US 3316742 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 2, 1967 J. F. WELLEKENS 3,316,742
LOCKS Filed July 9, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 9 FIG.I.
Jg hn F. Wellekens diiorng May 2, W? J. F. WELLEKENS LOCKS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 9, 1965 FIGJI.
INVENTOR. John F. WeLlekens BY l a" I United States Patent 3,316,742 LOCKS John F. Wellekens, New York, N.Y., assignor to Hotel Security Systems Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed July 9, 1965, Ser. No. 470,709 13 Claims. (Cl. 70-379) This invention relates to locks, and more particularly to a type of lock adapted for use on the doors of vending machine cabinets or on the doors or other parts of appliance cabinets, and one of the objects of the invention is to provide a lock of this character which cannot be readily picked or broken into and having a construction which prevents it from being readily wrenched or pried apart.
It is another object of the invention to provide a lock of this character in which the combination can be easily and speedily changed whenever required to thereby adapt the lock to a new key of different contour. This enables the lock to have its combination quickly changed whenever it is ascertained that pilfering has taken place or is likely to occur because of the possession of a key which fits the lock by an unauthorized person.
With these and other objects to be hereinafter set forth in view, I have devised the arrangement of parts to be described and more particularly pointed out in the claims appended hereto.
In the accompanying drawings, wherein an illustrated embodiment of the invention is disclosed,
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a lock constructed according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the coupling member or clutch;
FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the lock;
FIG. 4 is an elevational view of the lock tube or jacket;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view, taken substantially on the line 55, looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 6 is a view of the bolt-controlling spindle;
FIG. 7 is a view, partly in section, of a slightly modified construction;
FIG. 8 is an elevational view, partly in section of the collar or spin element;
FIG. 9 is a view similar to FIG. in its unlocked condition;
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of the guard, and
FIG. 11 is a bottom view in a smaller scale, of the cup or clutch member of FIG. 2.
Referring to the drawings, and more particularly to FIG. 1 thereof, there is shown therein at 1, a portion of a door or other part of a cabinet or other enclosure for example, to which the lock is applied. The door 1 is formed with a hole in which the cylindrical, cup-shaped casing 2 of the lock is mounted, said casing being provided at its forward end with an enlargement or flange 3 of annular shape which overlies the front of the door around the hole therein.
The door or other element 1 in which the lock is mounted is clamped or confined between the flange 3 on the casing 2 and a nut 4 which engages the threads 4a provided on the exterior of the casing 2, the casing being thus stationarily maintained relatively to the door.
Located centrally and axially of the casing 2 is the locking mechanism generally indicated at 5. This locking mechanism 5 is preferably, although not necessarily, of a construction similar to that disclosed in my co-pending application for Patent Ser. No. 355,011, filed Mar. 26, 1964, now Patent No. 3,260,080. Such type of lock is one in which the combination can be very speedily and easily changed whenever desired to enable the lock to be operated by a selected key. Thus, an important feature 1, but showing the lock "ice of the present invention resides in the fact that when the possibility exists of the lock being opened by a person or persons having unauthorized possession of a suitable key, the combination of the lock can be changed and this without the use of tools so that a new and different key will be required to open the lock.
In a lock of this kind, a plurality of wafer-like, diskshaped tumblers 6 are employed, such tumblers being provided in their peripheral edge with a plurality of notches, one of which is shown in each of the tumblers at 7. By the alignment of selected ones of the notches in the several tumblers, a certain combination is set for the acceptance of a specific key. Thus, all that the lock requires for the setting of a desired combination is the manual rotational adjustment of the several tumblers 6 to selected positions according to the contour of the key to be employed. This can be done by finger operation and without the use of tools while the tumbler assembly is out of the casing. The structural details of a lock of this nature are more specifically shown and described in my above mentioned Patent No. 3,260,080.
A spring-biased latch for the lock assembly 5 is shown at 8, the same in its extended or locked position being shown in FIG. 1. Said latch is controlled by the turning of the proper key 9 in the lock. The latch 8 projects radially out of the lock mechanism 5 and extends through an opening 10 (FIG. 4) provided in the wall of a sleeve or jacket 11 of cylindrical form within which the lock mechanism 5 is closely fitted.
