|Publication number||US3315567 A|
|Publication date||Apr 25, 1967|
|Filing date||Aug 10, 1965|
|Priority date||Aug 10, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3315567 A, US 3315567A, US-A-3315567, US3315567 A, US3315567A|
|Inventors||Mcgowan Kenneth J J|
|Original Assignee||Avco Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (3), Classifications (40)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
' A ril 25; 1967 K. J. J. MCGOWAN AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION 15 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 10, 1965 INVENTOR. KENNETH J. J. MCGOWAN ATTORNEYS.
Aprifl 25, 1967 K. J. J. M GOWAN AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION l5 Sheets-$heet 2 INVENTOR.
J. J. MGGOWAN Filed 10, 1965 KENNETH ATTORNEYS.
April 25, 1%? K. J. J. MCGOWAN AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION 15 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Aug. 10, 1965 INVENTOR.
' W ATTORNEYS 3,315,567 AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION April 25, m7 CGOWAN I 15 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Aug. 10, 1965 INVENTOR. KENNETH J. J. MOGOWAIN AT TO RNEYS.
AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FORROCKET'BGOSTED AMMUNITION Filed Aug. 10, 1965 15 Sheets-Sheet 5 ISI in w W k W a, T Tm T CD ||l W L! Ba 9" P IIl "I (O l S k q 4 3 Q Q 4% nwiwww Q 3 no K1 INVENTOR. KENNETH J. J. McGOWAN ATTORNEYS April 25, 1967 K. J. J. M GOWAN AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION l5 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Aug. 10, 1965 mm 2A INVENTOR. KENNETH J. J. McGOWAN ATTORNEYS A ril 25, 1967 K. J. J. MCGOWAN AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION Ms M Y Rw E 7 N t m R 8 N6 '0 .m E o W T Qw V T W W A w a h H S T 5 E l. N N E K Filed Aug. 10, 1965 April 25, 1967 K. J. J. MCGOWAN AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION 15 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed Aug. 10, 1965 m M m mw Twd R NC 3 N A H V E N N E Y% 8 AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION Filed Aug. 10, 1965 15 Sheets-Sheet 9 INVENTOR. KENNETH J. J McGOWAN ATTORNEYS.
April 1967 K. J. J. M GOWAN 3,315,567
-BOOSTED AMMUNITION AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET 15 Sheets-Sheet 12 Filed Aug. 10, 1965 ZOFEWOQ m Q200wm ZOEbmfim wm ill.
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BOOSTED AMMUNITION AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET- 15 Sheets-Sheet 15 Filed Aug. 10, 1965 INVENIOR. KENNETH .1 J McGOWAN ATTORNEYS.
Aprll 25, 1967 K. J. J. MOGOWAN 3,315,567
AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER For: ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNITION Filed Aug. 10, 1965 15 Sheets-Sheet 14 u: 15(2) 0(3) [1: cm 111; 5(5) In E D C. B A I04 IDS H05 IIOBIOS) Ill 307 2 3 H3 m 1N VEN 1 UR.
KENNETH J. J. MCGOWAN Wm flw ATTORNEYS April 25, 1967 K. J; J. MCGOWAN 3,315,567
AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET-BOOSTED AMMUNIT ION Filed Aug. 10, 1965 15 Sheets-Sheet l5 INVENTOR. KENNETH J. J. M GOWAN ATTORNEYS.
. Patented Apr. 25, 1967 3,315,567 AUTOMATIC LAUNCHER FOR ROCKET- BOOSTED AMMUNITION Kenneth J. J. McGowan, Richmond, Ind., assignor to Avco Corporation, Richmond, 11141., a corporation of Delaware Filed Aug. 10, 1965, Ser. No. 478,570 6 Claims. (Cl. 89-183) The present invention is directed generally to ordnance, and specifically to an automatic launcher which is particularly adapted to use with rocket ammunition of the type which does not include a cartridge case.
The invention herein disclosed and claimed is an improvement in automatic weapons of the type disclosed and claimed in my copending patent applications entitled Rocket Boosted Automatic Weapon and Ammunition System and Litermittent Feed Mechanism for High Inertia Load, Ser. Nos. 316,224 and 312,670, respectively, filed Oct. 15, 1963, and Sept. 30, 1963, respectively, now US. Patents Nos. 3,204,530 and 3,204,528, respectively, issued Sept. 7, 1965, both assigned to the same assignee, Avco Corporation, as is the present application and invention.
A primary object of the invention is to provide an automatic repeating rocket launcher comprising a bolt 60, (FIGS. 1, 8, 10, 12, and operating means 61, (FIG. 2, including H-member 62, FIGS. 2, 8, 10, 12, 19) external to the bolt but so constructed and arranged as effectively to have a center or line of force disposed directly behind the line of fire, while at the same time utilizing only compression elements 63, 64 (FIGS. 4, 8, 13) for supplying energy to drive the operating means forward and compression elements 65, 66 (FIGS. 2, 8, 13) for supplying energy to retract the bolt.
