US 3303770 A
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5" V "m, 5.96! .3. G. ANHI'IONY BUILDING WITH INTERNAL AIR FLOW PASSAGES Filed NOV. 25, 1964 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Feb 14, 1%? ,3. s. ANTHONY fi fi BUILDING WITH INTERNAL AIR FLOW PASSAGES Filed Nov. 25, 1964 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig.2
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United States Patent Ofifice 3,3d3fild Patented Feb. id, 1957 3,303,770 BUILDING WITH HNTERNAL AIR FLGW PASSAGES Joseph G. Anthony, 19 E. Virginia Blvd, Jamestown, 14701 Fiied Nev. 25, B64, Ser. No. 413,738 7 Ciairns. (CI. 98-31) The present invention is generally concerned with building construction, and more particularly relates to building construction incorporating air flow passages integrally therewith, thereby providing for a new and useful manner of distributing conditioned air throughout a building.
One of the primary objects of the instant invention is to provide for a structural system which, while generally corresponding to conventional structural systems, includes small though highly significant modifications which enable the system, in addition to supporting the building, also provide a system of communicating chambers by which conditioned air can be caused to flow completely about the building within the floor, Walls and ceiling thereof.
Another highly significant object of the instant invention is to provide a construction for any type of building, either residential or commercial, wherein the flow of treated air is specifically confined between the inner shell of the building and the outer shell, the space between the shells normally being defined by conventional studs, and floor and ceiling joists.
In conjunction with the above object, it is also a significant object of this invention to provide a system for conditioning the air within a building wherein the treated air is not introduced directly into the inte ior of liveable portion of the building, thereby avoiding any agitation of the air Within the living area such as might cause discomfort to the inhabitants.
Further, a highly significant object of the instant invention is to provide for an even distribution of treated air completely about the exterior of a building, thereby providing for an even heating of the air within the liveable area without the creating of hot spots and cold spots such as is normally achieved by conventional conditioning systems, either heating or cooling.
A further significant object of the instant invention re sides in the provision of the air flow passages through the structural arrangement of the structural members themselves in a manner so to provide for a substantially automatic conforming of the heating and/or cooling system in the event that the original building is to be expanded or remodeled.
Likewise, the flow passages can themselves be closed or opened as desired in that no extrinsic duct work need be provided or removed, this elimination of the duct work also substantially reducing building costs in that not only are the ducts themselves eliminated, but no provision need be made for the ducts in erecting the building.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being bad to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
FIGURE 1 is an enlarged transverse cross-sectional view through a building illustrating one form of the building construction contemplated by the instant inventron;
FIGURE 2 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of the building construction of the instant invention illustrating a slightly different positioning of the air flow producing means;
FIGURE 3 is a partial cross-sectional view through a wall illustrating the manner in which the air flow is to be accommodated over doors or windows;
FIGURES 4 and 5 illustrate other possible locations for the air flow inducing means in conjunction with the building construction of the instant invention;
FIGURE 6 illustrates a building end wall and the manner in which the desired air flow occurs therethrough;
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken substantially on a plane passing along line 77 in FIG- URE 6.
Referring now more specifically to the drawings, reference numeral 10 is used to generally designate a build ing constructed in accordance with the instant invention. This building It) basically includes a floor system, a ceiling system and a wall system each, in themselves, provided with elongated non-communicating chambers which in turn communicate with corresponding chambers in the other systems so as to provide in effect laterally arranged elongated passages surrounding the entire in terior of the building.
One specific structural arrangement embodying the ideas or concepts of the present invention is illustrated in FIGURE 1. In this embodiment, floor joists 12 are laid in the conventional manner transversely across the building and supported, at the opposite ends thereof, on plates 14 located on top of the side foundation walls 16. These floor joists 12 are of course laterally spaced from each other, generally at 16 inch or 24 inch centers, for the full length of the building. While a central beam 18 has been illustrated, it will of course be appreciated that the necessity of such a beam depends upon the length of the span. The opposite ends of the joists 12, each have a notch 20 in the upper edge thereof extending longitudinally inward a distance substantially equal to the depth of the wall studs 22 and transversely extending floor braces 24.
