US 3323774 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 6, 1967 w. G. WILSON 3,323,??4
COMPOSITE CLOSURE-DRIP CHAMBER-VALVE MEANS UNIT FOR ADMINISTRATION OF LIQUIDS Flled Nov 26 1963 I INVENTOR. mum/1 G. Wuav firmeusxa United States Patent 3 323 774 COMPOSITE cLosUiiE-fi CHAMBER-VALVE MEANS UNIT FGR ADMINISTRATION OF LIQUIDS William G. Wilson, Covina, Califi, assignor to Resillex Laboratory, Los Angelles, Caliil, a corporation of California Fiied Nov. 26, 1963, Ser. No. 326,007 2 Claims. (Cl. 251-125) This invention relates to a unit for controllably administering fluids intravenously, and more particularly to an inexpensive disposable composite plastic unit adapted to be connected .to a container of fluid and to a tube for transporting the fluid to a patient, the composite unit precisely controlling flow of liquid to the patient.
Apparatus for administration of parenteral fluids have included a bottle of fluid, a cap means for the bottle constructed to permit venting of the bottle when it is inverted and to provide a connection to a drip chamber or metering chamber, a tube connected to the drip chamber for conducting fluid to a patient, and a clamp means located along the length of the tube for controlling .the rate of flow of fluid from the bottle to the patient. Administration of parenteral fluids requires not only prevention of contamination and sterile handling of such fluids, but also requires that visual observation of the rate of flow of the fluid be readily made, and that the rate of flow of fluid be precisely maintained over a relatively long period of time. Prior proposed administra tion units have attempted control of the rate of flow of fluid by the use of various types of tube clamps which selectively closed or pinched a plastic tube to provide a desired flow of fluid to the patient. Such prior proposed clamps were not always positive in operation over a period of time, because such prior proposed clamps required compression, squeezing, or pinching of the material of a tube to vary the flow opening in the tube at the clamp. Adjustment of flow rate to a preselected flow was generally dependent upon the skill and care of the operator in adjustment of the tube clamp, and required the counting of drops of fluid per minute falling from the bottle into the drip chamber in accordance with usual well known practice. Obviously such prior proposed means for regulating flow of fluid through a tube was somewhat haphazardous, and quick accurate positive precise adjustment was not a characteristic of prior proposed administration units. Moreover, the use of a tube clamp along the length of a tube leading to a patient was always subject to jarring or disturbance of the setting of the tube clamp because of its location along an exposed unprotected length of the tube between the bottle of fluid and the patient.
The present invention contemplates a compact combined closure-drip chamber-valved administration unit which embodies numerous advantages over prior proposed units. The present invention contemplates an administration unit which is readily adapted to be connected to a container of fluid to be administered, and which as part of the unit attached to the container, includes a regulatable valve means whereby the flow of fluid to be administered may be quickly, accurately, directly and positively determined and controlled. Thus, the present invention contemplates a flow control means located at the standard or fixture supporting the container of administration fluid, and specifically located at the outlet side of the drip chamber, whereby flow of fluid from the drip chamber may be precisely, quickly, accurately adjusted to a preselected flow rate. The unit of the present invention contemplates positive means for controlling the flow rate of fluid so located and so ice constructed and arranged that precise maintenance of flow rate over a relatively long period of time is maintained without the danger and hazard of the flow controlling device being jarred, knocked, displaced, or varied in its predetermined setting. The unit of the present invention is adapted to be associated with usual types of closure means or caps for such intravenous fluid containing bottles, and also to be readily attached to the usual .types of tubes for conducting fluid to a patient.
The primary object of the present invention, therefore, is to disclose and provide a novel, compact, combined, regulatable unit for administering fluids intravenously.
An object of the present invention is to disclose and provide an adjustable administration unit which includes a novel valve means carried at one end of a drip chamber means.
Another object of the present invention is to disclose and provide an administration unit for parenteral fluids which includes in combination a drip chamber means having at one end means for connecting the chamber means to a container of fluid, and having at its other end adjustable valve means for controlling flow of fluid from the container into the drip chamber, and into a tube adapted to be connected with the valve means.