Another object of the invention is to provide an automatic rocket launcher of the type including a reciprocating bolt 60, (FIG. 2) and operating means 61 located externally of the bolt and exerting forces equivalent to those which would be exerted by operating means concentrically disposed within the bolt.
It is also an object of the invention to provide an automatic repeating rocket launcher which utilizes only compression means 65, 66 (FIGS. 2, 8, 13) for supplying energy to retract the bolt.
Another object of the invention is to provide such as arrangement in combination with compression elements 63, 64 (FIGS. 4, 8, 13) between the operating rod group 61 and the receiver 67, (FIGS. 5, 6) for purposes of driving the operating rod group 61, (FIG. 4) forwardly.
A further basic object of the present invention is to provide an automatic rocket launcher of the general type shown in the above-mentioned United States patent application, Ser. No. 316,224, but improved in the sense that it is more readily adaptable to any type of feed, whether magazine feed or power feed.
In furtherance of the foregoing objects there is provided, in an automatic rocket launcher of the type which includes a receiver 67 (FIGS. 5, 6) formed with a firing chamber, improvement which comprises, in combination:
A bolt 60 mounted for reciprocal movement relative to said firing chamber, the bolt advancing forwardly (FIG. 4) into battery to chamber a round of ammunition and retracting rearwardly (FIG. 2) to permit a new round to be placed in position to be chambered:
Releasable locking means 68, 69, 70 (FIGS. 1-1, 12, 22, 23) for locking the bolt 60 in battery position;
Operating means 61 mounted in reciprocal movable relation to and symmetrically and externally disposed relative to said bolt, said operating means (FIG. 1) retracting rearwardly to actuate said releasable locking means (part 70, FIG. 12) to unlock said bolt;
Compressible means mechanically intercoupling said bolt and said operating means, said compressible means 65, 66 (FIGS. 2, 13) being compressed when the operating means retracts rearward-1y (FIG. 1), whereby to store energy to retract the bolt (FIG. 2) when the bolt is released;
And strainable means 63, 64 (FIG. 2) mechanically intercoupling said operating means 61 and said receiver 67 (FIGS. 5, 6), the strainable means being strained when the operating means retracts rearwardly (FIG. 1), whereby to store energy to advance the operating means and the bolt (FIG. 4).
It is also an object of the invention to provide, in such an automatic rocket launcher, a greatly simplified firing mechanism including a sear 71 (FIGS. 7-10) and a hammer 72 and hammer cocking lever 73 carried by the operating rod group or means 61 and firing means 74 carried by the bolt 64), the arrangement being such that the combination is automatically recocked (FIG. 9) after each firing. In furtherance of the last-mentioned object the invention provides, in such an automatic rocket launcher, a firing pin 74 (FIG. 10) carried by the bolt and firing control means carried by the operating means and comprising:
A hammer 72;
A sear 71 formed normally to restrain the hammer from moving into contact with the firing means;
A hammer cocking lever 73 formed to be turned in one direction (counterclockwise, FIG. 7) to release the sear from the hammer to permit the hammer to actuate the firing means after the operating means has moved the bolt into battery;
Abutment means 75 (FIG. 9) for turning the cocking lever in said one direction;
Said receiver being formed to turn the cocking lever 73 in another direction (clockwise, FIG. 9) to cock the hammer mechanism and re-engage the hammer 72 with the sear 71 when the operating means retracts.
A broad object of the invention is to provide an automatic rocket launcher in Which, after firing, control is first exercised by the bolt 60 (FIG. 1), then transferred to an operating rod group 61 (FIG. 2), next shifted back to the bolt (FIG. 30), then over to an ammunition feed mechanism (FIGS. 3 and 31), and finally back to the operating rod group (FIG. 4).
In furtherance of this object the invention provides, in an automatic rocket launcher of the type herein disclosed, the combination of:
First releasable latching means 76 (FIGS. 15 and 18) for restraining the operating means in retracted position, said first latching means being released 'by retraction of said bolt 60 to free said operating means 61 from rear- Ward restraint;
An ammunition feeder (FIG. 24) for feeding a new round of ammunition transversely into said position to be chambered, said ammunition feeder comprising a cross feed slide 77 (FIG. 24, symbolically shown in FIGS. 1-4);
And a dual-purpose bolt-latching and slide-restraining means 78 (FIGS. 15 and 24) positioned normally to restrain said feed slide 77 in outboard position (FIG. 29) but responsive to retraction of said bolt 60 to latch said bolt rearwardly (FIG. 31) and simultaneously to free said feed slide of restraint to permit said slide to move inboard and to position said new round (FIGS. 32, 33);
The dual purpose means 78 (FIGS. 15, 24 and 28) being actuated on completion of the feeding operation to free the bolt whereupon the bolt 60 and operating rod group 61 advance forwardly so that the bolt can chamber said newly positioned round (FIGS. 4, 33, 34).
