US 3315503 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A ril 25, 1967 E. L. 'SCHLAGE 3,315,503
I CONSTRUCTION CYLINDER UNIT Filed July 51, 1964 A 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
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April 25, 1967 L. SCHLAGE 3,
CONSTRUCTION CYLINDER UNIT Filed July 31, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 (aid z Pam/ United States Patent ()fiFice 3,315,593
Patented Apr. 25, 1967 3,315,503 CONSTRUCTION CYLINDER UNIT Ernest L. Schlage, Burlingarne, Calili, assignor to Sehlage Lock Company Filed July 31, 1964, Ser. No. 386,716 4 Claims. (Cl. 70-383) My invention relates to construction cylinder units particularly useful in locks for doors in dwellings, oflice buildings, hotels and the like and in which it is desired for various reasons to change the combination with little or no difiiculty at some stage or stages during the period of use of the lock, the change preferably being accomplished with no help from professionals such as locksmiths and without the necessity of adding, removing or substituting various parts.
The requirement of a readily changeable cylinder unit occurs primarily at the time of construction of a building. It is desired to make a permanent lock installation at an early stage in the construction schedule so that part or all of the enclosure can be made secure; for example, for the temporary storage of construction equipment or workmens tools. It is consequently necessary to furnish a key to the builder or workman in order that he may temporarily have access to the enclosure. Yet, when the construction is completed, it is desired to prevent further operation of the workmans key and to alter the lock combination so that only an owners key can be utilized. When the owner takes possession, the temporary key is shut out. The keys are sometimes referred to as a temporary or primary key for the workman and a permanent or secondary key for the owner. Various ways of accomplishing this end have been provided and devices of this class are often referred to as construction cylinder units, although they have many other applications in addition to their use during a construction period.
It is an object of the invention to provide a construction cylinder unit in which the combination is alterable from its construction condition to its permanent condition merely by the utilization of an appropriate key.
Another object of the invention is to provide a construction cylinder unit in which it is not necessary to add parts nor to remove parts to change the combination.
Another object of the invention is to provide a construction cylinder unit in which the change from primary, construction condition to secondary, permanent condition is irreversible.
Another object of the invention is to provide a construction cylinder unit in which various keys of a series can eachsuccessively shut out a preceding key in the series.
Another object of the invention is to provide a construction cylinder unit of generally accepted type of construction in order that it can readily be manufactured along with other, comparable cylinder units and without material or substantial change in manufacturing technique.
A further object of the invention is to provide a con struction cylinder unit which is simple in its nature and is readily recognized and dealt with by locksmiths without special instructions.
Another object of the invention is in general to provide an improved construction cylinder unit.
Other objects together with the foregoing are attained in the embodiment of the invention described in the accompanying description and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of a portion of a construction cylinder unit made pursuant to the invention, parts being broken away to disclose the interior construction in cross section on a vertical, axial plane, there being a construction key in position;
FIGURE 2 is a cross section to an enlarged scale, the
plane of section being indicated by the line 22 of FIG-' URE 1 and portions being broken away to reduce the size of the figure;
FIGURE 3 is a view comparable to FIGURE 1 but showing a permanent key in position;
FIGURE 4 is a view in cross section comparable to FIGURE 2 but showing the position of the parts with the first use of a permanent key;
FIGURE 5 is a view like FIGURE 4 but showing the cylinder plug in a difierent, rotated position, the permanent key being in place;
FIGURE 6 is a cross section comparable to FIGURE 2 but showing the construction key in place following an operation by the permanent key;
FIGURE 7 is a cross section comparable to FIGURE 1 but showing a variant form of construction cylinder unit;
FIGURE 8 is an enlarged view showing a portion of one form of tumbler made pursuant to the invention; and
FIGURE 9 is an enlarged view showing a portion of another form of tumbler made pursuant to the invention.
The unillustrated portion of the construction cylinder unit is of any appropriate sort. The portion of particular interest includes a spindle 6 of hollow construction effective to operate the parts of an associated lock through their usual motions. The spindle, as is customary, supports a knob 7 for manual actuation by rotation in the usual way. The spindle 6 is symmetrical about a rotational axis 8. Largely situated within the spindle 6 and coaxial with the axis 8 is a cylinder body 9. Part of this is circular cylindrical in exterior configuration and part is a projecting portion 11 formed integrally with the cylindrical portion and extending radially therefrom. The interior of the cylindrical body is formed to provide a circular cylindrical plug bore 13 extending from end to end of the body. Designed to rotate within the bore concentrically with the axis 8 is a cylinder plug 14 having an outstanding flange 16 at one end bearing against the end face 17 of the cylinder body and being provided at the other end with threads 18 to receive a cap 1-9. A driver 21 is secured by the cap to rotate simultaneously with the plug 14 and is connected to actuate the operated mechanism, not shown, in the customary way.