A still further object of the present invention is to disclose and provide an administration unit for fluids as described above which is inexpensive, disposable, readily manufactured, and which provides a positive, accurate valve means for controlling flow of fluid.
A still further object of the present invention is to disclose and provide a composite administration unit for parenteral fluids adapted to be located adjacent a container of fluid in which the drip chamber means carries a valve means which includes a rotatable member for quickly and accurately determining the flow rate of fluid desired, such rotatable member being provided with indicia, facilitating the precise selection of a desired flow rate of fluid.
A more specific object of the invention is to disclose and provide an administration unit of the character described above, wherein the valve means for controlling flow rate of fluid from the drip chamber includes a plug member for the drip chamber, having a valved passageway in communication with the drip chamber, and a rotatable valve member cooperable with the plug member and valved passageway and carried by the plug member for selectively determining the rate of flow of fluid being administered.
Various other objects and advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent from the following description of the drawings, in which an exemplary embodiment of the present invention is shown.
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a composite administraion unit embodying this invention, the unit being assocaited with a container for fluid and with a tube.
FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken in a vertical plane bisecting the device shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken in a plane indicated by line III-III of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing the external valve member in a diflerent position.
FIG. 5 is a transverse sectional view taken in the plane indicated by line V-V of FIG. 2.
FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view of the valve means shown in FIG. 2.
In the example of the invention shown in FIG. 1 a composite combined disposable closure-drip chambervalve means unit, generally indicated at 10, provides a preassembled device for interconnecting a container, or
bottle 11 of intravenous liquid or fluid to be administered and a suitable flexible plastic tube 12 which conducts such liquid to a patient. The bottle 11 may be made of well-known materials and construction and includes at its closed end, a bail or other means (not shown) for hanging the bottle from a supporting arm in inverted position. The bottle 11 is provided with a bottle neck 14 having external threads 15.
. Tube 12 has an open end portion 16 adapted to be connected in fluid communication with unit 10. The opposite end of tube 12 may carry a suitable hypodermic needle or other means for introducing the liquid into a patient in well-known manner.
The exemplary preassembled unit comprises a hollow drip chamber means 20 carrying at its upper end a cap or closure means 21 and at its lower end a valve means 22. The closure means 21 may comprise a suitable bottle closure construction used in the administration of parenteral or intravenous fluids and operable when a bottle 11 is inverted to provide suitable venting means for introduction of air into the bottle as liquid is withdrawn therefrom. In this example, closure means 21 includes a cylindrical wall 23 having internal threads 24 in engagement with threads 15. The wall 23 is integral with a closure wall 25 which is provided with a tubular member 26 having a passageway 27 which may receive a suitable tube 27a or other device for introducing air through passageway 27 into bottle 11 above the liquid level therein. A ported cap 2715 may cover the end of member 26. The closure means 21 may also include a depending cylindrical wall 28 and an internal tubular portion 29 formed about an axis spaced from the axis of member 26, said portion 29 providing a passageway 30 for flow of liquid from neck 14 into a drip chamber 31 in drip chamber means 20. Tubular portion 29 is of a selected size and diameter to form drops of liquid falling into chamber 31 as liquid is administered.
In this example, drip chamber means 20 comprises a cylindrical member 33 having a relatively thin-section wall which may be flexible and transparent for observation of liquid flowing from passageway 30. Upper end 34 of cylindrical member 33 is sleeved over cylindrical wall 28 and may be secured thereon by suitable adhesive or bonding means. End 34 may be frictionally secured on wall 28. Cylindrical member 33 may be any selected length and the flexible walls thereof may be used for purposes of pumping liquid or air into or out of the drip chamber 31 in well-known manner. In some examples, the cylindrical member 33 may comprise a rigid transparent plastic or glass wall in which case a pumping action would not be provided.