A related object of the invention is to provide a novel 3 and improved cross feed mechanism (FIG. 24) which not only feeds ammunition transversely into the bore line (FIGS. 31-33) but which further participates in control of the rocket launcher and interrupts operation of the rocket launcher (FIG. 35) in the event of a delay in the supply of ammunition.
The cross feed mechanism comprises a feed slide 77 (FIG. 24) mounted for inboard and outboard movement transverse to the axis of the receiver 67;
A rack 79 (FIGS. 1-4, 14-15, 17, 19, 26) mounted for inboard movement (FIGS. 29, 30) relative to the receiver 67 and independent of the feed slide 77 and also for outboard movement (FIG. 4), said rack 79 and feed slide being proportioned and arranged so that outboard movement of the rack drives the feed slide outboard;
Gear means 80, 81, 82, 83, 84 (FIGS. 1 and 24) intercoupling the operating means and the rack whereby the rack is driven inboard (FIGS. 1, 2) by retraction of the operating means and outboard (FIG. 4) by advance of the operating means;
Energy storage means 85, 86 (FIG. 24) intercoupled between the rack 79 and feed slide 77 and adapted to be stressed by inboard movement of the rack so as to store energy (FIGS. 29, 30), to relax when supplying inboard driving energy to the feed slide (FIGS. 31, 32), and to be reset by outboard movement of the rack (FIG. 4);
Dual-purpose latching means 78 (FIGS. 24, 15, 17, 28) positioned normally to restrain said feed slide in outboard position but responsive to retraction of said bolt to latch said bolt 60 rearwardly and simultaneously to free said feed slide 77 to permit said feed slide to move inboard (FIG. 31);
And means 87-90 (FIG. 24) controlled by said feed slide for advancing a round into the bore line of the rocket launcher when the feed slide moves inboard (FIGS. 31, 32) under the drive supplied by said energy storage means 85, 86 (FIG. 24);
Said latching means 78 and feed slide 77 being so proportioned and arranged that, upon the feed slide reaching a predetermined inboard displacement, the latching means is actuated by 91 (FIG. 24) to release the bolt 60 to permit the bolt to advance and to drive the newly fed round into battery position.
A further object of the invention is to provide a magazine for supplying ammunition, comprising a helically wound guide 92 (FIG. 40) having an output and means including a drive spring 93 and a belt 94 for urging ammunition contained in said guide toward said output.
A related object of the invention is to provide an ammunition supply comprising:
A plurality of magazines 95-99 (FIG. 46), positioned side by side, each magazine comprising a helically wound guide 100 (FIG. 45) having an output end and means 101, 102 (FIG. 45) for urging ammunition toward the output end;
A common delivery slide 103 (FIGS. 47-49) disposed transversely of all of the output ends;
Individual pawl means 104-108 (FIGS. 47-49) disposed adjacent each output end and said common delivery slide 103 for sensing whether or not a round of ammunition is present in said delivery slide adjacent the associated output end, and in the event that the answer is negative, for permitting a round to be supplied to said delivery slide by the magazine having said output end (FIG. 51);
And ganged means 109-113 (FIGS. 47-49) for driving out of said slide the rounds present in said delivery slide 103, one at a time.
