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Publication numberUS3303508 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 7, 1967
Filing dateApr 27, 1964
Priority dateApr 27, 1964
Also published asDE1296278B
Publication numberUS 3303508 A, US 3303508A, US-A-3303508, US3303508 A, US3303508A
InventorsAdams Ralph M, Jaffe Henry L
Original AssigneeCedars Of Lebanon Mt Sinal Hos
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Photographic color scanning apparatus
US 3303508 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Fell 7, 1967 H. JAFFE ETAI.

PHOTOGRAPHIC COLOR SCANNING APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed April 2'?, 1964 HEM/2v L. Jar/re 12a/ PH M.. Da/ws INVENTORS ATTOQNEVS Peb- 7, 1957 H. L.. JAFFE ETAL PHOTOGRAPHIC COLOR SCANNING APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 27, 1964 HENRY L. Jisp-FE E400/L4 M. Aon/ws INVENTORS ATTO ENEVS United States Patent() 3,303,508 PHGTOGRAPHC CLR SCANNING APPARATUS Henry L. latte, Santa Monica, and Ralph M. Adams, San Gabriel, Calif., assignors to Cedars of Lebanon-Mt. Sinai Hospitals of the Los Angeles Jewish Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif., a California non-profit corporation Filed Apr. 27, 1964, Ser. No. 362,747 27 Claims. l; (Cl. 346-33) This invention relates to nuclear medicine, and particularly to diagnoistic techniques involving the distribution of radioactive isotopes. By such means, malformations or malfunctions of human organs may be detected.

In order to record the distribution of radioactive isotopes, certain devices have heretofore been proposed and used. In one known device, a radiation detector is mounted for controlled traverses along a certain area of the body corresponding to the location of the subject organ. A stylus carrying an arcing device, movable with but remote from the detector, correspondingly traverses along paper. A black spot is produced when the arcing device is operated. The arcing device is operated periodically at a frequency corresponding to the intensity of radiation. Accordingly, a graph is produced comprising a large number of black spots, with the concentration of spots corresponding to the concentration of radioactive material. A graph of this character is not easy to read or analyze. In -order to learn something signicant, the number of spots within a given area should be counted. In conjunction with such device there may be used a black and white film exposed by a light source that traverses with the detector. A photoscan in shades of gray is produced. Small charges in radioisotope concentrations are not easily perceived.

Recently there has been proposed a scanning system in which a graph is made by producing impressions through a composite multi-color ribbon, together with a servo mechanism for correlating operative ribbon color with intensity of radiation. The printing head or the paper bed moves with the traversing detector structure. The graph produced can then be more readily comprehended, the intense concentration areas being colored red, and the less intense concentration areas being colored, for example, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.

- The printing mechanism is quite noisy and considerably distracts and annoys the patient. It is then ditcult to keep the patient immobilized for possibly a considerable period of time while the scanning is in progress. According, one object of this invention is to provide improved color scanning apparatus that is noiseless. For this purpose, the image is made photographically.

Another object of this invention is to provide a system of this character than can be implemented largely by standard components, and at reasonable cost. Particularly, it is an object of this invention make it possible to use an inexpensive color lilm pack of the Polaroid type so that a color scan can be obtained immediately.

Still another object of this invention is to provide apparatus of this character that can be installed on known scanning devices without in any way disturbing the function of such apparatus. There is commercially available, for example, a scanner made by Picker X-ray Corp.,

of White Plains, New York, and having (l) a pulsev height analyzer for detecting pulses of a characteristic amplitude corresponding to a selected isotope; (2) a rate meter incorporating suitable integration circuits for producing a signal for indicating the counting rate; and (3) a head upon which the radiation detector is mounted and which is capable of controlled traverse in a rectangular coordinate system. In order to accomplish the installation, it is merely necessary to link the traversing 3,303,508 Patented Feb. 7, 1967 ICC detector to a potentiometer system and to derive signals from the rate meter and the analyzer.