The side wall studs 22, on equal centers with the floor joists 12, are each secured to the plate 14 adjacent corresponding sides of the floor joists 12 for the full length of the building 10, thereby providing in effect a vertical continuation of the joists 12 and the chamber or space therebetween. The floor braces 24 are accommodated by the inner ends of the notches 20 and extend along the inner edges of the studs 22 in spaced relation to the bottom end thereof, thereby stabilizing the studs and provid ing a support for the flooring 26 in conjunction, of course, with the floor joists 12. It will be noted that the floor braces 24. are specifically spaced above the lower edges of the joists 12 so as to provide for free communication of the spaces between the adjoining joists 12 and between corresponding adjoining studs 22.
Incidentally, the bottoms of the spaces or chambers between adjacent floor joists 12 are sealed by suitable insulated sheathing 28, thereby providing a plurality of laterally adjacent although non-communicating elongated air chambers. The vertical chambers between adjacent wall studs 22 are also of course enclosed by the conventional interior and exterior finishing faces 36 and 32 which may be of any desired or normally used material, such as for example brick, wood, plaster, etc.
With continuing reference to FIGURE 1, it will be noted that lower and upper ribbon strips 34 and 36 are mounted transversely across the studs 22 within notches in the inner edges thereof adjacent the upper and lower ends. These ribbon strips are of assistance in securing the interior wall panels or surfaces 30 with the upper ribbon strips 35 also supporting the transversely extending ceiling joists 38. These ceiling joists 38 are provided on equal centers with the floor joists 12 and wall studs 22 for the full length of the building 10 with each ceiling joist 38 being positioned against corresponding sides of the wall studs 22 thereby providing an upper horizontal continuation of the wall chambers and completing the circular paths surrounding the interior of the building it The spaces or chambers between the ceiling a joists 38 are also of course enclosed, this being effected by the interior ceiling 40 and upper or exterior insulated sheathing 42, thereby preventing lateral communication between adjacent ceiling chambers while providing for longitudinal communication with the corresponding vertical wall chambers which in turn communicate with the corresponding floor chambers so as to provide for the desired air flow passage. The above described construction is highly stable in nature, differing only slightly from conventional building construction, but at the same time providing for a highly novel plurality of air flow permitting passages laterally related and adjacent to each other for the full length of the building, while in no way distracting from the structural stability of the building. The roof 44 of the building 10 can of course be finished in any conventional manner, for example utilizing peaked rafters 46 supported central-1y by a ridge beam 43 and at the overhang edges thereof by conventional plates 50 on the upper ends of the Wall studs 22.
FIGURES l, 2, 4 and 5, in addition to illustrating the specifically described construction, are also intended to illustrate the manner in which the source of treated or conditioned air can be communicated with the internal passages at different points thereof. This source 52, which may be a conventional furnace, air conditioning unit, or combination of both, has a forced air outlet 54 and an inlet 56, both communicated with elongated ducts 58 and 60 extending longitudinally of the building and having laterally directed outlet openings 62 and inlet openings 64 communicated with the adjacent internal passages. These ducts 58 and 60, which incidentally form the only duct work within the system, can be positioned at any suitable location, for example along opposite sides of the central beam 13 below the floor joists 12, as shown in FIGURE 2, to one side of the central beam 18 beneath the floor, as illustrated in FIGURE 1, above the ceiling joists, as illustrated in FIGURE 5, or within a boxed-in portion below the ceiling joists, as illustrated in FIGURE 4. By the same token, the air conditioning unit 52 can also be conveniently located where desired, for example within an interior closet as shown in FIGURE 4.
In operation, the conditioned or treated air is forced through the supply duct 58 for discharge into the enclosure circling passages through the outlet openings 62, this conditioned air travelling completely about the building and entering the return duct 60 through the inlet opening 64 for subsequent reconditioning or treatment by the unit 52. Under such an arrangement, it will be appreciated that the air flows in the same direction through each of the passages or passageways. However, if it should become desirable to provide for the flow to travel in opposite directions in adjacent passages, such as would be desirable in larger buildings so as to achieve a more uniform heating of the enclosure, a second pair of ducts 65 and 68 can be provided, one adjacent each of the ducts 58 and 60. In such an arrangement, the ducts 58 and 60 will both function as supply ducts and have the outlet openings in every other passage with the outlet openings in the duct 58 alternating with the outlet openings in the duct 60, the reference letter A being used to in dicate these alternating outlet openings. By the same token, both of the ducts 66 and 68 are to function as return ducts and have the inlet openings B therein appearing in the alternate passages relative to the opening A in the adjoining ducts 58 or 64). Thus, under this arrangement, the conditioned air will be discharged in opposite directions in alternating passages through the outlet openings A and encircle the building, travelling in opposite directions, for movement through the corresponding inlet openings B. Incidentally, it will of course be appreciated that suitable blocking or deflector elements 70 are to be provided between the ducts 58 and 60 so as to insure a proper movement of the air completely about the building 4 through the communicating chambers in the floor, side walls and ceiling units.