Description of the drawings For a better understanding of the invention, together with other and further objects, advantages, and capabilities thereof, reference is made to the following description of the appended drawings, in which:
FIGS. 1, 2, 3, and 4 are perspective views of the bolt, operating rod group, barrel, and round feed mechanism of an automatic rocket launcher in accordance with the invention, as taken from the point of view of a observer located laterally to the right and upwardly and rearwardly of the rocket launcher, these figures showing the relationship among the parts during the following phases of operation, respectively: the end of the impulse stroke of the bolt 60 which begins immediately after firing, the beginning of the extraction of the bolt, the completion of the inboard motion of the cross-feed slide 77 as it places a new round in the bore line, and the chambering stroke or advance of the bolt 60 as it is driving the new round into the chamber;
FIGS. 5 and 6 are top plan and right side elevational views of the receiver and barrel portions of said rocket launcher, with the cross-feed mechanism of FIG. 24 removed;
FIGS. 7 and 9 'are fragmentary elevational sectional vies of the firing control mechanism, consisting of the hammer cocking lever 73, hammer 72, and sear 71 during the following phases of operation, respectively: rocket launcher fired, and rocker launcher ready to fire;
FIGS. 8 and 10 are longitudinal sectional views, full and partial, respectively, each taken along the section line 8-8 of FIG. 13, looking in the direction of the arrows and showing the positions of the hammer 72 and immediately related parts, the bolt 60, and the operating rod group 61 in the following phases of operation, respectively: rocket launcher fired, and rocket launcher ready to fire;
FIGS. 11 and 12 'are fragmentary longitudinal sectional views of the rocket launcher as taken along section lines 11-11 of FIG. 22 and 12-12 of FIG. 20, in each case looking in the direction of the arrows, FIG. 11 featuring the bolt locks 68, 69, as engaged, and FIG. 12 featuring the bolt unlocking rod 70 and the firing control mechanism 71, 72, 73;
FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of the rocket launcher as taken along section line 13-13 of FIG. 12 and looking the direction of the arrows, FIG. 13 showing the symmetrical arrangement of the housing for the operating means;
FIGS. 14 and 15 are longitudinal sectional views as taken 'along section lines 14-14 and 15-15 of FIGS. 15, 21, and 19, respectively, FIG. 14 emphasizing the relationships between the receiver and the cross feed mechanism as well as the position of the bolt locks, and FIG. 15 emphasizing the bolt and operating roll group latching means;
FIGS. 16 and 17 are longitudinal sectional views as taken along section line 16-16 of FIG. 13 and section line 17-17 of FIG. 14, FIG. 16 emphasizing the contours of the receiver 67, and FIG. 17 again emphasizing the bolt latch 78 and operating rod group latching means 76 and being only partially sectional;
FIGS. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 are cross-sectional views of the rocket launcher as taken along the following section lines, respectively: line 18-18 of FIG. 16, lines 19-19 of FIGS. 11 and 12, line 20-20 of FIG. 14 and 15, in line 22-22 of FIG. 11, and line 23-23 of FIG. 11, in each case looking in the direction of the arrows, the FIG. 23 section being fragmentary and showing only the left bolt lock mounting;
FIG. 24 is a perspective View of the cross feed mechanism in accordance with the invention, as taken from the point of view of an observer located upwardly and to the left of the bore axis of the gun;
FIGS. 25, 26 and 27 are, respectively, rear end elevation'al, top plan, and right end elevational views of the cross feed mechanism;
FIG. 28 is a schematic diagram showing the relationship between the cross feed slide 77 and the dual-purpose belt latching and cross-feed latching element 78;
FIGS. 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33 are rear end views of the cross feed mechanism, greatly simplified, and utilized to explain the cycle of operation of the feed mechanism and showing the following phases of operation, respectively: operating rod being retracted and rack stretching cross feed slide springs; operating'rod fully retracted and cross feed slide spring fully stretched; cross feed slide moving inboard, unlocking the holding pawls; cross feed slide still moving inward and ejector slide at its maximum inboard position; cross feed action complete and bolt unlocked;
FIG. 34 is an end view showing the positions of the cross feed mechanism pawls when the round which has been fed is fully chambered;
FIG. 35 is a greatly simplified end view of the cross feed mechanism, showing the conditions of operation which exist when the holding pawl prevents the cross feed slide from moving inboard, as when there is no succeeding round pressing in on the outboard bifurcations of the holding pawl, this phase being referred to as delayed feed action;
FIGS. 36, 37, 38 and 39 are similar schematic views of the cross feed mechanism, showing the conditions which exist when feeding is prevented by the stop feed lever and the mechanism is used for ejection alone, the several phases being illustrated by the respective figures as follows: operating rod 'and bolt and chambered round being extracted and rack being moved inboard, cross feed slide 77 moving inboard and carrying ejector slide with it while holding pawls are restrained, ejector slide moving further inboard and ejection completed;
FIG. 40 is a top plan view of an improved magazine construction in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 41 is an elevational view of the FIG. 40 magazine;
FIG. 42 is a view of the FIGS. installed in a rocket launcher;
FIGS. 43 and 44 are top plan and elevational views of an alternate form of improved magazine per the invention;
FIG. 45 is 'a cross-sectional view of the alternate form of magazine as taken along section line 45-45 of FIG. 44;
FIG. 46 is an elevational view of a complete ammunition supply including a plurality of magazines per FIGS. 4 -45- 40-41 magazine as FIGS. 47, 48, and 49 are views showing the progression of rounds of ammunition, these figures being used as aids in explaining the operation of the FIG. 46 ammunition supply;
FIGS. 50 and 51 are perspective views showing the common delivery slide and the operation of the sensing pivoted pawl which is provided for each magazine section, these figures showing such operation under the following conditions: first, when the pawl is holding ammunition stationary in a given magazine, and second, when the pawl is permitting a round to be dropped from a magazine section into the delivery slide;
FIG. 52 is a detailed fragmentary figure showing how the receiver depresses the hammer cocking lever as the operating rod group retracts;
FIG. 53 is another fragmentary detail of the bolt showing how the bolt is grooved to permit its forward locking surface to be in front of the bolt locks when the bolt is in battery; and
FIGS. 54 and 55 are top plan views, partly axial sectional, showing the bolt and bolt locks in closed positions and open positions, respectively.