The retracted or open position of the latch 8 secured by the turning of the key 9, is shown in dotted lines in FIG. 1 and in full lines in FIG. 9 and it will be noted that regardless of whether the latch 8 is advanced or retracted it will always protrude to some extent out of the opening 10 in the jacket 11 so that the lock mechanism 5 cannot be moved axially out of the jacket 11 except when it is specifically desired to remove it and in such case the door 1 or other elements in which the lock is mounted must be in an open position. This will be presently described.
The jacket 11 is provided in its interior with a longitudinal rib 18 (FIGS. 4 and 5) which engages in the groove 7a formed by the alignment of the tumblers of the lock mechanism 5. This holds the tumblers in the adjusted position in which they are set by the user of the lock for the acceptance of a specific key.
Located concentrically around the outside of the tube or jacket 11 and within the casing 2 is a cylindrical annular collar or sleeve 12 constituting a handle portion and which may be shaped accordingly. Said collar or sleeve 12 is capable of rotative movement relatively to the casing and to the jacket 11 and is maintained against axial withdrawal out of the casing 2 by means of a retaining ring 13 engaging in an annular groove 14 (FIG. 8) formed in the peripheral face of the collar 12, and in a similar groove 15 formed in the inner face of the casing 2. As an alternative for the retaining ring, screws or pins 16 (FIG. 7) passing through the casing 2 and entering the groove 14 in the collar 12 may be employed. At its forward end the collar 12 is provided with diametrically opposite recesses 17 which can receive an implement or fitted-on handle part by means of which the collar 12 can be rotatively moved.
At its rear end, or that which is shown lowermost in FIG. 1, the collar 12 is stepped to provide shoulders or ledges 19 and 20. This arrangement results in the production of parts 21 and 22 of different internal diameters in the collar. That part shown at 21 is of lesser daimeter than the part shown at 22. The rear or bottom edge of the part 22 is toothed or serrated as shown at 23 (see FIG. 8).
Located within the casing 2 and encircling the rear part of the jacket 11 is a cup-shaped coupling member or clutch 24, clearly shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 11. Said member 24 has a bottom wall 25 formed with a nonround opening 26 which may be of hexagonal shape. The opening 26 through the clutch member 24 fits closely around a hexagonal or complementarily-shaped head 27 formed on a spindle 28 which passes through an opening 30 in the rear wall 31 of the lock casing 2 and is capable of rotation therein relatively to the casing. The spindle 28 may be provided with threads 29 and can be connected or coupled to bolt-actuating mechanism in any known manner so that by its rotative movement it will advance or retract the bolt or locking element. This arrangement is such that when the clutch member 24 is rotated, it will in co-operation with the actuation of the lock mechanism by the use of the key 9, rotatively move the spindle 28 to effect a locking or unlocking of the bolt mechanism.
The upper or forward end of the clutch member 24 is toothed or serrated as shown at 32 (FIG. 2), these teeth or serrations 32 being adapted, when the cup is in an advanced position, to serve as a clutch means to engage with the teeth 23 provided on the collar 12, thus coupling the collar 12 to the clutch member or cup 24 so that when the collar 12 is rotated, the clutch member or cup 24 and hence the spindle 2S engaged by it will also be rotated, the bolt-actuating mechanism being operated accordingly.
When the lock is in the locked position as shown in FIG. 1, the clutch or cup 24 is held in a retracted position or is separated from the collar 12 and thus, when the parts are in this position, the collar 12, jacket 11 and lock mechanism 5 can be freely rotated within the casing without causing a relative movement of the spindle 28 and hence no actuation of a bolt or other locking elements connected to the spindle.
The clutch or cup member 24 is spring-biased in a forward direction by means of a coil spring 33 extending around the clutch member and located between a shoulder 34a on the clutch member and the rear wall 31 of the casing. In the locked condition of the lock, as seen in FIG. 1, the cup 24 is held against forward movement under the urge of the spring 33, by the abutment of its rear or bottom wall 25 against the rear end of the jacket 11 as indicated at 34 in FIG. 1. As a result, the teeth 32 on the clutch member or cup 24 and the teeth 23 on the collar 12 are at this time held apart or disengaged. The lock mechanism 5 and its surrounding jacket 11are held at this time against axial movement by the abutment of the latch 8 against the shoulder 20 on the collar 12 in the manner seen in FIG. 1. The rear wall 25 of the clutch member 24 may be provided on its exterior with serrations or teeth 37 (FIG. 9) for engagement with serrations 36 on the inner face of the rear wall 31 of the casing 2.