Various organs of the body may be intelligently studied by scanning techniques. But some organs are much larger than others. Accordingly, it is desirable, from the standpoint of economy of operation and from the standpoint of convenience, to be able to reduce the image size so that small photographic iilm or paper may be used. It is thus an object of this invention to provide apparatus in which image reduction may be easily accomplished. For this and other purposes, use is made of an oscilloscope for producing a traversing light beam.

Another object of this invention is to provide a simple auxiliary control for marking the iilm so that the relative position of the physical anatomy can be located. Thus for example, a line corresponding to the lower edge of the right side of the rib cage may be superimposed in order to locate the position of the liver of a subject.

Still another object of this invention is to provide v apparatus of this character having simple controls.

This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other -objects which may be made more clearly apparent from a consideration of one embodiment of the invention. For this purpose, there is shown a form in the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the present specification. This form will now be described in detail, illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that this detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope of this invention is best defined by the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

FIGURE l is a diagrammatic View of a color scanning system incorporating the present invention; and

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic view of a typical variable width square wave generator usable in the system. In FIG. 1 there is diagrammatically illustrated a scanning device 10. A radiation sensing element or detector 11 mounted at the end of a movable support or beam 12 may be postioned above an examining table 13. Suitable tracking device controls, and motor drives incorporated in the unit 10 cause the detector 11 to traverse in a horizontal plane to scan emitted radiation. Adjustable limit switches localize the area of the scan. In the present instance, the detector traverses in a rectangular coordinate system. For purposes of discussion, the x direction maybe considered horizontal or transverse to the height of the subject, and the y direction may be considered vertical, or along the height of the subject.

'Ilhe unit 10 incorporates an analyzer 14 .and a rate meter 15. The analyzer 14 is designed to iilter out all radiation except that caused by the isotope used in the study. For example, the analyzer may be capable of discriminating by analysis of pulse height. The analyzer 14 is fed by the detector 11, as indicated by the lead 16.

The `output from the analyzer 14 is in the form of a train of pulses, the pulse being indicated in the circle 17 adjacent the output lead 18 of the analyzer. The pulse at 17 has a constant amplitude, for example, of one volt and a constant pulse width, for example, of a half a microsecond. The pulses as at 17 recur at a rate directly proportional to the radiation of the selected isotope detected by the sensing element 11.

The rate meter 15 integrates or accumulates the output of the analyzer 17 on a time basis in order to provide a measure of the intensity of radiation that can be conveniently displayed as by a dial 19.

The unit may incorporate in its housing a known color scanning device that produces vari-colored dots. For example, the arm or beam 12 may be connected to a o printing head (not shown) that traverses along a paper bed mounted inside the apparatus 10.

By the aid of the apparatus diagrammatically illustrated in FIG. 1 a photographic color scan is also produced without interference with the operation of the unit 10. A camera photographs the screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope 21. The camera image is registered on film contained in a Polaroid or similar film pack adapter 22.

The beam of the cathode ray oscilloscope is positioned in accordance with the position .of the detector 11 and in a manner hereinafter to be described. Furthermore the beam is in the form of a series of pulses, there being a pulse produced whenever a pulse is produced at the analyzer output lead 1S. Hence the film exposure is directly proportional to radiation.

The color of the camera image is also determined by t-he intensity of radiation to facilitate reading of the picture produced. For this purpose, ia series of filters 23 are provided that are contiguously mounted on a common movable support 124.

The various filters 23 are interposed between the screen 24 of the cathode ray oscilloscope 21 and the lens of the camera 20. To ensure proper response, the screen 24 has a Wide band of spectral emission. The iilters are preferably arranged in a series corresponding to the visible spectrum with a red filter at .one end and a violet filter at the other. The filters in sequence may be red, orange, yellow, green, blue and shades of violet.

The red filter is operatively positioned at maximum radiation levels and the violet filters are positioned at minimum radiation levels. For this purpose the filter support 124 is positioned by the aid of a servo mechanism` 25. The servo mechanism may be a standard article of commerce having an output shaft 26 positioned in accordance with amplitude of a direct current voltage :applied to the input lead 27. Conveniently a suitable signal is available from the output ofthe rate meter 15.