The cylinder plug is formed internally to define a key channel 23 extending from end to end thereof. Intersecting the key channel at various locations axially spaced along the cylinder plug and extending radially are tumbler bores 24. These are provided in any convenient number. In the present instance there are six parallel tumbler bores.
In one rotated position or" the cylinder body, the tumbler bores are in registry with or in alignment with a similar number of pin bores 26 provided in the projecting portion 11. more keys having an appropriate configuration to extend axially into the key channel 23. The primary or construction key 27 has a serrated contour 28 extending along a portion thereof.
Designed to operate or oscillate within some of the tumbler bores are tumblers 31 of the usual sort. At one end these have rounded conical portions 32 to cooperate with the notches 33 in the key 27 and at the other end have transversely extending bevelled or rounded shear surfaces 34.
Similarly situated within the pin bores 26 are pins 37 having at their lower ends rounded or bevelled, transversely extending shear surfaces 38 and at the upper ends abutting springs 39 effective to urge the pins 37 toward the key. When the notches in the key are such that the shear surfaces of the various pins and tumblers are in effect continuations of the interior surface of the plug bore, then the plug can readily be rotated within the plug The cylinder body is rotated by one or i bore and the driver 21 is effective to operate the operated cular cylindrical portion does not extend for the full length of the tumbler, but occupies only some of the tumbler length. The portion 42 has an edge 44 that is a circular trace. of predetermined diameter in transverse cross sec tion or in a plane normal to the axis 46 of the tumbler.
Extending upwardly as an integral portion of the tumbler is a deformable stem 47 of considerably reduced.
diameter. The stem is disposed symmetrically with respect to the axis 46 and occupies the remaining length of the special tumbler. The stem or upper tumbler portion is of substantially uniform reduced 7 diameter and is curved or somewhat spherical at its terminus 48, as shown in FIGURE 9. Alternatively, the stem is conveniently made as a reduced portion ending in an integral ball, as shown in FIGURE 8. as in FIGURE 9, may tend to catch upon reverse rotation of the plug in the bore but the ball end, as in F1"- URE 8, operates equallywell in both directions of plug rotation. There is' a special relationship between the height of the deformable stem (including the terminal ball, if used) with respect to the diameter of the tumbler. This height, or axial length, is such that when the stem is deformed by a force exerted laterally .or transversely upon the side of the stem, the stem terminus 48 travels in a curved, approximately arcuate path. Finally, when the outer portion of the stem is substantially transverse or normal to the axis, the stem terminus (or ball, if used) lies within the diameter of the tumbler; i.e. within the area bounded by the edge 44. The stem and terminal ball are preferably connected by smoothly merging portions. The stem merges with the lower, circular cylindrical portion of the tumbler by means of a fillet 49 of substantial radius. The transitions between the various cross sections of the tumbler are relatively smooth and are not abrupt.
A special tumbler of the sort mentioned can be fabricated of a number of dilferent deformable or bendable materials. Various metals such as bronze or brass have been satisfactory, although plastics have been too resilient. In the present instance I prefer a nickel silver material that is relatively long-wearing and superficially hard but is sufiiciently ductile so that deformation of the stem does not produce any substantial or important cracks. This maintains the integrity of the tumbler whether it is in its original condition with the stern coincident with the axis 46 or whether it is in its deformed condition with the stem .bent away from and extending approximately normal to the axis 46.
A special tumbler is introduced into at least one of the tumbler bores 24. When the primary or construction key 27 is inserted in the key channel and the lower end of the special tumbler abuts the subjacent notch in the key, then the extremity 48 of the stem is in the shear line 7 f the plug and plug body. Since the outer tumblers also :are in alignment on the shear line, a rotation of the key 27 produces an operation of the mechanism in the'normal fashion by rotating the plug within the plug body.
When it is desired to change the combination and thereafter to shut out the primary or construction key 27, it is merely necessary to provide an authorized person with a secondary or owners key 56. This is identical with the key 27 except that a notch 57 in the proper location to cooperate with the special tumbler 41 is not as deep as the construction key notch, but rather is much shallower. When the secondary key 56 is first inserted and the shallower notchengages the special tumbler, that The plain reduced end,
4 tumbler is then lifted so that some portion of its stem 47 lies across the shear line between the plug and the plugbody.