From the foregoing, the operation of the improved locking means will be readily understood. In FIG. 1, the parts are shown in the positions which they assume when the lock is in its locked position. In this position, the latch 8 is fully advanced so that it is then located in the wider-diameter part 22 of the collar 12 and it takes under the shoulder 20 defining the forward end of the area 22. Since at this time the clutch member 24 is restrained from forward movement (or upward movement as viewed in FIG. 1) by the contact of the clutch member 24 with the inner end of the jacket 11 at the point 34, the clutch member 24 is thus held disenaged from the collar 12. As a result, any attempt to wrench the lock open will merely cause the elements 5, 11 and 12 to freely turn while the clutch member 24 remains stationary so that no rotation of the spindle 28 will take place.
When it is desired to unlock the device, the turning of the proper key 9 in the lock mechanism 5 will cause a retraction of the latch 8 to the position shown in dotted lines in FIG. 1, which is also that shown in full lines in FIG. 9. When the latch 8 is thus retracted it will clear the shoulder 20 and the spring 33 will thereupon become effective to urge the clutch member 24 forwardly (or upwardly as viewed in FIG. 1) to cause the teeth or serrations 32 on the clutch member to engage the teeth 23 on the rear end of the collar 12, thus coupling the clutch member 24 and the collar 12 together. It now follows that when the collar 12 is manually rotated by a handle or other tool engaging the recesses 17, the clutch member 24 will be rotated and by its engagement between its hexagonal opening 26 and the complementary hexagonal shape of the head 27 of the spindle 28, the spindle 28 will be rotatively moved and hence the bolt-mechanism coupled to said spindle will be retracted.
When the clutch member 24 is moved forwardly under the urge of the spring 33, it will act to push the jacket or sleeve 11 and the lock mechanism 5 contained therein, slightly forwardly as clearly seen in FIG. 9, such forward movement of the lock mechanism and jacket being halted by the contact of the retracted latch 8 against the shoulder 19. As the clutch member 24 is moved forwardly, the serrations or teeth 37 provided on the rear face of the clutch member as shown in FIG. 11, will be separated from the similar serrations 36 on the inner face of the wall 31 of the casing so that the rotative movement of the clutch member 24 relative to the casing 2 will not be prevented.
When it is desired to actuate the parts of the lock into the locked position of FIG. 1, the proper key 9 is inserted by a push imposed on the advanced forward end of the lock mechanism 5 and its surrounding jacket 11, the parts are restored to the position shown in FIG. 1, and the rear end of the jacket 11 will abut against the clutch member 24 and depress it away from the collar 12 and thus separate the teeth or serrations 32 and 23. Also this will bring the serrations 36 and 37 into engagement. As the key 9 is turned it will permit the latch 8 to be moved to advanced position so that the same will then take behind the shoulder 20. Then, since the rotative collar 12 and the clutch member 24 are in separated or disengaged relationship, any rotative movement of either the lock mechanism 5 or the jacket 11 thereon or the collar 12 will not cause any rotative movement of the spindle 28.
To prevent looseness or slack and to hold the head 27 of the spindle 28 down against the rear wall of the casing 2, a spring 60 located between the rear end of the lock mechanism 5 and the forward end of the head 27 may be employed.
As a safeguard against reaching and turning the spindle 28 or a lever or other bolt-actuating parts thereon, a guard can be provided .as shown at 55. The guard (which has been omitted from FIGS. 3, 7 and 9) is of U-shape as is more clearly disclosed in FIG. 10. The legs of the guard are provided at the forward end with laterallyprojecting flanges 56 which are spot welded to the inside of the door 1 as shown in FIG. 1. Since the guard is open at two sides, the mounting nut 4 can be readily turned to release the assembly without requiring the removal of the guard.
The embodiment shown in FIG. 7 is, in most respects, similar to that of FIG. 1 except that in the structure of FIG. 7, the casing is provided at its forward end with a radial flange 2a which is attached to the door 1 by means of the screws or bolts shown at 53. The collar 12a is extended radially to some extent to provide for a fingerengaging surface 311 which can, if desired, be irregularly shaped or else provided with projections or recesses to enable the fingers to firmly engage and rotate the collar 12a when required.