A knob 28 in the balance circuit of the servo mechanism provides an adjustment of the excursion of the output shaft 26. For purposes of Calibrating, the detector 11 is located at the position of maximum radioactivity and' the knob 28 adjusted so that the red filter is then interposed between the camera and the oscilloscope screen.

In order to position the oscilloscope beam, signals are derived in accordance with the x and y coordinates of the detector sensing head. For this purpose an x potentiometer 29 and a y potentiometer 30 are provided. Potentiometers 29 and 30 are similar and are of a type cornmercially available, for example from the Helipot Division of Beckman Instruments Company. The x and y potentiometers 29 and 30 are identical.

The x potentiometer 29 comprises a pair of potentiometer resistors 31 and 32 having sliders 33 and 34 respectively engageable with the resistors 31 and 32. The sliders are connected together for movement in unison by an input shaft 9. 'Ihe input shaft is directly linked or geared to the support 12 or the detector so that the sliders 33 and 34 are at corresponding ends of the resistors 31 and 32 when the detector is at one limit of its movement in the x direction. Correspondingly the slide-rs 33 and 34 are at the opposite corresponding ends of ther resistors 31 and 32 when the detector 11 is at the other limit of its movement in the x direction. When the limit switches of the unit 10 are set to localize lthe area of scan, the sliders 33, 34 correspondingly move over only a corresponding portion of the resistors 31, 32.

One end of the potentiometer resistor 31 and the opposite end of the potentiometer resistor 32 are a negative potential -50 v. whereas the other end of the resistor 31 and the opposite end of the resistor 32 are at an positive potential +200 v. These valves are chosen with reference to oscilloscope characteristics. Accordingly the potential difference between the slide-rs 33 and 34 may be varied from 250 v. to +250 v. with zero potential difference existing when the sliders are at a central PQSQI: This potential diffe-rence, adjusted in a manner hereinafter to be described, is applied across the horizontal plates 35 and 36 of the osccilloscope 21, and the beam is appropriately positioned.

The y potentiometer 30 similarly has a pair of resistors 37 and 38 cooperable with sliders 39 and 40 operated in unison by an input shaft 41. The input shaft 41 is directly coupled to the support 12 so as to cause movement of the shaft directly in accordance with the y position of the detector 11. A suitable potential is applied to the resistors 37 and 33 so that a direct current signal from -100 v. to |l00 v. is obtained in accordance with the position of the sliders 39 and 4e. The sliders 39 and 40 have an excursion from one end of the corresponding resistors to the other as the detector 11 correspondingly travels between its limits of its movement in the y direction. As the traverse of the detector is conlined by setting of limit switches, the sliders 39 and 40 traverse along limited portions of the resistors 37 and 33.

The range of potential difference produced by the excursion of the potentiometer sliders depends upon the extent of permitted traverse of the detector 11. This in turn depends upon the dimensions of the organ under study and the adjusted traverse of the detector. An image ratio control circuit 44 makes it possible proportionately to Iadjust the signals from the x and y potentiometers so that the oscilloscope beam fills the screen in any case. The image ratio control circuit 44 includes two potentiometers 45 and 46 respectively for scaling the voltage derived from the potentiometers 29 and 30. The potentiometer 45 has two potentiometer resistors 47 and 48 connected together at corresponding ends by a fixed resistor 49 to forni a voltage divider. The other ends of the resistors 47 and 48 are connected respectively to the sliders of the x potentiometer 29. Cooperable with the resistors 47 and 43 are ganged sliders 50 and 51 from which the output from the image ratio control 44 is derived. When the sliders 50 and 51 are at the left hand ends of the potentiometer resistors 47 and 48 the full voltage from the potentiometer 29 is applied across the sliders 50 and 51. This may be appropriate when the organ under study is small. When the sliders 50 and 51 are moved to the right hand ends of the potentiometer resistors 47 and 48, the signal voltage produced across the sliders 50 and 51 is proportionately reduced. Such setting may -be appropriate when a large organ is under study. In practice the resistors 47 and 43 have a value of approximately 41/2 times that of the fixed resistor 49. Accordingly the ratio of image reduction ymay be changed from 1:1 to 10:1 throughout a continuous range. A dial associated with the sliders may indicate the image ratio.

