|Publication number||US3324666 A|
|Publication date||Jun 13, 1967|
|Filing date||Dec 29, 1964|
|Priority date||Dec 29, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3324666 A, US 3324666A, US-A-3324666, US3324666 A, US3324666A|
|Original Assignee||Jack Lee|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (16), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 13, 1967 J, LEE 3,324,666
FOOTING FOR EARTH PILE Filed Dec. 29, 1964 INVENTOR Jhck L51:
United States Patent O 3,324,566 POSTING FOR EARTH PILE Jack Lee, 142 Francis St., Bakersfield, Calif. 93308 Filed Dec. 29, 1964, Ser. No. 421,846 Claims. (Cl. 61-53.68)
This invention pertains to improvements in a footing for an earth pile and, more particularly, a footing for use with a pile of the type intended to be driven into the earth.
When posts, piling, and the like are driven into the earth, and particularly when the same are driven into relatively soft earth, continued moving of the post or pile into the earth will not cease when the driving ceases, particularly when loads are imposed upon the upper end of the pile or post. To overcome such continual sinking of the post or pile into the earth, to various degrees, after driving the same thereinto a desired distance, it has been customary to provide various means whereby a mass of concrete can be introduced into a formed cavity in the earth adjacent the lower end of the post or pile, for example, under conditions at least where the post or pile is hollow to permit the delivery of such concrete to said cavity. Cavities of this type are formed in various ways, sometimes resorting to the use of explosives.
Other means resorted to for purposes of preventing any continued downward movement of posts or piles, especially hollow, tubular ones, have included various means by which the lower end of the tubular post or pile per se has been deformed, especially to expand the same outwardly, into `a somewhat inverted funnel-shaped configuration, but mechanism to achieve this is somewhat elaborate and is restricted to the use of piling having relatively thin walls capable of being so deformed.
lIt is the principal object of the present invention to provide a simple, relatively inexpensive type of footing for an earth pile which is self-contained and requires no deformation of a post or pile per se with which it is employed, one of the principal advantageous features of the footing being the employment of load-sustaining members which are capable of being moved outwardly from the footing, toward horizontal position, so .as capably to resist further downward movement of the footing and, consequently, of the piling associated therewith.
Another object of the invention is to effect such outward movement of said sustaining member as a result of a limited amount of additional downward driving movement of the footing by 4the pile 4associated therewith.
A further object of the invention is to provide means initially to secure such load-sustaining members, which preferably are in the form of elongated leaves, disposed longitudinally along the sides of an elongated base member so as to permit driving the lower end of the pile and footing into the earth a predetermined amount, depending upon the extent to which the pile is to project above the upper surface of the earth into which it is driven, before said leaves are permitted to assume extended position to resist further downward movement of the pile and footing.
Still another object of the invention is to provide means which act against the lower ends of said aforementioned load-sustaining blade members to insure the outward movement of the lower ends thereof with respect to the base member of the footing a predetermined amount and thereby insure further spreading movement of the lower end portions of the blade members with respect to the base member upon a limited amount of additional driving of the pile and footing into the earth.
One further object of the invention is to provide explosive means to release the lower ends of said loadsustaining blade members and thereby enable said lower ends to automatically be moved outwardly a limited ex- Patented June 13, 1967 ICC tent to permit them to somewhat bite into the earth incident to being driven a limited amount farther thereinto and thereby effect a desired amount of lateral movement of a-t least the lower ends of said -blade members with respect to the base member but the ultimate position of said blade members not being greater than horizontal.
Details of the foregoing objects and of the invention, as well as other objects thereof, are set forth in the following speciication and illustrated in the .accompanying drawing comprising a part thereof.
In the drawing:
FIG. l is an exemplary side elevation, partly in vertical section, illustrating an exemplary installation of piles and footings employing the principles of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view, on a larger scale than in FIG. 1, showing a preferred embodiment of a pile footing embodying the present invention and, in fragmentary manner, showing the lower end of a pile in coaxial alignment with said footing.
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view of the structure of FIG. 2 shown on the line 3 3 of said ligure.
FIG. 4 is another transverse sectional view of the structure shown in FIG. 2 as seen on the line 4 4 of said ligure.
FIG. 5 is a vertical elevation showing a footing and fragmentary lower portion of a pile engaging said footing in the process of the movement-limiting and load sustaining blade members of the footing being shown in full lines in partially expanded position with respect to the base member, while in broken lines, said former members are illustrated in maxim-um, horizontal position to resist further downward movement of the pile.
FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 4 but showing another embodiment of cross-sectional shape of the footing member from that illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary vertical elevation of another embodiment of detail of the footing in addition to that illustrated in FIG. 2.