When the user rotates the key 5s and the plug body in 7 order to actuate the look, some lost motion rotation occurs, but after a few degrees of movement, the upstanding projecting stem, as shown in FIGURE 4, has been rotated until the side of the stem near the terminus 43 abuts the inner wall of the pin bore 26. fContinued rotation of'the cylinder plug causes a transverse and inward force to be exerted upon the stem. Near its end, the
stern is substantially stationary, but the rotation of the.
remainder of the special tumbler causes a deformation and bending of the stem 47. During this time, the stem end 48 is bent upon itself as the stem moves downwardly along the wall of the pin bore 26. Finaly, when fully beat, the stern travels over the shoulder 58 at the intersection of the pin 'bore and the plug bore. 13. Rotation f of the plug can then continue with the stem disposed and deformed to lie well withinthe diameter of the edge 44 and.
of the tumbler bore not quite reaching the wall thereof."
The deforming action has in efiect shortened the special tumbler.
It is immaterial in what rotated position of the tumbler about its own axis the deformation takes place. The
stem end lies well inside the edge 44 in all rotated attitudes of the tumbler around its own axis. When the tumbler has been shortened, then its end lies within the plug bore.
and the plug can continue its rotation to actuate the mechanism in a standard fashion and with little or no drag. Thereafter only the secondary key 56 will move the shortened, special tumbler to -a proper location to establish a shear line. When, after the first use of the secondary key, the primary construction key 27 is inserted, the special tumbler 41 lies below the shear line and the corresponding upper pin is urged by its spring I into a lower position straddling the shear line and preeluding rotation of the plug, as shown in FIGURE 6.
In this fashion, the initial operation of the secondary, owners key deforms at least one of the tumblers so that thereafter the primary, construction key will not operate the lock. Since the stem is an integral part of the special tumbler and remains so, there are no loose pieces to be considered and no parts must be removed fromnor introduced into the mechanism. 7
While under most circumstances it is suilicient to have but a single special tumbler, under other circumstances a number of special tumblers are utilized. As shown particularly in FIGURE 7, all of thetumbler bores are provided with special tumblers. Upon use of an initial key, none of the tumblers is deformed. The next subsequent key has an appropriate, shallow notch and when used, one of the tumblers is deformed, shutting out the initial key. The third key used has another notch sufficiently shallow or high so that one additional special tumbler is deformed when the third key is used. This use shuts out the preceding keys. In this fashion, successive keys each deforming one more of the special tumblers can be utilized and each shuts out all of the preceding keys.
What is claimed is:
1. A construction cylinder unit comprising a cylinder a cylinder plug rotatable in said plug bore, said cylinder plug having a key channel therein and having at leastone tumbler bore intersecting said key channel and adapted to register with said pin bore in one rotated position of said plug, a pin slidable in said pin bore, a spring in said pin bore urging said pin toward said plug, a tumbler slidable in said tumbler bore and engageable .by said pin and by a key in said channel, said tumbler having bendable means extending toward said pin and movable at least partially into said pin bore to permit shortening of said tumbler, when said plug is rotated, by first engaging a side of said pin bore and then bending laterally into said tumbler bore, said bendable means comprising a laterally bendable end portion of reduced lateral dimen- SlOIlS.
2. A construction cylinder unit as defined in claim 1 wherein said end portion comprises an integral central stem.
3. A construction cylinder unit as defined in claim 2 wherein the end of said stem is configured to define a spherical portion of slightly greater diameter than said stem, said spherical portion thereby engaging the side of said pin bore.
4. A method of combining a cylinder unit comprising a cylinder body having a rotatable circular cylindrical plug therein and utilizing pin tumblers comprising providing said cylinder body with a first circular cylindrical pin tumbler, providing said plug with a second pin tumbler having a circular cylindrical portion corresponding in diameter to said first pin tumbler and having a stem extending axially from said cylindrical portion, axially aligning said second pin tumbler in end abutment with said first pin tumbler, moving said stem into said cylinder body, rotating said cylindrical portion of said second pin tumbler in said plug about an axis transverse to the axis of said cylindrical portion, and obstructing rotation of said stem within said cylinder body until said stem is bent laterally to shorten said second pin tumbler.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,953,535 4/1934 Hurd. 2,025,293 12/1935 Nawn 29445 X 2,283,489 5/1942 Crousore 70378 2,565,531 8/1951 Spiegler 70364 2,596,720 5/1952 Pastor et al. 70364 3,181,320 5/1965 Bauer 70364 EDWARD C. ALLEN, Primary Examiner.
20 P. TEITELBAUM, Assistant Examiner.