The potentiometer 46 similarly comprisesresistors 54 and 55 cooperable with sliders 56 and 57 are gange/i for movement in unison with the sliders 50 and 51. A fixed resistor 5S determines the limit to the image reduction ratio.

The center of the organ to be scanned -ordinarily is not in the center in the field of traverse of the detector head 11. It is not always convenient to position the subject so that the organ under study is directly in the center of the field of traverse of the detector 11. Accordingly when the detector 11 is Imoved to the position corresponding to the center of the organ the oscilloscope beam will ordinarily be away from the center of the screen 24 since the sliders 39-40` and 33-34 will not be centered. For this purpose, an image centering control 59 is provided.

The image centering control, in effect, superimposes an adjustable bias upon the x and y signa-ls so that the beam is centered on the screen 24 when the detector 11 is centered over the organ to be studied even though the center of the organ may not correspond to the center of the x-y range of movement of the detector 11.

The image centering control 59 includes a pair of potentiometers `60 and `61 respectively for the x signal, and

the y signal. The potentiometer `60 includes a pair of potentiometer resistors `62 and 63 cooperable with ganged sliders `64 and '65. A battery 66 is connected across both potentiometer resistors 62 and 63 but in opposite polarity. At the central position there is no potential difference between the sliders. Upon movement of the sliders 64 and 65 to the left, the slider `65 becomes positive relative to the slider 64 in accordance with the extent of slider movement. Similarly upon movement of the sliders `64 and 65 to the right, the slider 65 becomes negative relative tothe slider 6d.

The potentiometer sliders `64 and 65 are serially ins'erted between one of the output sliders 50 of the x image ratio control and one of the horizontal plates 36. Thus a lead 67 connects slider 50 to slider 64 and a lead 68 connects slider 65 to plate 36. The other output slider 51 of the x image ratio control is directly connected by a lead 69 to the other horizontal plate 35. When the centering potentiometer 60 is in a central position, no bias is imposed upon the signal from the x image ratio control, but by adjustment of the sliders y64 and `65, a positive or negative bias m-ay be imposed and in an amount adequate to center the oscilloscope beam when the detector 11 is in the center of its selected limited field of traverse.

The potentiometer 61 for the y signal is equivalent. Thus a lead 70 directly connects the slider 56 from the y image ratio control to a slider 71 in turn cooperable with la potentiometer resistor 72. Slider 73 cooperable with la companion potentiometer resistor 74 connects via lead 76 to one of the vertical plates 43. The other slider 57 from the y image ratio controlconnects by a lead 77 to the other vertical plate 4Z. A battery 78 imposes a. suitable potential across the resistors 72 and 74. The sliders 71 and 73 are ganged for joint movement and when moved in one direction, namely, to the left, a positive bias is imposed, and when moved to the right, a negative bias is imposed. Vertical centering is thus achieved.

The unit may be of a type to cause the detector 11 to traverse along lines parallel to the x axis, successive lines being spaced from each other by an increment Ay. The -beam produced by the cathode ray tube 21 desirably I'ills the space corresponding to successive horizontal lines in order to provide an appropriate image without discontinuity. For this purpose, a saw tooth generator 80 is provided. The saw tooth generator may produce a signal having a frequency that is high relative to the rate of traverse of the detector so that the resulting trace lines are indistinct. A kilocycle signal is easily obtained for this purpose lby a generator $0. The generator. 80 is coupled to one of the vertical plates 43 through a coupling condenser S1. The amplitude of the generated signal may be controlled by an adjustable knob 82 that suitably varies a circuit element, such as a potentiometer. The height of the beam can thus be accurately controlled according to other variables.