The bottom end 35 of cylindrical member 33 may receive and carry therewithin the upper portion of a plug member 37 which is a part of valve means 22. The bottom end 35 is preferably secured and fixed to the plug member 37 by suitable adhesive and bonding means.
Valve means 22 carried by drip chamber means 26 includes a fixed plug member 37 and a rotatable adjustable external valve member 38 carried by plug member 37 and providing a connection to tube 12. Plug member 37 includes an annular shoulder 40 which provides a seat for end 35 of cylindrical member 33. Shoulder 44 also defines with a downwardly spaced flange 41 of slightly less diameter an annular groove 42 adapted to receive an internal annular flange 43 on valve member 38 for rotatably mounting valve member 38 on plug member 37. Preferably the plug member 37 is made of a relatively rigid plastic material such as polystyrene, while the external valve member 38 is made of a more resilient plastic material such as polyethylene, polyvinylchloride or the like, so that internal flange 43 on member 38 may be "snapped or slipped over the flange 41. The flange 41 provides a wedge face 44 on a side wall of annular groove 42, so that valve member 38 is urged by the resilient mateflow area adjacent bore 47 to minimum flow area at the end of the groove 49. Between bore 47 and end 49 of passageway 48, is a surface area 50 which provides a valve closed position for valve member 38.
Valve passageway 48 is further defined by an opposed annular face 51 provided on an annular boss 52 formed within the recess defined by cylindrical wall 53 and radially inwardly extending flange 43 on valve member 38. The face 51 sealingly engages under resilient pressure the flat opposed end face of plug member 37 as previously described at 45. The valve member 38 includes a through port 55 having one end open at face 51, said port extending through wall 56 of valve member 38 and through a depending nipple 57 which provides a frictional connection to tube 12.
The relative positions of bore 47 and port 55 may be readily determined by an indicia mark 59 directly opposite passageway 47 on wall 33 and diametrically opposite radially outwardly extending finger engagement lugs 60 provided on valve member 38. The lugs 60 may lie on the same diameter as port 55 and thus when lug 6 0 with mark 69a is positioned adjacent mark 59, the bore 47 and port 55 -will be in direct alignment for maximum flow of liquid from chamber 31.
Other indicia may be provided as at 61 on the outer surface of wall 33, so that as valve member 38 is rotated to adjust the flow area of valve passageway 48, the alignment of lug 60 with mark 60a with indicia 61 will provide predetermined setting of valve member for a selected rate of flow of fluid to tube 12.It will :be apparent that when the port 55 is positioned opposite the flat surface area 50, the bore 47 will be closed thereby and no fluid will flow into tube 47.
It is important to note that the closure 21, drip chamber means 20, and valve means 22 form a unitary assembly which may be readily associated with a bottle containing intravenous fluid, and with a tube for conducting the fluid to a patient. The unitary assembly, when used to interconnect the bottle and the tube, is readily operable to provide a preselected rate of flow of fluid to the patient. When the bottle of intravenous fluid is ready to be used, the external valve member 38 may be turned to closed position as above described so that no fluid will flow through tube 12. .When the bottle is inverted and as air is introduced to the bottle through passageway 27, fluid from the bottle will form drops at passageway 39 in closure means 21 and begin flow into the drip chamber 31. Such initial flow of fluid may be assisted by squeezing the walls of drip chamber 31. It will be apparent that some air in chamber 31 may pass through passageway 30 to the space above the liquid level in bottle 11 and liquid may partially fill drip chamber 31. To facilitate displacement of air from drip chamber 31, the flexible walls 33 may be compressed by squeezing the walls with ones fingers in a pumping action so that the air would be forced through passageway 30 into the bottle. After a desired level of fluid is obtained in chamber 31, the valve member 38 may be rotated so that fluid will flow through tube 12 and remove air from tube 12 so that no air is present in the tube and intravenous needle when fluid is administered to the patient. A desired flow rate for administering liquid to the patient may then be selected by adjusting the valve member 38 to a selected indicia mark 61, whereby valve passageway 48 will be positioned relative to bore 55 so that only a selected flow rate of liquid will be administered to the patient. When the desired amount of liquid has been given to the patient, the valve member 38 may be turned to closed position as described above. If all of the liquid is administered, the valve member 38 should be turned to closed position to prevent air from entering the patient.
