US 3321834 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 30, 1967 R. BURNS 3,321,334
GRADE STAKE AND MARKER CAP THEREFOR Filed Dec. 15, 1964 F/msmro 624.55 5
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United States Patent Office 3,321,834 Patented May 30, 1967 3 321 834 ensue STAKE ANDMARKER CAP rnnnnron Robert L. Burns, Salinas, Califi, assignor to Thomas E. Avilla, Seaside, Calif, and Clyde S. Lafitte, Monterrey, Calif.
Filed Dec. 15, 1964, Ser. No. 418,471 3 Claims. (Cl. 33-74) This invention relates to grading markers and more particularly to a grade stake and cap therefor.
The present invention involves a grade marker adapted for use in the grading of streets, roadways, building sites and other areas where natural grade is to be changed to a finished man-made level, grade or contour. In such grading operations it is the usual practice for surveyors to set out stakes at particular locations along the terrain as targets for the operators of earth moving equipment to use in sighting the amount of cut and/or fill to be moved and/ or placed in the area worked upon.
In the past it has been the custom to use wooden stakes which are considered expendable. Wooden stakes have to be pounded down by mallets to set the top of each stake at the desired level to be established. It will therefore be appreciated that in many locations where a cut of earth is to be made, the stakes are below natural grade and therefore not visible. Moreover, if the earth is rocky or a former roadway with a rock filled base, such hard surfaces resist the entry of wooden stakes. Consequently the wooden stakes split or have their tops splintered which renders them unsuittable for showing a correct or readable level.
The present invention seeks to alleviate the forgoing difficulties by the provision of a molded plastic or a metal stake which may be reclaimed and used again on other jobs. The invention further contemplates the provision of a cap to be placed upon each stake after the latter has been set.
In accordance with the present invention it is an object to provide caps adapted to be secured to the stakes to render them visible from various angles to aid the grader operator in establishing a cut or the amount of fill in accordance with the surveyors markings.
It is another object of this invention to provide a removable cap for a headed stake and means between the cap and stake for securing them together. In this connection it is an object to provide each cap with a hub on its lower surface with a socket conforming in shape with the head end of the stakes and with flexible means on the hub facilitating stretch fit of the hub over the head of the stake.
It is still another object of this invention to provide each stake with a frusto conical head having a barbed lower end and each cap with a hub portion cavitied to fit such head and flanged to grip the barbed lower end of the stake head.
It is another object to provide such stakes with appendages serving as sighting marks by which the operator of earth moving equipment can gauge the setting of the equipment from afar.
It is yet another object to provide each stake and cap with common connecting means facilitating interchangeability of the various caps with the stakes at various 1ocations according to needs.
These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from a reading of the following description in the light of the drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a sectional view through the natural grade of earth to be leveled to a finished grade as established by the location of markers constructed in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a partially sectionalized elevation of one of the markers of FIG. 1 as seen substantially along line 2-2 thereof.
FIG. 3 is a side elevation of a marker cap of the present invention in its simplest form.
FIG. 4 is a top plan view of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 3.
FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view of the marker of the present invention and showing the cap about to be mounted on a stake which is shown fragmentarily.
FIG. 7 is a side elevation of a modified form of the cap shown in FIGS. 2 and 3.
FIG. 8 is a top plan view of FIG. 7.
Referring to the drawing the markers generally designated 10 each comprise a stake 11 and a cap 12.
In accordance with the present invention each cap 12 includes a disc like upper portion 13 having a flat lower surface 14 from which a hub portion 15 extends axially of the disc 13. Each disc 13, hub portion 15 and stake 11 is identical in each form of the disclosure and therefore like reference numerals apply to each of these common elements.
The stake 11 best illustrated in FIG. 2 is made of a durable solid-rigid material such as metal, plastic and the like for preserving the stake against destruction during normal use. The stakes may be of any desired length as required in increments of two inches. The most useful or common lengths would be 2", 4", 6", 8", 10', 12 and the like. Each stake 11 has a shank 16 which is preferably of such diameter as to withstand bending or bowing during hammering thereof into earth. The lower end 17 of each stake 11 is pointed for entry into earth.
Each stake 11 has a head 18 of frusto-conical shape and of a length such as to fit within the hub portion 15 of any one cap 12. The frusto-conical head 18 has a flat upper surface 19 suitable for striking by a hammer or mallet when the stake is being driven into earth. The fiat top 19 of each stake 11 is of a diameter slightly greater than that of the shank 1d. The frusto-conical head 18 spreads to a diameter which is approximately double the size of the shank 16 of the stake 11. The lower end of each head 18 thus provides a shoulder .20 beyond the perimeter of the shank 16. This shoulder 20 is preferably countersunk to present a barb-like lower end 21 on the head 18 of each stake.
The hub portion 15 of each cap 12 has an internal cavity 25 conforming substantially to the head 18 of anyone stake 11. The top 19 of the cavity 25' is at the same plane as the flat lower surface 14 of the cap 12 so that when the top 19 of the stake 11 rests against the top 19' of the cavity 25 the lower surface of such cap is disposed at the same plane as the top 19 of the stake.