The lens of the camera 20 is opened while scanning is in progress. In order to control iilm exposure, the beam intensity is controlled. This is necessary due to differences in radioisotope concentration image ratio, and scanning speed. For this purpose, a one shot square wave generator l83 is provided. The output lead 18 from the analyzer 14 is applied to the input of the square wave generator 83 via contact S4 and an arm 85 of a selector switch 86. Thus the lead 18 connects to the contact 8d and the arm S5 connects by a lead 87 to the input of the square wave generator '33. The generator 83 produces a pulse every time a pulse is applied thereto. The one shot generator 83 amplifies the width and height of the input signal, the width lbeing adjustable -by a selector switch 89. The one shot generator drives the grid 8E of the oscilloscope '21. The grid S8 of course gates the beam. The beam is on for a time corresponding to the width of the pulse; hence, the wider the pulse, the longer the on time of the beam, and the greater the film exposure. As indicated by the circle 90, the output wave form from the one shot generator may have an amplitude of 10 volts and an adjustable width ranging, say, from 2 to 6000 micro-seconds. Preferably the selector switch 89 has a substantial number of individual positions corresponding to various on times of the beam. On times of 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 6,000 micro-seconds are adequate for proper service.

The one shot generator is in the form of a typical monostable multivibrator as illustrated in FG. 2. The square wave generator has a transistor inverter amplier 91 and transistors 92 and 93 forming the operative elements of the monostable multivibrator. The circuit corresponds to that published for example in the General Electric Transistor Manual. The pulse width depends upon the Value of capacitance inserted between terminals 94 and 95. The selector switch S9 connected across the terminals 94 and 95 is capable of inserting the appropriate condensers into the circuit. In the present instance only l2 condensers are illustrated.

For purposes of operation the patient is suitably irnmobilized under the detector 11. The detector is centered at the desired area. The image centering control 59 is adjusted so that the beam is at the center of the screen. The traverse of the detector 11 is determined and the image ratio control is adjusted correspondingly. The saw tooth generator 80 is then set so that the scan lines merge. The servo mechanism 25 is then adjusted with the detector 11 over the area of maximum radioactivity so that the red filter is positioned over the lens. Next the beam on time is controlled by operation of the selector switch 89 in accordance with the other conditions so as to produce suitable exposure. Scanning is then started `at one corner of the eld and the shutter of the camera 20 is opened.

`Preferably the camera includes a window so that the progress of the electron beam may be viewed during the scan.

After the scanning has taken place the shutter is closed. Before the lm is developed it may be desirable to mark the iilm so as to locate the position of the subjects anatomy, as for example the center of the sternum or the lower edge of the rib cage etc. For this purpose there is provided a circuit associated with the selector switch 86. This circuit provides an alternate manually controlled input to the one shot square wave generator '33. This marking circuit includes a condenser 91 that is normally charged through a charging resistor 92. Thus one side of the charging resistor 92 connects to a source terminal 93. The other side of the resistor 92 connects to one side of the condenser 91. The other side of the condenser connects to the ground terminal 95. An arm 96 of the selector switch connects to the junction `between the resistor 92 and condenser 91. The arm 96 is coupled to the arm 85. When the selector switch 86 is in the full line No. 1 scan position illustrated the arm 96 is idle and the condenser 91 approaches the potential ot the source terminal 93. When the selector switch is moved to the dotted line No. 3 mark position, condenser 91 is discharged so as to provide an input signal to the square wave generator 83. Thus in this No. 3 mark position the arm 96 connects the condenser 91 toa discharge circuit. The discharge circuit includes an input resistor 97 for the square wave generator 83 of relatively small value, and a load resistor 95. Thus the contact 99 engaged by the arm 95 connects to one side of the resistor 98. The other side of the resistor connects to one side of the input resistor 97, the other side of the input resistor being grounded. The junction between 93 and 97 is connected to the lead 87 and the input to the one shot generator 83.

A pulse of current is accordingly applied and the square wave generator 83 produces a pulse.

When it is desired to spot the film following the scan, the selector switch Se is moved to the No. 2 oit position and the selector switch 89 is adjusted to an appropriate on time, usually ranging from 1000 to 6000 microseconds. The camera shutter is opened. The detector lll. is moved along a line corresponding to the signicant anatomical feature and during the course of such movement the selector switch is repeatedly moved to the No. 3 or mark position. A spring returning the switch 86 from the mark to the off position assists the operation.