The footing illustrated in the accompanying drawing and embodying the principles of the present invention preferably may be made from any suitable materials such as metal. The structure may be molded or cast from appropriate metal, preferably steel or cast iron for example, but it is to be understood that other suitable materials may be employed such as plastics having adequate strength and durability to resist the operations to which the footing is subjected incident to being disposed in operative position within the earth relative to a pile it is to support.
In the preferred footing construction embodying the present invention, a preferably elongated base for head member 10 is provided which may be formed, as indicated above, by casting or suitable machining, molding or otherwise from any suitable material such as appropriate metal and particularly cast iron or steel, or non-ferrous metals so as to be non-corrosive, aluminum being one of the same. Similarly, said base member may be formed from appropriate synthetic resins, commonly referred to as plastics, and particularly those having suitable strength to sustain the shock and wear to which the same must be subjected incident to being installed within the earth.
The upper end of the base member 10 preferably is provided with a socket 12 which has an opening extending inward from the upper end thereof, coaxial with the elongated base member 10, and having a diameter complementary to the outer diameter of the lower end of the pile 14 such as illustrated in FIG. 2. The iit existing between the pile 14 and socket 12, as well as the length of the socket should be such as to be capable of holding the base 10 substantially coaxial with the pile 14 while the same is being driven into the ground to the desired depth.
The lower end of the base -preferably terminates in a pointed configuration 16 to facilitate the driving of the footing into the earth ahead of the lower end of the pile 14. Also, while themember 10 has been referred to as a base or head, such terms are to be regarded merely as generic since said member also may be regarded as a shoe, or otherwise, the same primarily serving as a carrier for load-sustaining as well as movement-limiting members `comprising leaves or blades 18 which preferably are disposed within appropriate longitudinally arranged recesses 20 which, in the preferred construction of the invention, are complementary, at least longitudinally, to the blades 18. To provide maximum effectiveness, it is preferred that the blades'18 have as much width and length as is reasonably possible to provide resistance to further movement of the footing into the earth after the footing has beenv disposed at a desired level therein. Accordingly, while the present invention provides at least several different exemplary cross-sectional congurations for the base 10, these embodiments all comprise a plurality of leaves or blades 18 which extend preferably substantially entirely around the exterior surfaces of the base10.
The foregoing disposition of the blades 18 with respect to the base 10 in the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4, wherein the base is square in cross-section, it will be seen that the blades 18 intert at the edges thereof so that a portion of one flat surface of one of the leaves overlaps the edge surface of another, thereby completely surrounding that portion of the base 10 which contains the recesses 20 as is clearly apparent from FIG. 3. Accordingly, at least maximum width of the blades 18 is provided by such an arrangement and it will be seen that the length of said blades preferably is appreciably -greater than the width thereof.
If desired, the cross-sectional shape of the base 10 may be circular, as shown in exemplary manner in FIG. 6, under which circumstances, the blades 18 are curved in cross-section so as to be complementary to the exterior of. that portion of the base 10 against which they lie in initial position. In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 6, the side edges of the blades 18 preferably abut each other so as to obtain the advantage of maximum width permitted by such configuration. The additional basic details, operative mechanism and desired characteristics of the invention, described hereinafter, apply equally to either of the cross-sectional shapes of the base 10 and complementary shapes of the blades18 illustrated in FIGS. 3, 4 and 6 and described hereinabove. Such` additional details and objectives are as follows:
It is desired that the base 10 with the blades 18 mounted in initial position thereon within the recesses 20 shall be driven into the earth a desired extent which is only slightly short of the maximum distance which the pile is to be driven so as to dispose the upper end thereof a desired amount above the surface of the earth, as can be visualized in exemplary manner from FIG. l, wherein the several exemplary piles 14 shown therein are used to support a Wharf 22 for example and, under such circumstances, the earth 24 comprises the bed of a river or other body of water. The blades 18 are maintained in their initial positions within the recesses 20 primarily by means of transversely extending pin-like retaining means 26 which are disposed within appropriate transversely arranged holes 28 and 30. In the exemplary illustration, it Iwill be seen that the opposite ends of the retaining means 26 are headed, such` heads being disposed within complementary recesses formed in the outer surfaces of the blades 18 as is clearly shown in FIGS. 2, 4 and 6. The retaining means 26 preferably are of the type which may be ruptured to destroy the retaining -capacity thereof, such rupturing being effected, for example, by explosive means capable of being detonated, for example, electrically. Suitable retaining means of the type illustrated are commercially available andv are known as blow-bolts. Devices of this type are employed in other means such as ejection mechanisms for aviators seats in airplanes and the like. Such bolts enclose an ex-plosive charge Iwhich, when detonated, at least ruptures the bolt to the extent of destroying the effective retaining strength thereof. It is to be understood, however, that any other rupturable type of retaining means may be employed in lieu of such blowbolts, if desired. One of the advantages of such blowbolts, however, is that they may be ruptured instantaneously.