General description of the receiver, bolt, operating rod group, and cross-feed mechanism The detailed description of the automatic rocket launcher in accordance with the invention is prefaced by a brief discussion of its main elements. The main stationary framework of the automatic rocket launcher here shown is referred to as the receiver 67 (FIGS. 5, 6). Although the entire gun is portable, the receiver and parts rigidly secured to it are stationary in the sense that they stand relatively still while the bolt 60' and operating rod group 61 (FIGS. 1-4) are linearly displaced. The receiver or housing, taken together with formations and parts rigidly secured to it, is collectively referred to herein, in a Cartesian coordinate sense, as the receiver framethat is, the frame of reference in relation to which other parts move. A principal one of such parts is, of course, the bolt 60, more specifically described later herein. When the bolt advances, it drives a round to be fired into battery. During firing the bolt is locked in battery position by bolt locks 68 and 69 (FIG. 11). The bolt carries along with it firing means in the form of a conventional pin 74 (FIG. 10). After firing, the bolt retracts (FIG. 1) to release the operating means from its latch 76 (FIGS. 15, l8) and to initiate the operation of the ammunition crossfeed mechanism (FIG. 24), which supplies a new round to be fired.
The operating rod group comprises a ganging member 62 of generally H-shaped configuration (FIG. 2) and four forwardly extending rods 114-117 which are symmetrically arranged and which project forwardly from the ganging member 62that is, the four rods extend in a generally horizontal direction parallel to the axis of the gun, whereas the central plane of the gauging member 62, to which the rear ends of the rods are secured, extends in a direction transverse to the axis of the gun. The gauging member and the four rods 114-117 constitute a trombonelike slide and the rods 114-117 are spaced from each other. The operating rod group will later be described in further detail, and suffice it for the present to say that, upon firing, the operating rod group 61 is given an initial impulse by the bolt and retracts to set up potential energy in the cross-feed mechanism and to unlock the bolt 60, whereupon the bolt is fully retracted, and the bolt in turn causes the operating rod to be freed from the rearward restraint, imposed on the operating rod group by latch 76 (FIGS. 15, 18), when the bolt has attained its rearmost position. After advancing slightly, the bolt 60 initiates the operation of the cross-feed mechanism (FIG. 24). The latter mechanism, when it has completed its round-feeding function, frees the bolt from latch 78 (FIGS. 15, 17, 24, 28), which bolt is then forced forwardly by the operating rod group 61 (FIG. 4). The springs and 86 (FIG. 24) which supply the driving power for the cross-feed mechanism having relaxed when the bolt and operating rod group are still in retracted positions, the forward motion of the operating rod group is also used to reset the cross-feed mechanism (FIG. 4).
It will be understood that, under normal automatic operation, whenever the bolt goes into battery the hammer element 72 of the firing control means impacts the firing pin 74 and causes the round in chamber to be fired (FIGS.
For present purposes, it need only be said that the ammunition cross-feed mechanism comprises a slider '77 (FIG. 24) which is so proportioned and arranged as to move a fresh round inboard and align it with the bore line of the gun at such times as the bolt and operating rod group are in retracted positions appropriate to permit the placement of said fresh round in the bore linei.e., in position ready to be chambered by later advancement of the bolt.
At this point it is noted that, in accordance with the invention, the firing control means is a part of the operating rod group, while the'firing pin is carried by the bolt. As the operating rod retracts after firing, a mechanical interrelationship between the operating rod group and the receiver causes the firing control means to be recocked (FIGS. 9, 10, 52), as previously indicated.
This summary of the principal elements having been provided, the description now proceeds to a typical cycle of operation of the automatic rocket launcher in accordance with the invention.
Cycle of operation In the description of a cycle of operation now to follow, the following conditions are assumed:
First, a round 118 is in chamber (FIG. 10) ready to be fired;
Second, the hammer 72 is restrained from forward thrust by the sear 71 (FIG. 9);
Third, the bolt 60 (FIG. 11) is in battery position with the forward faces of its locking grooves (FIG. 53) slightly in advance of the bolt locks;
Fourth, the operating rod group 61 is in advanced position;
Fifth, the bolt locks 68 and 69 are closed (FIG. 11);
Sixth, the bolt retract springs 65 and 66 are relaxed;
Seventh, the operating rod group advancing springs 63 and 64 are relaxed;
Eighth, the cross-feed slide tension springs 85 and 86 (FIG. 24) are relaxed;
Ninth, the cross-feed slide 77 is in out-board position;
Tenth, the next round to be fed 119 overlies the holding pawls 87 and 88 and the succeeding round 120 is just outboard of the holding pawls (FIG. 29);
Eleventh, the ejector drive pawl 122 (FIG. 24) is in engagement with the ejector slide 170;
Twelfth, the splined shaft 80 is clockwise;
Thirteenth, the holding pawls 87 and 88 are in their resting or central rotational positions (FIG. 29).
The discussion now assumes that firing is desired. This is accomplished by an abutment means 75 which moves rearwardly and causes counterclockwise rotation of the hammer cocking lever 73 (to the position shown in FIG. 7). Such abutment means may be a spring-loaded plunger or any mechanical element which causes counterclockwise rotation of the hammer cocking lever 73 by being displaced rearwardly. In order to maintain automatic operation the rearward displacement of said element 75 is preserved as long as automatic operation is desired. When automatic operation is to be terminated, then this abutment means 75 is moved forwardly so that it does not cause counterclockwise rotation of the hammer cocking lever 73 as the bolt 60 goes into battery.
The hammer cocking lever 73 and the sear 71 are so formed that counterclockwise rotation of the cocking lever 73 disengages the sear 71 from the hammer 72, releasing the hammer. When the hammer 72 is released, it is driven into the firing pin 74 by reason of the thrust imposed by a conventional compression spring. The firing pin 74 strikes a primer in the case of the rocket 118, igniting the propellant (FIG. 8).
The gases in the chamber drive the bolt 60 rearwardly, and the bolt in turn imparts momentum to the operating rod group 61 (FIG. 1). At the termination of this impulse and at the end of a partial retraction of the bolt, the front surfaces of the bolt locking grooves impact the bolt locks 68 and 69 and the bolt 60 is arrested, but the momentum of the operating rod group 61 is such that the operating rod group continues to retract (FIG. 2).
As the operating rod group moves rearwardly it performs three main functions now to be described: one of which is the recocking of the hammer cocking lever 73 (FIG. 9), another of which is the energizing of the cross feed mechanism (i.e., stretching of springs 85, 86), and the third of which is the energizing of the bolt retract springs 65 and 66 and operating rod advance springs 63 and 64. More specifically, during the rearward displacement of the o erating rod group a cam formation on the upper portion of the hammer cocking lever rides on a mating surface in the receiver 67, which mating surface is exaggerated at the rear so as to cause the hammer cocking level 73 to latch with the sear 71 (FIG. 9) as the operating rod group 61 approaches its fully retracted position. This mating surface is shown at 189 in FIG. 52. As the operating rod group 61 moves rearwardly (FIG. 2) the cross feed tension springs are loaded, i.e. caused to be tensed because the operating rod member 62 turns counterclockwise a splined shaft which moves the rock 79 inboard (FIGS. 29, 30). Simultaneously, the bolt retract springs 65 and 66 are compressed by the operating rod group, together with the operating rod advance springs 63 and 64, which likewise are compressed (FIG. 2).
Control by the operating rod is terminated because the operating rod is latched to the rear by a spring-loaded pivoted latch 76, the rear end of which is then in its upward position (FIG. 15). Immediately before the operating rod member 62 becomes latched in retract position it contacts the bolt unlock rod 70, the forward end of which then earns the bolt locks 68 and 69 outwardly, releasing the bolt, whereupon the bolt retraction springs 65 and 66 push the bolt rearwardly (FIGS. 2 and 3).
When the bolt 60 is fully retracted it impacts and turns clockwise (FIG. 24) the operating rod latch 76, thus unlatching the operating rod group and then both the operating rod group 61 and the bolt 60 move slightly forwardly until the dual-purpose bolt and cross feed slide latching means 78 arrests the bolt 60. At this phase of the cycle control is transferred to the cross feed slide 77, the bolt 60 being latched by latch 78, the operating rod group 61 being held to the rear by the bolt 60, the chamber being empty and conditions being appropriate for the placement of a new round 119 in the bore line of the rocket launcher. The dual-purpose latch 78 (FIG. 24) releases the feed slide 77 so that it may move inboard to perform the function of cross feeding a new round 119 into said bore line (FIGS. 2934). At the termination of the cross feeding operation thebolt 60 is released by the dual-purpose latching means 78, whereupon the bolt 60 and operating rod group 61 move forwardly, the bolt chambering the newly fed round 119. The splined shaft 80 (FIG. 4) is turned clockwise, thus to move the rack 79 and cross-feed slide 77 into the outboard position so that the cross-feed slide may pick up a third round 120 to be later fed at the termination of the next firing operation (FIG. 34).
As the bolt 60 moves into battery, the hammer cocking lever 73 again strikes the abutment means 75 (FIGS. 7-8) and causes firing of the newly fed or second round 119 to occur.