Finally the camera shutter is closed and the film from the pack 22 is pulled allowing the appropriate development time. The completed color scan is then available.

The inventors claim:

1. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: a holder for a photosensitive sheet; means fixed with respect to the holder for producing a spot of illumination on the sheet; means coupled to the detector for causing the illumination spot to trave-rse relative to the photosensitive sheet in accordance with the traverse of said detector; and means having preselected color coded characteristics interposed between the illumination producing means and the holder for changing the 'color characteristic of the illumination spot in accordance with the activity of the detector.

2. In photographic color scanning apparatus as set forth in `claim I together with means for changing the effective intensity of the spot in accordance with the activity of said detector.

3. In photographic color scanning apparatus :cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral "emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a signal to the vertical and horizontal deflection means in accordance with the position of the detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; and means for positioning the lter means in accordance with the activity of the detector.

4. In photographic color scanning apparatus coperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a signal to the vertical and horizontal deection means in accordance with the position of the detector; adjustable bias means for producing signals for causing the oscilloscope beam to be centered on the screen when the detector is off center; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the detector.

5. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the derector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a signal to the vertical and horizontal deliection means in accordance with the position of the detector; adjustable means for scaling said signal applying means for adjusting image size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the detector.

6. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a signal to the vertical and horizontal defiection means in accordance with the position of the detector; adjustable bias means for producing signals for causing the oscilloscope beam to be centered on the screen when the dete-ctor is oif center; adjustable means for scaling said signal applying means for adjusting image `size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the detector.

7. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector and; a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a signal to the vertical and horizontal deflection means in accordance with the position of the detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the detector; and means for producing electrical pulses at a frequency corresponding to the activity of said detector; said oscilloscope having a gating electrode for controlling said beam and operated by said pulses.

S. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a signal to the vertical and horizontal deiiection means in accordance with theV position of the detector; graded lter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the detector; said oscilloscope having a gating electrode for conv trolling its beam; first means for producing electrical pulses at a frequency corresponding to the activity of said detector; second means for producing electrical pulses upon command; selectively operable means for operatively connecting said gating electrode to said first or second means.

9. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: `an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means Iapplying a signal to the vertical and horizontal deflection means in accordance with the position of the detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means land the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for positioning the ilter means in accordance with the activity of the detector; and means for superimposing a high frequency signal upon one of said deiiection means for widening the beam.

I0. In photographic color scanning apparatus coperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a sign to the vertical and horizontal deflection means in accordance with the position of the detector; adjustable bias means for producing signals for causing the oscilloscope beam to be centered on the screen when the detector is off center; adjustable means for scaling said signal applying means for adjusting image size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for effectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the detector; and means for superimposing 'a high frequency signal of adjustable amplitude upon one of said deflection means for causing exposure in contiguous bands as the detector traverses in one direction.

11. In photographic color scanning appartus cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having vertical and horizontal beam deflection means; means applying a signal to the vertical and horizontal defiection means in accordance with 4the position of the detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera means and the screen for etTectively altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the carrera means; means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the detector; means for producing electrical pulses at a farequency corresponding to the ac-tivity of said detector; means for adjus-ting the width of said pulses; said oscilloscope having a beam gating electrode operated by said pulses.

l2. In photographic color scanning appartus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular cordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated by the detector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deilection means, and a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing the screen; an x potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing an x signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the x axis; a y potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing a y signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to the horizontal defiection means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical deflection means; gradedfilter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for applying the analyzer signal to said control grid; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with :the activity of the rate meter.

13. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular coordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated by the detector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deflection means, and a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing the screen; and x potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing an x signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the x axis; a y potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing a y signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to the horizontal deflection means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical deiiection means; adjustable bias means for the vertical defiection means and the horizontal deflection means for centering the beam on the screen when the detector is at an off center position; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for applying the analyzer signal to said control grid; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the rate meter.