With reference to FIGURE 3, it will be noted that suitable bores or passages 72 are provided transversely through those studs, which do not communicate with both the ceiling and floor, such as for example, over and under windows and over doors, in order that the flow of air therethrough might be discharged laterally into the adjoining chambers.
The system described thus far, as will be appreciated, does not provide for the introduction of the conditioned air into the end walls. However, the movement of the conditioned air through the end walls is also highly desirable in order to achieve an even and consistent or coo-ling of the enclosure. Accordingly, the end walls are also provided with vertically extending adjacent chambers 74 defined by spaced vertical studs 76 and inner and outer panel-like facing means 78 and 80. The air is to be introduced into selected ones of these vertical end wall chambers 74 from the adjacent supply chamber, for ex ample that portion of the end floor chamber, indicated by reference letter C in FIGURE 2, communicated with the outlet opening in the supply duct 60, assuming a location of the ducts 58 and 60 below the floor unit. The air then travels vertically through the chambers 74 to the upper ends thereof and subsequently into the adjacent ceiling chamber, indicated by reference letter D in FIGURE 7, which in turn conducts the flow to selected ones of the end wall vertical chambers 74 which communicate, at their lower ends, with that portion of the adjacent floor chamber C which communicates with the return or inlet opening, The direction of this flow within the end walls would of course be reversed assuming the location of the ducts 58 and 60 above the ceiling. In order to direct the flow from the adjacent floor chamber C, the opposite ends of this chamber are blocked off, as at 82, so as to prevent flow of the air into the adjacent side wall chambers, which in turn are filled with suitable insulation 84. Further, rather than having full height floor and ceiling joists along the outer sides of the end chambers C and D, such as would prevent any flow into the end wall chambers 74, reduced height braces 86, 88 and 90 are provided, thereby allowing free movement of the forced air between the horizontal chambers C and D and the vertical chambers 74. Incidentally, if so desired, full height joists can be provided at this point with the joists having bores or passages drilled therethrough, generally in the same manner as the bores or holes 74 described in conjunction with FIGURE 3. Thus, it will be appreciated that as air is supp-lied to each of the end chambers C of the floor unit, this air, because of the blocking 82, is directed laterally into the adjoining end wall chambers 74 and rises therein until laterally directed into the ceiling unit chambers D for subsequent movement therealong to the vertical end wall chamber 74 which communicate with the return portion of the adjacent floor chambers C, thereby providing a complete flow through the end walls as well as through the side walls. Incidentally, by utilizing the floor duct system described in conjunction with FIGURE 2, and tapping off of the two floor chambers at each end of the house, alternating flow can also be provided in the end walls if so desired.
From the foregoing, it will now be appreciated that a highly novel construction system has been defined, this system integrally incorporating air flow passages therein for providing a heretofore unknown manner of evenly and consistently maintaining a predetermined temperature within the building, this being done without necessitating any movement of air whatsoever within the living enclosure itself.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
What is claimed as new is as follows:
1. In a building construction, a fioor system, a wall System, and a ceiling system, said systems being combined to form an enclosure having a floor unit, a ceiling unit, and at least two side wall units and two end wall units, said wall units comprising the wall system, said floor unit comprising the floor system, said ceiling unit comprising the ceiling system, a plurality of elongated chambers extending completely through said floor and ceiling units from one side wall unit to the other side wall unit, each side wall unit having a plurality of elongated chambers extending therethrough and communicating at one end with the floor chambers and at the other end with the ceiling chambers, thereby forming a plurality or passages surrounding said enclosure, and means for inducing a forced fiow of air through each passage, said means for inducing a forced flow of air through each passage inducing the flow in opposite directions in adjacent passages.
2. The construction of claim 1 wherein the chambers in each of the floor, ceiling and side wall units are defined by elongated laterally spaced structural members and inner and outer air retaining panel-like facing means secured directly to the opposite longitudinal edges of the structural members.