This cycle of operation is repeated automatically at the high firing rate characteristic of automatic rocket launcher.
The bolt The bolt 60 is generally cylindrical or piston-like in form and has a solid frontal or head portion 123 (FIG. 8) and a hollow intermediate portion 124 (FIG. 10). An extractor 125 (FIG. 12) is provided on front of the bolt. At the rear the bolt is formed with two L-shaped wings 127 and 128 suitably formed to provide bearings 129, 130, so that the bolt is slidably reciprocally mounted on the symmetrical pair of rods 116, 117 (FIG. 2). Suitably centrally positioned in and carried by the bolt is a convention firing pin 74 (FIGS. 10, 11). When the bolt and operating rod group are in battery position, there projects into the hollow portion 124 of the bolt and between the two wings 127 and 128 the hammer 72, biased forwardly by a hammer spring. When the bolt 60 is in battery position, it projects into the rear portion of the barrel 131. The bolt is further formed with longitudinal locking grooves 132, 133 (FIG. 53). The front faces 252 and 253 of these grooves 132 and 133 are forward of the bolt locks 68 and 69 as the bolt is in battery, ready to fire, and the front faces 252, 253 are engaged by the bolt locks as the bolt is arrested and control transferred to the operating rod group, immediately after firing (FIG. 1).
The bolt wings 127 and 128 are secured to the rear ends of compression springs 65 and 66, which are coiled around rods 116 and 117, and, upon retraction of the operating rod group 61, are compressed to supply energy for retraction of the bolt (FIGS. 1 and 2). Accordingly the front ends of these springs 65 and 66 are secured elfectively to caps 134 and 135 on the front ends of the rods 116 and 117. It should be noted that the bolt 60 is at all times positioned in front of the H-shaped ganging member 62 of the operating rod group.
Additionally, the bolt Wing 123 is formed with a cam surface 136 such that when the bolt reaches its retracted position it releases the operating rod latch 76 from the operating rod member 62. It has been stated that, as the bolt advances slightly from the last-mentioned position, it engages the dual purpose latching means 78 (FIG. 17) and is itself rearwardly restrained. Accordingly, it is suitably formed for that purpose. More specifically, and reiterating, the bolt turns the latch 76 counterclockwise (FIG. to release its rear end 148 from the operating rod, and as the bolt advances it becomes engaged by rear end 145 of latch 78 (FIG. 17).
The bolt performs the following active and passive functions: First, it chambers the ammunition (i.e. advances to ram the individual rounds of ammunition into the firing chamber); second, it provides, when locked (FIG. 11), a closure for the rear end of the firing chamber; third, it provided a housing for the firing pin; fourth, it provides means 125 (FIG. 12) for extracting an unexpended round when desired; fifth, upon firing the resultant gas pressures cause the bolt to move rearwardly (FIG. 1), providing the impulse which gives sufiicient momentum to the operating rod group so that such group 61 continues to retract; sixth, it impacts against the bolt locks 68 and 69 to be arrested as the retracting motion of the operating rod continues; seventh, it is unlocked by the action of the operating means, impacting the bolt unlock rod 76 (FIG. 15), whereupon the bolt is driven to the rear by the bolt retract springs 65 and 66 (FIG. 2); eighth, it unlatches the operating rod group at the end of the bolt retract stroke; ninth, it actuates the dual-purpose latching means 78 in such a way that the bolt is itself latched in position (FIG. 17) slightly in advance of its extremely retracted position and further in such a manner that the cross-feed slide 77 is released to feed a new round (FIG. 3); and finally, the bolt is released by the dualpurpose latching means 78 to advance into battery to chamber the newly fed round, being driven by the operating rod group into advanced position (FIG. 4).
The operating rod group It will be understood that the operating rod group 61 and the bolt 60 advance together as a round is being chambered (FIG. 4), preparatory to firing. After firing of a round and a small initial displacement of the bolt and operating rod, the bolt stops while the operating rod group fully retracts (FIG. 15 causing the bolt to be unlocked, whereupon the bolt is retracted (FIGS. 2 and 3).
Attention is invited to the fact that the following are symmetrical First, arrangement of the four rods 114417 of the operating group with respect to the bore line;
Second, arrangement of the two bearings 129, 130 formed in the bolt wings with respect to said bore line;
Third, arrangement of the two bearings 137, 138 (FIGS. 3, 8) in the stationary receiver frame (which slidably receive rods 114, 115, respectively) with respect to the bore line;
Fourth, the arrangement of the compression springs 65 and 66 which retract the bolt 66, again with respect to the bore line;
Fifth, the arrangement of the compression springs 63 and 6-4 which advance the operating rod group 61, also with respect to the bore line.