14. In photographic color scanning appara-tus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular cordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated by the detector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deflection means, and a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing the screen; an x potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing an x signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the x axis; a y potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing a y signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to t-he horizontal deflection means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical deflection means; adjustable means for scaling the x and y signals for adjusting image size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for applying the analyzer signal to said control grid; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the rate meter.

15. In photographic colors scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular coordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated by the detector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deflect-ion means, and a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing the screen; an x potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing an x signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the x axis; a y potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing a y signal in ampliture and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to the horizontal deflection means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical defiection means; adjustable bias means for t-he vertical deflection means and the horizontal deflection means for centering the beam on the screen when the detector is at an ofir center position; adjustable means for scaling the x and y signals for adjusting image size in accordnace with the area scarmed by said detector; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; means for applying the analyzer signal to said control grid; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the rate meter.

I6. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular coordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated by the edetector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deflection means, and a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing the screen; an x potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing an x signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the detector from a central position along the x axis; a y potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing a y signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviat-ion of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to the horizontal deflection means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical deflection means; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of t-he image produced by the camera means; a one shot square wave generator operated by said analyzer and in turn operating said control grid; said one shot generator incorporating adjustable means for determining the pulse width applied to said control electrode; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the rate meter.

17. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular coordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated by the edetector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deiiection means, and a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing t-he screen; an x potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing an x signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the x axis; a y potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing a y signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to the horizontal deiiection means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical deiiection means; graded filter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the carema means; a one shot square wave generator operated by said analyzer and in turn operat-ing said control grid; means selectively operable to apply pulses to said one shot generator on command and in place of said analyzer, including a selector switch and a condenser discharged upon movement of said selector at which to one position; said one shot generator incorporating adjustable means for determining the pulse width applied to said control electrode; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance 'with the activity of the rate meter.

18. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular coordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated by the detector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deiiection means, and a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing the'screen; an x potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing an x signal in amplitude and polarity correspondmg to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the x axis; a y potentiometer coupled to the detector for producing a y signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to the horizontal deiiect-ion means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical deflection means; graded iilter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; adjustable bias means for the vertical deflection means and the horizontal deflection means for centering the beam on the screen when the detector is at an oi center position; adjustable means for scaling the x and y signals for adjusting image size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector; a one shot square wave generator operated by said analyzer and in turn operating said control grid; said one shot generator incorporating adjustable means for determining t-he pulse width applied to said control electrode; and means for positioning the filter means in accordance with the activity of the rate meter; means selectively oper- 'able to apply pulses to said one shot `generator on command and in place of said analyzer, including a selector switch and a condenser discharged upon movement of said selector switch to one position.

19. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector, a mechanism for causing the detector to traverse in a rectangular coordinate system, an analyzer and a rate meter operated =by the detector: a cathode ray oscilloscope having a control grid, vertical and horizontal beam deection means, and `a wide spectral emission screen; a camera for photographing the screen; an x potentiometer couplied to the detector for produ-cing an x signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the x axis; .a y potentiometer couplied to the detector for producing a y signal in amplitude and polarity corresponding to the deviation of the detector from a central position along the y axis; means for applying the x signal to the horizontal deflection means; means for applying the y signal to the vertical deiiection means; graded iilter means mounted for interposition between the camera and the screen for altering the spectral characteristic of the image produced by the camera means; adjustable bias means for the vertical deflection means and the horizontal deflection means for centering the beam on the screen when the detector is at an off center position; adjustable means for scaling the x and y signals for adjusting image size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector; a one shot square wave generator operated by said analyzer and in turn operating .said control grid; said one Shot generator incorporating adjustable means for determining the pulse width applied to said control electrode; means for positioning the lter means in accordance with the ac` tivity of the rate meter; means selectively operable toapply pulses to said one shot generator on command and in place of said analyzer, including a selector switch and a condenser discharged upon movement of said selector switch to one position; and means for superimposing an adjustable high frequency signal upon said vertical deflection means for causing exposure in contiguous lbands as the detector traverses in the x direction.