3. In a building construction, a floor system, a wall system, and a ceiling system, said systems being combined to form an enclosure having a floor unit, a ceiling unit, and at least two side wall units and two end wall units, said wall units comprising the wall system, said floor unit comprising the floor system, said ceiling unit comprising the ceiling system, a plurality of elongated chambers extending completely through said floor and ceiling units from one side wall unit to the other side wall unit, each side wall unit having a plurality of elongated chambers extending therethrough and communicating at one end with the floor chambers and at the other end with the ceiling chambers, thereby forming a plurality of passages surrounding said enclosure, and means for inducing a forced flow of air through each passage, the chambers in each of the floor, ceiling and side wall units being defined by elongated laterally spaced structural members and inner and outer air retaining panel-like facing means secured directly to the opposite longitudinal edges of the structural members, the majority of said chambers in each of the floor, ceiling and side wall units being in adjacent though non-communicating relation to each other, the number of chambers in each of these units being such so as to extend laterally for substantially the entire extent of the corresponding unit between the end walls, said end walls including adjacent, non-communicating elongated chambers extending vertically through each end wall, openings communicating each end wall chamber solely with both the adjoining floor chamber and the adjoining ceiling chamber, and means closing the opposite ends of said adjoining floor and ceiling chambers whereby fiow induced in said adjoining floor and ceiling chambers will flow through said end wall chambers.
4. In a building construction, a 'fioor system, a wall system, and a ceiling system, said systems being combined to form an enclosure having a floor unit, a ceiling unit, and at least two side wall units and two end wall units, said wall units comprising the Wall system, said floor unit comprising the floor system, said ceiling unit comprising the ceiling system, a plurality of elongated chambers extending completely through said floor and ceiling units from one side wall unit to the other side Wall unit, each side wall unit having a plurality of elongated chambers 6 extending therethrough and communicating at one end with the door chambers and at the other end with the ceiling chambers, thereby forming a lurality of passages surrounding said enclosure, and means for inducing a forced flow of air through said passage, the chambers in each of the fioor, ceiling and side wall units being defined by elongated laterally spaced structural members and inner and outer panel-like facing means secured to the opposite longitudinal edges of the structural members, the majority of said chambers in each of the floor, ceiling and side wall units being in adjacent though noncommunicating relation to each other, the number of chambers in each of these units being such so as to extend laterally for substantially the entire extent of the corresponding unit between the end Walls, said means for inducing a forced flow of air through each passage inducing the fiow in opposite directions in adjacent passages.
5. In a building, a plurality of horizontal laterally spaced elongated parallel floor joists, panel-like means fixed to the upper and lower edges of said floor joists and forming individual enclosed chambers between adjacent fioor joists, a plurality of vertically projecting parallel studs adjacent each end of the plurality of door joists, said studs being laterally spaced and located one juxtaposed each joist end, panel-like means fixed to the inner and outer edges of the studs and forming individual enclosed chambers between adjacent studs, said stud chambers each communicating with a floor chamber and forming a continuation thereof, a plurality of horizontal laterally spaced elongated parallel ceiling joists, each ceiling joist having the opposite ends thereof located juxtaposed opposed ones of said studs, anel-like means fixed to the upper and lower edges of the ceiling joists and forming individual enclosed chambers between adjacent ceiling joists, said ceiling joist chambers communieating with aligned stud chambers at opposite ends thereof, thereby forming endless closed parallel circular passages about the building, adjacent ones of a majority of said passages being out of communication with each other, and means for introducing a forced flow of air for movement in a single direction through a circuit comprising substantially the entire length of each passage.
6. The construction of claim 4 including adjacent, noncommunicating chambers extending vertically through each end wall, openings communicating each end wall chamber solely with both the adjoining floor chamber and the adjoining ceiling chamber, and means closing the opposite ends of said adjoining floor and ceiling chambers whereby flow induced in said adjoining floor and ceiling chambers will fiow through said end wall chambers.
7. The construction of claim 5 wherein said means for introducing a forced flow of air comprises a source of pressurized air, a pair of adjacent air ducts communicated with said source and extending laterally across said circular passages, said ducts communicating with each other solely through said source and constituting a supply duct and a return duct, said ducts both communicating with each passage at adjacent locations which constitute the beginning and end of the corresponding fiow circuits.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,086,031 2/1914 Davis 9831 2,465,184 3 /1949 Alderman 9831 2,517,020 8/1950 Ong 98-31 2,641,449 6/1953 Antony 9831 MEYE P RLIN, P y m ne