Because of this symmetrical pattern balance and freedom from vibration are achieved and the effect is equivalent to that which would (be the case if no fore-and-aft moving elements, offset from the bore line, existed. That is to say, the offset of any particular element, such as 114, is balanced out by the offset of a like symmetrical element, such as 115, and the end result is effectively a concentration of the bolt and operating means elements along the line of fire, so far as forces in the direction of the bore axis are concerned. The resultant of all these forces exerts no turning moment or other tendency to vibration or undue shock.
The operating means here shown comprises a rear ganging member 62 of H-shaped configuration and four rods 114-117 symmetrically arranged and projecting forward from the ganging member in parallelism to the bore line. Rods 114 and 115 slide in bearings 137 and 138, respectively (FIGS. 3 and 8). Rods 116 and 117 are in slidable relation to bearings 129 and 130, respectively (FIGS. 8 and 21).
Receiver frame elements 137 and 138 provide fixed reference points or bearings with reference to which the operating rod group reciprocates. Coiled around rods 114 and 115 and secured between the front shoulders of these fixed reference frame elements and the front caps 139 and 140 of the operating rod group are a pair of strainable elements or coil springs 63 and 64 which are iereinafter referred to in the claims as the second compressible means. When the operating rod is retracted (FIG. 1) these two springs 63 and 64 are compressed in order to supply power which is later used to drive the operating rod group forward.
Coiled around rods 116 and 117 and secured between the front end caps 134 and 135 of the operating rod and the bolt are a pair of springs and 66 collectively referred to as the first compressible means. These springs are compressed as the operating rod group retracts (FIG. 1) and, when the bolt is released, they expand and are relieved while they drive the bolt rearwardly (FIG. 2).
The operating rod group 61 performs the following active and passive functions: First, as the bolt 60 chambers the ammunition the operating rod group 61 is powered by the rod advance springs 63 and 64 to drive the bolt forwardly (FIG. 4); second, it provides a housing for the firing control elements, to wit: hammer 72, hamrner cocking lever 73 and sear 71; third, upon firing and retraction of the bolt it acquires momentum from the bolt (FIG. 1) and retracts to compress the bolt retract springs 65 and 66 and the operating rod advance springs 63 and 64; fourth, as it retracts it turns the splined shaft 80 to move rack 79 to tension the cross-feed slide springs 85 and 86; fifth, near the end of its retract stroke it impacts the bolt unlock rod to unlock the bolt; sixth, at the end of its retract stroke it engages the operating rod latch 76 to be rearwardly restrained thereby (FIG. 15); seventh, as the bolt achieves f-ull retraction it releases the operating rod latch 76 from the operating rod group (FIG 17); eighth, after the operating rod group is released it is held back by the bolt while the round feeding occurs (FIG. 3); ninth, the operating rod group advances to reset the cross-feed rack and slide and, under the force of the operating rod advance springs 63 and 64,
to drive the bolt and new round into battery (FIG; 4); and tenth, parenthetically, in cooperation with the receiver, the operating rod group recocks the hammer cocking lever 73 as the operating rod group retracts and, again in cooperation with the abutment means 75 on the receiver, the operating rod group moves the hammer cocking lever 73 counterclockwise to cause the newly fed round to be fired when the bolt is in battery.
Secured to the operating rod group member 62 is a bolt lock closing device comprising a pair of wings 248 and 249 (FIGS. 14, 15, and 54) suitably formed to strike cam surfaces 250 and 251 on the bolt locks, thereby positively to close the locks.
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|CH3565A *||Title not available|
|CH215689A *||Title not available|
|GB519870A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3777614 *||Jun 3, 1971||Dec 11, 1973||Remington Arms Co Inc||Obturator for firearm adapted to fire caseless or expendable ammunition|
|US4224944 *||Aug 21, 1978||Sep 30, 1980||Roberts Wallace A||Epilation apparatus|
|US8844423 *||Jun 17, 2013||Sep 30, 2014||Nordic Components, Inc.||Blowback bolt upper receiver and barrel assembly|
|U.S. Classification||89/183, 89/199, 89/149, 89/190, 89/1.801, 89/194, 89/26, 89/1.813|
|International Classification||F41A9/75, F41F3/04, F41A9/32, F41A9/22, F41A5/00, F41F3/00, F41A5/34, F41A19/00, F41A3/00, F41A9/00, F41A19/30, F41A9/49, F41A3/38, F41A9/78|
|Cooperative Classification||F41A9/32, F41A9/22, F41A19/30, F41A9/49, F41A5/34, F41F3/04, F41A3/38, F41A9/75, F41A9/78|
|European Classification||F41A9/49, F41A3/38, F41A19/30, F41A9/75, F41F3/04, F41A9/78, F41A9/22, F41A5/34, F41A9/32|