20. In photographic color scanning apparatus cooperable with a detector and a traversing mechanism for the detector: an oscilloscope having a wide spectral emission screen; camera means fixed with respect to the oscilloscope for photographing the screen; said oscilloscope having beam deflection means controlling the position of the beam relative to said screen; means applying signals to the deection means in :accordance with the position of the detector to cause the beam to assume a position relative to the screen corresponding to the position of the detector; and means having preselected color coded characteristics interposed between said screen and said camera means for changing the color characteristic of the illumination spot in Iaccordance with the activity of the detector.

2i. In photographic color scanning apparatus as set forth in claim 20 together with adjustable bias means for producing signals for causing the oscilloscope beam to be centered on the screen when the detector is off center.

22. In photographic color scanning -apparatus as set forth in claim 2@ together with adjustable means for scaling the signal applying means for adjusting the image size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector.

23. In photographic coior scanning apparatus as set forth in claim 20 together with adju-stable bias means for producing signals for causing the oscilloscope beam to be centered on the screen when the detector is oi center; and adjustable means for scaling said signal aplying means for adjusting image size in accordance with the area scanned by said detector.

24. In photographic color scanning apparatus as set forth in claim 29 together with means for producing electrical pulses at a frequency corresponding to the activity of said detector; said oscilloscope having a gating electrode for controlling said beam and operated by said puls-es.

25;){11 photographic color scanning apparatus as set forth in claim 2G together with first mean-s for producing electrical pulses at a frequency corresponding to the activity of said detector; second means for producing electrical pulses upon command; `said oscilloscope having a gating electrode for controlling its beam; and selectively operable means for operatively connecting said gating electrode to said iirst or second means.

26. In photographic color scanning apparatus as set forth in claim Zti together with means for superimposing a high frequency signal upon one of said deflection means for widening the beam.

27. In photographic color scanning apparatus as set forth in claim 2@ together with adjustable bias means for producing signals for causing the oscilloscope beam to be centered on the screen when the detector is off center;

13 14 adjustable means for scaling said signal applying means 2,638,499 5/ 1953 Evans 88-24 for .adjusting image size in accordance with Ithe area 2,301,385 7 /1957 Rendell 3 52 131 scanned by said detector; and means for superimposing a 3 143 389 8/1964 Dranseld 346 109 high frequency signal of adjustable amplitude upon one n of said deection means for causing exposure in contigu- 3159744 12/1964 Stlcimey et al 25o-7155 ous bands as the detector traverses in one direction. 3,241,435 3/1966 Craig etal 88-24 References Cited by the Examiner RICHARD B. WILKINSON, Primary Examiner.

UNITED STATES PATENTS J. G. MURRAY, H. B. KATZ, Assistant Examiners.

2,373,114 4/1945 Goldsmith 352-131 10

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3483565 *May 21, 1968Dec 9, 1969Cedars Of Lebanon Mount SinaiColor adapter for multidetector scanner
US3562529 *Jul 3, 1968Feb 9, 1971Barnes Eng CoInfrared thermograph producing color images by selective insertion of color filters between a scanning light source and a light sensitive surface
US3655973 *Jun 18, 1969Apr 11, 1972Nat Res DevRadio-isotope scanning machine for more clearly representing contours of equal radiation intensity
US3683184 *Aug 15, 1967Aug 8, 1972Picker CorpScintillation recording device for producing both black and white and multi-color photographic records
US3693178 *Apr 29, 1970Sep 19, 1972White Memorial Medical CenterColorscanner
US5246866 *Mar 2, 1992Sep 21, 1993Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd.Method for transcription of a DNA sequence
Classifications
U.S. Classification346/33.0ME, 347/231, 348/32, 347/232, 355/32
International ClassificationG01T1/29, G01T1/166, G01T1/00
Cooperative ClassificationG01T1/1666, G01T1/2964
European ClassificationG01T1/166B1, G01T1/29D2