603 5/1919 Great Britain.
BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner. ROBERT F. STAHL, Examiner.
S. W. ENGLE, Assistant Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,302,570 February 7, 1967 Prank R. Marquardt It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
In the heading to the printed specification, line 4, for "assignor to" read assgnor of fifty percent to Signed and sealed this 17th day of October 1967.
EDWARD J. BRENNER Edward M. Fletcher, Ir.
Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer