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Publication numberUS3315424 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 25, 1967
Filing dateSep 20, 1963
Priority dateSep 20, 1963
Publication numberUS 3315424 A, US 3315424A, US-A-3315424, US3315424 A, US3315424A
InventorsSmith Eugene S
Original AssigneeSmith Eugene S
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building construction
US 3315424 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

E. 5. SMITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION '7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 20, 1963 INVENTOR.

EUGENE S.SM|TH BY 5 ATTORNEY Apzrzlfi 25, R967 E. s. $MITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 20, 1963 INVENTOR EUGENE 5. SMITH ATTORNEY Aprifi 25 W67 E. 3. SMITH 3,315,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 20, 1963 7 Sheets-Sheet L6 INVENTOR.

EUGENE 3. SMITH ATTORNEY Apriifi 25 WW E. 5. SMITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Sept. 20, 1965 H INVENTOR.

7 EUGENE 5. SMITH BY ATTORNE Y Apmifi 25 W7 E. 5 SMITH 3,335,424

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 20, .1963

7 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR.

EUGENE 8. SMITH ATTORNEY Apfiifl 259 F E. 5. SMITH 3,315,424

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 20, 1963 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR.

EUGENE 5. SMITH ayyahw nwl? .ATT RNEY Apzrifi Z5, 16? E. s. SMITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed Sept. 20, 1963 INVNTOR.

EUGENE S. SMITH ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,315,424 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Eugene S. Smith, 2978 Sunset Road, Fort Myers, Fla. 33901 Filed Sept. 20, 1963, Ser. No. 310,343 20 Claims. (Cl. 52-206) This invention relates to a building construction, and method for building the construction.

It is a general object of the invention to expedite the erection of buildings, without, however, any sacrifice of strength, durability, or other wear qualities.

Another object is to provide a method which achieves the foregoing object while at the same time achieving substantial reduction in costs, such as for material and labor.

More particularly, it is an object to provide a construction which avoids the use of ordinary fastening means, and which utilizes in optimum degree, fabricating steps of a labor-saving type.

In still greater particular it is an object to provide for a construction which includes a skeletal, metal framework, sustaining a panel of porous plastic filler, or equivalent thermal insulator, either through the medium of a sandwich frame, secured to the framework, or through a locking action inherent in a honeycomb construction in the framework. In either case, the filler is readily flowed into place, as by spraying.

These and other objects, which will be apparent, are attained by the present invention, a preferred form of which is described in the following specification, as illustrated in the drawing, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a building constructed according to the invention,

FIGURE 2 is a view, in multiple section, of an interior, corner portion of the building of FIGURE 1, on enlarge-d scale, showing sections through floor, walls and roof,

FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2, showing the skeletal work, only, of the building,

FIGURE 4 is a view similar to FIGURE 3, but showing a forward corner, from an exterior viewpoint,

FIGURE 5 is a view generally similar to FIGURE 4, showing an initial stage in the build-up on the skeletal framework,

FIGURE 6 is a sectional view, enlarged, of a detail, taken on the plane of the line 6-6 of FIGURE 5,

FIGURE 7 is a view similar to FIGURE 2, showing the stage of depositing the wall filler,

FIGURES 8 and 9 are cross sections through a window, taken on the planes of the lines 8-8 and 9-9, respectively, of FIGURE 7,

FIGURES 10 and 11 are cross sections through a door, taken on the planes of the lines 10-10 and 11-11, respectively, of FIGURE 7,

FIGURE 12 is a perspective view of a forward corner of the roof of FIGURE 1, enlarged, broken away, stepwise, to show the component layers;

FIGURES 13 and 14 are corner cross sections through the roof, taken on the planes of the respective lines 13-13 and 14-14, respectively, of FIGURE 12;

FIGURES l5 and 16 are views similar to FIGURES 13 and 14, respectively, showing an intermediate stage of roof build-up;

FIGURE 17 is an enlarged view of a detail of one of the framework rods, indicated in an area within the arrow-headed, arcuate line 17 in FIGURE 13;

FIGURE 18 is a vertical section through an interior, partition wall, taken on the line 18-18 of FIGURE 2;

FIGURES 19 and 20 are sectional views through the upper part of the partition wall, taken on the planes of the respective lines 19-19 and 20-20 of FIGURE 18;

FIGURE 21 is a view similar to FIGURE 12, showing a modified form of roof;

FIGURES 22 and 23 are corner, sectional views through the roof, taken on the planes of the respective lines 22-22 and 23-23 of FIGURE 21;

FIGURE 24 is a view similar to FIGURE 22, showing an intermediate stage of build-up;

FIGURE 25 is a view similar to FIGURE 21, showing an intermediate stage of build-up;

FIGURE 26 is a perspective view of a sectional unit of the skeletal work of the roof of FIGURE 21; and

FIGURE 27 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line 27-27 of FIGURE 26.

Referring to the drawings by characters of reference, there is shown a representative building, erected on a conventional, ground slab 10, with an interior latticework of steel, reinforcing bars 11, and comprising four exterior walls such as 12, 14, and 16 (FIGS. 1 and 2) a pair of interior partition walls 20, 22, and a roof 24, the latter shown as strictly horizontal, but which may have a single, or multiple slant. In FIGS. 21-27, a modified roof is indicated by the numeral 25. Also included in the building is the door 28 and door jamb 26 and windows 30 and 32, which will again be referred to in connection with the later phases of the construction.

After the pouring of the slab 10, the next general phase of construction consists in erecting a skeletal framework of steel rods, best seen in FIGS. 3 and 4, in a latticework which provides the cores, or backbones, for the outside walls. These lattices comprise vertical rods 36, and horizontal rods 38, which may be similar in shape, surface characteristics, and physical properties, to the usual, concrete-reinforcing rods 11. Vertical rods 36 have a transversely bent, lower foot 40, for engagement beneath rods 11 in the slab, for which purpose the rods are inserted in the slab, prior to setting thereof. The vertical rods may be mounted first, and the horizontal rods secured thereto by welding, after the slab has set, or the latticework of each of the four walls may be assembled prior to setting in the slab. In either case, provision is made for the windows and doors, by leaving spaces in the framework, and the top ends of the framework are rigidified by a top rod member 42, in the form of a square, closed loop. Build-up of the exterior walls will be described after a discussion of the skeleton framework of the roof.

In the form of roof shown in the figures prior to FIGURE 21, the framework comprises a lower tier and an upper tier, on opposite sides of a central, horizontal, steel plate 44, each comprising a series of parallel, equispaced, channel members 46, with bottom webs vertically disposed, and the sets of channels in the two tiers being mutually parallel, and staggered, at positions mid way of the spacing distance. As seen in FIGS. 3 and 4, the channels in the lower tier have openings in their bottom webs, accommodating transverse bars 48, the ends of which dwell upon, and are welded to, opposite sides of the looped, top rod 42 of the side wall framework. Also, the two end members of the series of equi-spaced, parallel rods 48, have short, projecting sections of rod, 50, secured by Welding, which dwell upon, and are welded to, the other two, opposite sides of looped, top rod 42..

While it is preferred to erect all of the skeletal framework before the start of any filling operations, it is nevertheless possible to mount the roof skeleton at a later stage, after some, or most filling operations on the walls have been accomplished.

The first step in building a wall is the placement of an interior wall board, all of which, throughout the various figures of the drawing, are indicated by the numeral 52. Sections of this board, which may be asbestos board, or

other suitable material, are laid in covering relation to, and in contact with the inside of lattice rods 36, 38, where they may be temporarily held in position by a trussform jig, composed of timbers such as 54, 56, 58, 60 (FIG. 5). With the parts thus held in contact, they are locked together by a keying, overlay of resin reinforced by chopped glass roving 62, which is sprayed over rods 36 and 38, and onto the wall board 52 on both sides of, and behind the rods, the resin and glass being applied by spraying from a suitable gun, such as indicated generally by the numeral 63, (FIG. 7) showing a spraying operation on the ceiling. After firm attachment of the outer surface of the interior wall board, the cracks therein are covered, on the inside, by a layer of glass and resin or resin which is also sprayed along the bottom edge of the wall, on the inside (FIG. 7).

As finally constructed, the wall is of the sandwich type, with inner and outer boards, and a filler between, and one of the intermediate steps in construction comprises erecting the wall boards in spaced relation. Therefore, after the inner wall board has been attached, spacer elements are aflixed to the outer surface thereof. In a preferred form, these spacer elements comprise rectangularly bent connectors or clips, 66, of stepped form, in the general semblance of a Z (FIG. 6), with two, oppositely disposed, parallel, flanges, or feet, 68, connected by a perpendicularly disposed, central web 70. For affixation of the clips to board 52, a series of heaps of resin and glass or resin are deposited at the proper locations, and the flanges 68 of the connectors pressed into the mass. To provide a keying action, the flanges each have a pair of apertures 72, through which the resinous material flows and buttons out on the outside of the connector flange. This provides a degree of attachment in addition to that resulting from surface contact of the flange with the patch of fiberglass. Finally, the entire outer surface of the interior wall board, including the patches of fiberglass, is covered by a layer of resin, 64 applied by a spray gun. It is noted that a bead 61 of resin and glass or resin is formed at the line of contact between .the bottom of the outside surface of the interior wall board 52 and the top surface of the concrete slab.

Completion of the hollow, wall structure is effected by attachment of panels of exterior wallboard 74, by applying suitably located patches of. glass and resin or resin on the interior surface thereof, to mate with the flanges 68 of the connectors, and erecting the wallboard in upright position, in contact with said flanges, until the fiberglass sets. In this operation, a holding jig 76, similar to the one on the inside wallboard, may be employed to temporarily sustain the outside wallboard in position.

After attachment of the exterior wallboards, the vertical cracks and lower, outside corner are sealed off by deposits of short strands of glass roving and resin 62, and the entire outer surface of the exterior wallboard is coated with a layer of the resin 64.

There is thus provided a hollow wall structure, adapted to receive a filler material, 77, preferably light in weight, adapted to be flowed or sprayed in place, and possessed of properties of thermal insulation in high degree. For this purpose, it is preferable to employ a fluid plastic such as polyurethane foam, a suitable known commercial prodduct being known as Arothane, which has a bubbly or sudsy consistency on emanating from a spray gun, such as gun 78 in FIGURE 7, and which solidifies as a solid, porous substance, in a fine state of cellular subdivision. These conditions conspire to the desired results of lightness and low heat transfer, and in addition provide a very satisfactory degree of strength. This substance may 'be blown or sprayed onto any base structure, and may be made to build up thereon in layers of deposit, and in the case of the hollow walls it is directed through the top opening, toward the bottom, and the space between the wallboards is thus gradually filled. The corner areas may be filled in by direct build-up, moving the gun vertically along the corner area during application. These corner areas, after filling, will be coated by a layer of resin impregnated glass 62, the same as the wallboard surface.

Assuming the roof frame in place, the filler 77 is applied to each of the two tiers by the build-up process. Thus, in FIGURE 7, the filler is shown as being sprayed from gun 78 into a horizontal layer constituting the lower tier, and bounded by the underside of plate 44, and the lower flanges of channels 46, The filler adheres to the steel plate 44 and forms to a satisfactory layer. Upon completion of this lower layer of filler, the underside thereof is coated by a layer of glass and resin 62, delivered by gun 63. Next, and with reference to FIGURES 12, 13 and 14, a layer of resin and glass is deposited around the structure on the top surface of the walls, up the side of the web of the flange and marginally on the plate 44 to seal these areas from moisture. A deposit of filler material is laid in the space, around the top of the structure along the outside surface of the plate 44 to the plane defined by the upper flanges 46 outwardly to a plane extending upwardly from the inner edge of the wall 74, as well as, the space between the plate 44 and the outer flanges of the channel 46, after which a complete exterior layer of resin impregnated strands of glass roving is deposited over the surface by gun 63.

The particular form of the window and door frames shown in FIGS. 8-11 forms no part of the present invention, it being merely necessary to note that these are held in place by suitable patches of glass and resin 62, applied at suitable locations for contact with the skeletal structure of the walls, at the window or door opening.

It will be noted that in the structure thus far described, no mechanical fasteners of any kind, such as the conventional nails and bolts, have been employed, and the same is true of the internal, partition walls, such as that illustrated in FIGS. 2 and l820. In particular, the wall shown in these figures, as prefabricated, is moved into position within the structure, where it is secured in place by means causing it to expand, vertically into a state of opposed pressure between the roof and floor. Thus, the partition wall, which has outer wall boards 80, similar to boards 52 and 74, separated by connectors 66, and filled with' foamed plastic 77, has a floor-engaging channel 82 in surrounding relation to its lower edge, the :base of the channel having a pair of longitudinal grooves receiving gasket strips 84.

Throughout most of its vertical extent, the height of wall 20 is fixed, the adjustability of height being accomplished by means of an expansion system contained in a member 86, of H cross section, with its lower, channel portion nested on the top edge of the wall. At spaced positions along the upper, channel portion of member 86, pairs of affixed angle brackets 88 confine pairs of wedge blocks 90, at their ends, and the wedge blocks are caused to diverge vertically, by mating wedge blocks 92, threadedly mounted on oppositely threaded sections 94, 96, of a shaft having its ends journalled in slots 98 in the upper edges of member 86, the shaft being adapted for turning by a tool, as by means of a slot 100, to receive a screw driver. Upward movement of the upper wedge block 90 is communicated to the ceiling through a channel member 102, nested on member 36, and encompassing the upper edge of the wall, and having longitudinal grooves holding gasket strips 104. An opening 106 in the side of channel 102 permits access of the tool for turning screw shafts 9496.

The modified roof frame shown in FIGS. 2l27 is generally similar to the one described above, in the sense that it has upper and lower tiers, with flanged elements defining the layer iboundaries. As can be seen in FIG- URE 26, it differs, however, in that in lieu of a planiform, central plate 44, the modified roof has a central plate which is serrate in lateral cross section, being composed of a series of angularly-disposed fiat plate sections 108,

with their adjacent ends attached to each other and a series of L-form plates 110 being fastened to the respective intersections of the ends with the respective feet 103 of the L-form plate alternately laying in a common upper and lower plane, The flat sections may be molded of resin and glass and, before setting, the vertical L-form plates inserted into the molded section, as shown. Roof sections thus formed may be prefabricated and carried to a job site for installation. In the installation of this modified roof, an angle frame 105 is welded to the top rod member 42 and moisture sealed by a coating of resin and glass, and the sections are put in place. The foam filler material is deposited between the flat plate sections 108 to a level on each side thereof which is defined by the plane defined by the feet 103. The outer edge is sealed with a deposit 111 of glass and resin and the edge 112 of the roof filled with foam filler material, following which an outer layer or crust 113 of resin reinforced by glass is deposited.

While a certain, preferred embodiment has been shown and described, various modifications will be apparent, in the light of this disclosure, and the invention should not, therefore, be deemed as limited, except insofar as shall appear from the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. The method of constructing a building, which comprises pouring a concrete slab having metal, reinforcing rods, erecting a skeletal, wall framework, of lattice form, and having vertical rods with hooked, lower ends, by anchoring said hooked, lower .ends in said slab, and engaging beneath the said reinforcing rods, erecting a system of interior, wall boards in contact with said framework, applying resin and fiberglass by spraying to said framework, in covering relation thereto, to bind it to said interior wallboards, covering the cracks, and the inside bottom corners of said interior wall boards with resin and fiberglass, securing a plurality of transverse, spacer members to said interior wallboards by applying patches of resin and fiberglass thereto, and impressing said spacer members thereon, applying a coat of moisture-impervious resin over the exterior surface of said interior wallboards, including the patches of resin and fiberglass on said framework, applying patches of resin and fiberglass to a system of exterior wallboards, applying said exterior wallboards to the outer ends of said spacer elements with the fiberglass contacting said outer ends, and flowing a settable, porous plastic, filler material into the space between the interior and exterior systems of wall boards.

2. In the construction of a building as in claim 1, the additional steps of providing temporary support for said inner and outer systems of wallboard, prior to securement thereof by setting of said fiberglass.

3. In the construction of a building as in claim 1, the additional step of forming a roof, by superposing a honeycomb framework, With plural, horizontal tiers, on said wall framework, applying said filler material to said lower tier from below, and to said upper tier from above, and applying a coating of said resin on the lower and upper surfaces of said roof.

4. A method as in claim 3, the framework of said roof being laid on said wall framework prior to build-up operations on said wall framework.

5. In the construction of a building as in claim 3, the additional steps of filling corner areas with said filler material.

6. In the construction of a building as in claim 1, the additional step of forming a roof, by superposing a honeycomb framework, with plural, horizontal tiers, on said wall framework, and applying said filler material to said lower tier from below, and to said upper tier from above.

7. In the construction of a building as in claim 1, the additional step of forming a roof, by superposing a honeycomb framework on said wall framework, and applying said filler material to said honeycomb framework.

8. The method of constructing a building, which comprises pouring a concrete slab having metal, reinforcing rods, erecting a skeletal, wall framework, of lattice form, and having vertical rods with hooked, lower ends, by anchoring said hooked, lower ends in said slab, and engaging beneath the said reinforcing rods, erecting a systern of interior, wall boards in contact with said framework, applying resin and fiberglass by spraying to said framework, in covering relation thereto, to bind it to said interior wallboards, securing a plurality of transverse, spacer members to said interior wallboards by applying patches of resin and fiberglass thereto, and impressing said spacer members thereon, applying patches of resin and fiberglass to a system of exterior wallboards, applying said exterior wallboards to the outer ends of said spacer elements with the fiberglass contacting said outer ends, and flowing a settable, porous plastic, filter material into the space between the interior and exterior systems of wall boards.

9. The method of constructing a building, which comprises pouring a concrete slab having metal, reinforcing rods, erecting a skeletal, wall framework, of lattice form, and having vertical rods with hooked, lower ends, by anchoring said hooked, lower ends in said slab, and engaging beneath the said reinforcing rods, erecting a system of interior, wallboards in contact with said framework, applying cement to said framework, in covering relation thereto, bind it to said interior wallboards, securing a plurality of transverse, spacer members to said interior wallboards by applying patches of said cement thereto, and impressing said spacer members thereon, applying patches of said cement to a system of exterior wallboards, applying said exterior wallboards to the outer ends of said spacer elements with thesaid cement contacting said outer ends, and flowing a settable, porous plastic filler material into the space between the interior and exterior systems of wall boards.

10. The method of constructing a building, which comprises pouring a concrete slab erecting a skeletal, wall framework, of lattice form, and having vertical rods with hooked, lower ends, by anchoring said hooked, lower ends in said slab, erecting a system of interior, wallboards in contact with said framework, applying cement to said framework, in covering relation thereto, to bind it to said interior wallboards, securing a plurality of transverse, spacer members to said interior wallboards by applying patches of said cement thereto, and impressing said spacer members thereon, applying patches of said cement to a system of exterior wallboards, applying said exterior wall boards to the outer ends of said spacer elements with the said cement contacting said outer ends, and flowing a settable, porous plastic, filler material into the space between the interior systems of wall boards.

11. The method of constructing a building, which comprises erecting a skeletal, wall framework, of lattice form, erecting a system of interior, wallboards in contact with said framework, applying cement to said framework, in covering relation thereto, to bind it to said interior wallboards, securing a plurality of transverse, spacer members to said interior wallboards by applying patches of said cement thereto, and impressing said spacer members thereon, applying patches of said cement to a system of exterior wallboards, applying said exterior wallboards to the outer ends of said spacer elements with the said cement contacting said outer ends, and flowing a settable, porous plastic, filler material into the space between the interior and exterior systems of wallboards.

12. The method of constructing a building which corn,- prises erecting a skeletal wall framework, of lattice form, erecting a first system of wallboards in contact with said framework, applying cement to said framework, in covering relation thereto, to bind it to said first system of wallboards, securing a plurality of transverse, spacer members to said first system of wallboards by applying patches of cement thereto, and impressing said spacer members thereon, applying patches of cement to a second system of wallboards, applying said second system of wallboards to the outer ends of said spacer elements with said cement contacting said outer ends, and flowing a setta'ble, porous plastic filler material into the space between the first and second systems of wallboards.

13. A building comprising a ground slab, a series of vertical rods anchored in said slab, a series of horizontal rods secured to said vertical rods in a rectangular lattice work, and having Window and door openings, a system of interior wallboard secured to said lattice work by patches of resin and fiberglass, a series of transverse spacers secured to said interior wallboard by resin and fiberglass and extending through the lattice work, a coating of moisture-impervious resin on the outer surface of said interior wall board, and covering said fiberglass, an exterior system of wallboards, secured by fiberglass to the outer ends of said spacers, and a filler of porous plastic between said systems of wallboards.

14. In a building as in claim 13, a roof comprising a skeletal framework in two horizontal tiers, separated 'by a metallic plate, and each having side-opening angle members secured to said plate, a filling of said porous plastic in each of said tiers, and a coating of fiberglass on the upper and lower surfaces of said roof.

15. A device as in claim 14, said plate being serrate in cross section along one lateral direction.

16. in a building as in claim 13, a roof comprising a skeletal framework in two horizontal tiers, separated by a metallic plate, and each having side-opening angle members secured to said plate, and a filling of said porous plastic in each of said tiers.

17. A building having walls comprising a skeletal framework, of lattice form, a system in inner wall boards cemented to said framework, a series of lateral spacers cemented to said inner wallboards and extending through the framework, a moisture-impervious coating on the outer surface of said inner wallboards, a system of outer wallboards cemented to said spacers, and a filler of porous plastic in the space between said systems of wallboards.

18. In a building as in claim 17, a roof comprising a framework honeycombed in a longitudinal direction, in two tiers, a filler of porous plastic in each of said tiers, and a coating of fiberglass on at least one surface of said roof.

19. In a building as in claim 18, a roof comprising a framework honeycombed in a longitudinal direction, in two tiers, and a filler of porous plastic in each of said tiers.

20. A building having walls comprising a skeletal framework, of lattice form, a first system of wallboards cemented to said framework, a series of lateral spacers cemented to one surface of said first system of wallboards and said spacers extending through the framework, a moisture impervious coating on the other surface of said first system of wallboards, a second system of wallboards cemented to said spacers, and a filler of porous plastic in the space between said systems of wallboards.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 951,031 3/ 1910 Sobel 52347 1,510,224 9/1924 Hicks 52-347 2,576,073 11/1951 Kropa 52-309 2,595,123 4/1952 Callan 52-741 2,928,360 3/1960 Heine 52-309 2,995,784 8/1961 Driscoll 52--309 3,003,199 10/1961 Talmey 52-404 3,085,365 4/ 1963 Winston 52-240 OTHER REFERENCES House and Home Publication, vol. II, issue 3, pages 112-113, September 1952.

Popular Mechanics Magazine, October 1957, page 105.

Modern Plastics, September 1961, pages 8991.

FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.

R. A. STENZEL, Assistant Examiner.

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WO1999006641A1 *Jul 24, 1998Feb 11, 1999Josey Ind Technologies IncComposite wall structure
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/206, 52/241, 52/746.1, 52/267, 52/309.3, 52/434, 52/309.7, 52/295, 264/35, 52/404.1, 52/378, D25/61, 264/46.5, 52/269, 52/264, 52/742.13, 52/383, 52/353, 264/46.7, 52/515, 52/649.1, 52/745.5, 52/479, 52/715
International ClassificationE04B1/16
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/161
European ClassificationE04B1/16A