In the operation of the unitary closure-drip chambervalve means of this invention it will be apparent that observation of or counting the drops falling from passageway 30 into the drip chamber is not necessary except at the time of initial factory calibration of the valve member and indicia 61. Thus the precalibrated unit is immediately regulatable as to flow of liquid and the period of time is eliminated which was required to count drops and reset tube clamps until a desired flow rate was reached. While former practices require observation of drops into the drip chamber to assure the attendant of proper flow rate during administration of fluids, and a substantially filled drip chamber made such drop counting diflicult or impossible, the present unit avoids the prior requirement of partially emptying the drip chamber to facilitate counting because of the precise construction and reliability of adjustment of a precalibrated valve means. In the present unit, the varying flow area of the valve passageway permits precise selection of a flow rate which will be virtually unchangeable except when purposely changed, and which will be substantially free.
from accidental or unwanted changes caused by external conditions.
The rigid and flexible or resilient plastic materials mentioned above are exemplary and other suitable materials and methods of assembly and forming of the closuredrip chamber-valve means as an operable unit to interconnect a bottle and a tube may be used.
An administration unit embodying this invention is quickly, readily and positively operable. The composite preassembled closure-drip chamber-valve means unit is readily associated with a bottle and tube and the accessible location of the valve means provides easy adjustment thereof from closed position to a selected valve open position which provides a desired flow of fluid into tube 12.
All changes and modifications coming Within the scope of the appended claims are embraced thereby.
1. A compact disposable composite unit for interconnecting a container of liquid to be administered and a tube for conducting the liquid to a patient comprising, in combination: an elongated thin walled flexible transparent cylindrical member defining a chamber for observation of liquid, said cylindrical member having opposite end portions; closure means carried by one end portion for connecting said unit to such a container of liquid, said closure means including a passageway communicating with said chamber and such container; and a valve means carried by and at the other end portion of the cylindrical member, said valve means comprising a plug member receivable in said other end portion and including a thru bore, a valve passageway on the outer face of the plug member communicating with the bore, an external valve member having an inner face slidably and sealingly engaging saidouter face on the plug member and cooperable with the valve passageway to vary flow area thereof, said valve member having a port communicating with said passageway and a tube, said valve member being rotatable to displace said port with respect to said valve passageway; and means rotatably mounting said valve member on said plug member, said mounting means including an annular internal rib on said valve member and an external annular groove on said plug member receiving said rib.
2. A regulatable administration unit for parenteral fluids comprising, in combination: a thin Walled, single drip chamber means; a closure means connected to one end of the drip chamber means and having passageway means providing fluid communication therewith; and means connected to the other end of said drip chamber means and having an external adjustable member for regulating flow of fluid from said drip chamber means, said adjustable member including a connector for a tube for conducting fluid to a patient; said means at the other end of said drip chamber means including a fixed plug for said end having a bore therethrough, a valve end face, and a valve groove of varying flow area in said end face associated with said bore, said adjustable member being carried by said plug and having a port alignable with said bore in said plug for maximum flow of fluid and having an annular surface slidably and sealably engageable with surfaces adjacent to said groove in said plug whereby adjustment of said valve member will regulate the flow area between said plug and adjustable member.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 467,595 1/1892 Myers 251 X 812,627 2/ 1906 Wirth et al. 251352 X 2,090,273 8/ 1937 Wagner 2724 X 2,290,783 7/ 1942 Turpin 251208 X 2,771,878 11/1956 Folland et al. 128-214 3,216,419 11/1965 Scislowicz 128214 FOREIGN PATENTS 103,045 1/ 1924 Switzerland.
M. CARY NELSON, Primary Examiner.
R. C. MILLER, Examiner.