When it is desired to change the combination or setting of the tumblers in the lock mechanism 5, to enable the lock to accommodate a differently-contoured key, the lock mechanism 5 is then slid out of the jacket 11; the wafer-type tumblers are then adjusted relatively to one another to match the contour of the new key, and the lock mechanism is then replaced in the jacket 11. It is removed from within the jacket for the purpose above mentioned by forcing the latch 8 inwardly to such an extent as to enable it to clear the opening 10 in the jacket 11. When this is done, the lock mechanism 5 can be drawn forwardly out of the jacket and the tumblers then rotatively set for a new key. The latch 8 can be depressed to clear the opening 10 and to permit the removal of the lock mechanism 5 from the jacket, by means of a slender implement that can be inserted through aligned holes 50 and 51 (FIG. 1) respectively provided in the wall of the casing 2 and the collar 12. To enable these holes to be disposed in registration with one another so that the implement can be passed through them to engage against the latch 8, lines or other indicia provided on the front surface of the collar 12 and on an adjacent front part of the casing 2 may be employed to indicate when the holes 50 and 51 are in alignment.
The construction is such that the lock may be made small and compact. The proportions of some of the parts of the lock shown in the drawings are necessarily exaggerated to more clearly disclose the construction and operation.
Having thus described a single embodiment of the invention, it is obvious that the same is not to be restricted thereto, but is broad enough to cover all structures coming within the scope of the annexed claims.
What I claim is:
1. A lock comprising, a housing, a sleeve disposed axially Within the same, said sleeve having an aperture in its side wall, a tumbler assembly contained within the sleeve, said tumbler assembly including a latch extending laterally through the aperture in the sleeve, a collar disposed around the sleeve and rotative relatively thereto, a cup arranged behind the sleeve, spring means biasing the cup against the rear of the sleeve, a bolt-actuating spindle disposed behind the sleeve and tumbler assembly and having a part surrounded by the cup so that any turning movement of the cup is imparted to the spindle, clutch elements on the cup and collar, the collar having means for positioning the latch in a first position when the latch is advanced and in a second position when the latch is retracted, and the spring means being efitective to move the latch from the first position to the second position when the latch is retracted and to cause the engagement of the clutch means when the latch is in its retracted position.
2. In a lock, a bolt-actuating, rotative spindle, a tubular element arranged around a part of the spindle and having axial movement relatively to the spindle and being capable of rotating the spindle when said element is rotated, a tumbler assembly, spring means for urging the tubular element against the assembly, a cylindrical element rotative around the tumbler assembly, a latch extending from the tumbler assembly and engageable with the cylindrical element, means on the cylindrical element for locating the latch in a first position Within it when the latch is in an extended position, means for locating the latch in a second position Within the cylindrical element when the latch is in a retracted position, co-operating clutch means on the cylindrical element and on the tubular element for coupling said elements together under the urge of the spring means When the latch is located in the second position.
3. In a lock according to claim 2, wherein the cylindrical element is stepped in its interior and the latch, when in its first position, is in engagement with one of the steps and when in its second position is in engagement with another one of the steps, and the clutch means comprises serrations on the forward end of the tubular member and on the rear end of the cylindrical member, and the spring means is effective to cause the engagement of the serrations on one of the members with the serrations on the other member.
4. In a lock, a spindle controlling a bolt-actuating means, a rotative spindle-turning member arranged around the spindle, means permitting said spindle-turning member to have axial movement relatively to the spindle while maintaining its coupling thereto, a lock tumbler assembly located forwardly of the spindle, a collar arranged around the tumbler assembly, a latch extending radially from the tumbler assembly and engaging the collar, spring means for urging the spindle-turning member toward the collar, and clutch means on the spindle-turning member and collar effective to couple the collar and spindle-turning member together only when the latch is in a retracted position in the collar.
5. In a lock, a cup-shaped casing attached to a door, a spindle protruding out of the rear of the casing for coupling to bolt-actuating means, the spindle having a nonround head located Within the casing, a clutch member surrounding the head and having a non-round opening fitted around the head so that rotative movement of said clutch member will rotate the spindle, spring means tending to urge the clutch member away from the head, a tumbler assembly located centrally in the casing and forwardly of the head, a sleeve arranged around the tumbler assembly, said sleeve having an opening in its side Wall, a retractable latch projecting from the tumbler assembly and extending through said opening, a collar arranged around the outside of the sleeve, the collar having a stepped rear end, the latch being arranged for engagement with one of the steps when the latch is in an extended position and engaged With another of the steps when in a retracted position, means on the collar for engagement by the clutch to couple the clutch to the collar, said engagement being possible only when the latch is in a retracted position.