The hub portion 15 is of a slightly greater length than the frusto-conical head 18 of any one stake. Thus it will be seen in FIG. 2 that the widest spread 20 of the cavity 25 which fits the shoulder 20 on the head 18 of a stake is spaced slightly from the bottom 26 of the hub portion 15. This leaves an annular flange portion 27 on the lower end of the hub portion 15 surrounding a hole 28 of a diameter comparable to that of the shank 16 of a stake 11. The internal face 29 of this annular flange 27 is preferably tapered to conform with the taper of the frusto-conical head 18 of any one stake 11. By this arrangement the opening at the bottom 26 of the hub portion 15 is slightly larger than the diameter of the shank 16 so as to admit the smallest end 19 of the head portion 18 in funnel like fashion.
In connection with the foregoing it should be understood that each cap portion 12 is made of a firm yet flexible plastic material so that the flange 27 of the hub portion 15 will stretch over the frusto-conical head 18. Once the head portion 18 is seated within the conforming cavity 25 the flanged portion 27 will snap back into its normal shape and thereby become secured over the shoulder 20 on the head 18 of the stake.
As best seen in FIG. 1 the caps may have various shapes and embellishments. The cap 12 on the left in FIG. 1 as detailed in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 is a plain disc 13 of flat conical shape rising from a base along the plane of the lower surface 14 to an apex 3t co-axial of the disc 13 and hub portion 15.
The cap 12 on the right hand side of FIG. 1 as illustrated in FIG. 2 includes a spire 31 which is co-axial of the cone shaped disc 13 and rises to an apex 30 Well above the disc.
The cap 12" shown centrally of FIG. 1 as illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8 includes a lateral arm 32 projecting radially from one side of the disc 13 approximately one radial length therefrom. This arm 32 is of a thickness approximately one half the height of the common disc 13 and has its lower surface co-planar with the lower surface 14 of the disc. The arm 32 is of a width suflicient to support a spire 31" which has an apex 30" and is comparable to the one 31 but in offset relation to the axis of the disc 13".
The spires 31 and 31 are preferably molded integrally with the respective discs 13 3" and therefore are flexible such as to yield if accidentally struck and thereby will keep the stakes on which they are mounted from being displaced, moved or otherwise dislocated from the precise position of their setting by the surveyor.
By the foregoing arrangement as each stake 11 is set by the surveyor a cap 12 suitable for the particular situation can be easily and quickly snapped onto the head of such stakes. In this manner a rig operator is kept apprised of the location of such stakes as well as the level of its upper end. It will be apparent that the plastic caps may be made in various colors for codification and that they may also be translucent and reflective for night time work.
While I have described my novel stake and cap grade markers in specific detail it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that they may be susceptible to variations, alterations and/ or modifications without departing from the spirit of my invention. I therefore desire to avail myself of all variations, alterations and/or modifications as fairly come within the purview of the appended claims.
What I claim as new and desire to' protect by Letters Patent is:
1. A grade marker comprising a rigid stake having a head formed thereon providing a shoulder, a disc-like cap of flexible material having a hub portion extending downwardly from its bottom surface and a lateral arm extending from said disc like cap having a spire extending upwardly therefrom in offset relation to said disc like cap, said hub portion having a cavity conforming to the shape of the head on said stake, and a flange formed on 4 said hub portion stretchable over the head of said stake and for lodging below the shoulder on said head for securing the head of said stake to said cap.
2. A grade marker comprising a rigid stake having a frusto-conical head formed thereon and a removable cap therefor consisting of a disc of flexible material having an integral hub extending below its lower surface, said hub having a cavity formed therein conforming to the frusto-conical head of said stake for receiving the same to dispose the top of said stake at the plane of the lower surface of said disc, and a stretchable flange on the lower end of said hub providing an axial opening to said cavity diametered to fit against the shank of said stake and for snap fit over the enlarged lower end of the frusto'conical head of said stake, wherein said cap has a lateral arm extending radially therefrom, and a spire extending upwardly from said arm in offset relation to the axis of the hub of said disc.
3. A grade marker comprising a rigid stake pointed at one end of its shank and having a frusto-conical head at the opposite end of said shank providing a flat upper surface and a shoulder portion spaced therefrom, and a cap of flexible material consisting of a cone shaped disc having a flat lower surface from which a hub extends coaxially, said hub having an internal cavity conforming in shape to the frusto-conical head of said stake and wherein the inner end of said cavity is disposed at the same plane as the lower surface of said disc to engage the flat upper surface of the head of said stake and dispose the latter in the plane of the lower surface of said disc, and an inturned flange at the lower end of said hub providing a funnel shaped opening having a minimum opening adjacent said cavity comparable to the diameter of the shank of said stake and a maximum opening at the lower end of said hub approximating the diameter of the top of said stake for admitting the latter and the frustoconical head of said stake into the cavity of said hub and for snapping over the shoulder portion of the frustoconical head of said stake, wherein said cap has a lateral arm formed integrally therewith to extend radially therefrom, and an integral spire extending upwardly from said lateral arm in ofi'set relation to said cone-shaped disc.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,934,681 11/1933 Damsel. 2,523,255 9/1950 Coleman 3374X 2,699,140 1/1955 Fisher 33-74X 2,873,531 3/1959 Chick 33--74 3,174,588 3/1965 Kessler 52-1O3 LEONARD FORMAN, Primary Examiner.
W. D. MARTIN, Assistant Examiner.