6. In a lock, a casing containing a sleeve, a tumbler assembly of cylindrical form fitted Within the sleeve, a latch extensible from the tumbler assembly, the sleeve having an opening through which the latch extends, a rotatable collar arranged around the outside of the sleeve and having a portion engaged by the latch, a springbiased clutch arranged around the sleeve adjacent to the rear of the sleeve, a bolt-actuating spindle engaged by the clutch, spring means tending to urge the clutch toward the collar to cause coupling of the same with the collar, and with the latch preventing such coupling while said latch is in its extended or locking position.
7. In a lock according to claim 6, wherein the latch is retractable to an extent to permit it to clear the opening in the sleeve to allow the tumbler assembly to be drawn out of the sleeve for the resetting of its tumblers, the sleeve being provided With an internal rib, and the tumblers of the assembly having notches for selective alignment to produce a groove into which the rib is accommodated and the setting of the tumblers maintained by Said rib.
8. In a lock according to claim 6, wherein the for- Ward edge of the clutch is serrated, the rear end of the collar being also serrated so that coupling between the collar and clutch is attained by engagement between the serrations, the spring means surrounding the clutch, the collar being internally stepped, and the collar and casing being provided with perforations in registry by rotative movement of the collar to enable an implement to be extended through such registered perforations to engage the latch and depress it to enable the lock assembly to be taken out of the sleeve.
9. In a lock, a bolt spindle adapted for rotation, a spring-biased clutch arranged around the spindle for rotating the spindle, means permitting said clutch to have axial movement relatively to the spindle while maintaining its coupling thereto, a tumbler assembly enclosed in a jacket and including a radially-projecting latch, a freely-rotatable collar around said jacket into which the latch extends, said collar having means to either locate the latch in a first position when the latch is extended or to locate it in a second position when the latch is re- 7 tracted, spring means moving the clutch to coupling position with the collar when the latch is in a retracted position whereby rotative movement of the collar will then rotate the clutch and the clutch will thereupon rotate the spindle.
10. In a lock, a cylindrical casing mounted on the back of a door around an opening in the door, a U-shaped protective guard extending around the casing and secured to the door, a cylindrical lock assembly in the casing, a latch extending laterally from the lock assembly, a sleeve in which the lock assembly is mounted and through which the latch extends, a rotatable collar around the outside of the sleeve, a bolt-actuating spindle, a clutch member arranged around the spindle and coupled thereto and axially movable in respect to the spindle, and spring means for urging the clutch member toward the collar for coupling therewith, and means for holding the clutch member away from the collar as long as the latch is in an extended or locking position.
11. A lock comprising, a bolt-actuating rotative element, a freely-rotating collar, a lock assembly around which the collar is rotative, a latch projecting from the lock assembly and engaging the collar, a clutch member coupled to the bolt-actuating element, and spring means for causing a coupling engagement of the clutch member with the collar but only when the latch member is retracted, and means on the collar engaging the latch when the latch is in an extended position for causing the clutch member to be disposed in disengaged position in respect to the collar.
12. In a lock, a. cylindrical tumbler assembly, a sleeve fitted around the same, a rotative stepped collar located around the sleeve, the tumbler assembly including a radially-extending latch for engaging with one or the other of the steps in the collar, a clutch member located behind the tumbler assembly, a spring for urging the clutch member toward the collar, means limiting the forward movement of the clutch member toward the collar when the latch is extended to engage with one of the steps, a spindle engaged by the clutch member and rotated thereby when the clutch member is rotated while the latch is in a retracted position and while the cl tch member is coupled to the collar.
13. In a look, a tumbler assembly including a laterally-projecting latch, a collar rotatively arranged around the tumbler assembly, the collar having shoulder means against which the latch engages to hold the tumbler assembly in either an advanced position when said latch is retracted or retracted position when said latch is extended, a rotative spindle, a clutch arranged around the spindle, said clutch having means for rotating the spindle and spring-biasing means engaging the clutch and urging the clutch toward the collar and being effective to conple the clutch and spindle together to the collar when the lock assembly is disposed in its advanced position.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,532,009 3/1925 Westaway -223 1,918,411 7/1933 Lowe 70-223 1,954,209 4/1934 Jacobi 70--368 1,969,011 8/1934 Jacobi 70368 2,549,724 4/1951 Tinnerman 70-370 MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.
P. TEITELBAUM, Assistant Examiner.