In accordance with the present illustration, it will be seen that current-conducting wires 32 are connected to the rupturable retaining means 26, there preferably being two of these retaining means which extend transversely to each other as is clearly shown from FIGS. 2, 4 and 6.
In addition to maintaining the lower ends of the blades 18 in the initial positions thereof wit-hin the recesses 20, another function of the retaining means 26 is to hold the blades 18 against the action of expanding means comprising and specifically illustrated as compressed coiled springs 34. Sia-id springs are disposed within appropriate cavities 36 and extending transversely into the base 10, preferably adjacent the retaining means 26. The springs 34 preferably are of `appreciable strength because the function thereof is to positively move the lower ends of the blades 18 a predetermined limited distance outwardly from the lower ends of seats 20 when the retaining means 26 are ruptured by detonating the explosive charges within said means through the imposition of a current thereon through the wires 32 for example. Particularly if the earth into which the base 1G is driven happens to be of a fairly hard and compact nature, it will -be seen that the strength of the compressed springs 34 will have to be of a reasonable amount in order to insure such outward movement of the lower end of the blades 18.
It will be seen further that the edges of the lower end 38 of the blades 18, which extend transversely to the axis of base 10, slope inwardly and upwardly to provide what actually function as cam surfaces and bite into the earth at all sides of the base 10 after being driven thereinto said aforementioned initial extent, whereby, as can be visualized from FIG. 5, upon further downward driving movement ofthe pile 14 and base 10, said sloping lower ends 38 of the blades 18 will cause the lower ends to spread outwardly a greater distance toward the horizontal position which` is the maximum intended movement of the blades 18 in accordance with the principles of the present invention, this latter position being illustrated in broken lines in FIG. 5.
While the lower ends of the blades 18 are being moved transversely outward from the sides of the base 10, the upper ends of the blades 18 are maintained in firm abutting engagement with the upper ends 40` of the sockets 20 and such coengagement is insured by preferably yieldable means 42 which are illustrated in exemplary manner as a pair of malleable pins or bars extending transversely to each other and being headed at the outer ends thereof. The heads, as in regard to the heads of the retaining means 26, preferably are disposed within complementary recesses in the outer surfaces of the blades 18 as is clearly shown in FIG. 2. Due to the yieldable, longitudinally extendable nature of the pin-like means 42, they serve to insure the firm positioning of the upper ends of the blades 18 within the transversely extending surfaces 40 comprising the upper ends of the recesses 20, especially during the initial as well as the subsequent lateral outward movement of the lower ends of the blades 18 as induced by the springs 34 las well as the cam-like engagement of the surfaces 38 with the earth. Particularly 'as the pivotal movement of the blades 18 toward horizontal intended maximum position occurs, it is possible that the yieldable means 42 will ultimately fracture but, by the time this occurs, they will have served their principal purpose because, during the driving movement of the base 10 and pile 14 to the maximum desired depth, there will always be force exerted longitudinally along the blades 18 even though they are being pivotally moved in the manner described above. Accordingly, such longitudinal movement, being directed upwardly at all times, also will insure that the upper ends of the blades will be disposed against the upper transverse surfaces 40 of the recesses 20 but the presence of the yieldable means 42 will even further insure such engagement.
Due to the appreciable length and serviceable width of the blades 18, regardless of whether a substantially flat or curved configuration, it will be seen that when the blades are disposed in the ultimate angular position in the earth with respect to base 10, it will be understood that the adjacent earth will be compressed substantially about practically all surfaces of the blades and thereby will rmly hold the same in operative position with respect to base 10, such position being such as to offer very substantial resistance to any further downward movement of either the base or the connected pile 14 into the earth.
To further insure the maintenance of the upper ends of the blades 18 in rm engagement with the transversely extending upper surfaces 40 of the recesses 20, particularly while the blades 18 are being pivotally moved to the ultimate operative position thereof, attention is directed to the somewhat modied construction shown in FIG. 7 in which it will be seen that the upper ends of the blades 18 are curved in cross-section as shown at 44, about the axis of pivotal movement of the blades with respect to base 10. Correspondingly, the shape of the transversely extending upper end of the recess 20 is formed as shown at 40' in FIG. 7 so as to be substantially complementary to the upper end 44 of blade 18, `at least at the inner portion of said upper surface 40.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that the present invention provides a highly effective footing for an earth pile which, when disposed in ultimate position within the earth at the lower end of a pile driven thereinto, affords very substantial, yet inexpensive resistance to further downward movement of the pile into the earth, even though the earth may be of a substantially soft nature, due particularly to the relative amount of area provided by the footing to resist farther downward movement of the footing and pile into the earth. The movable blades comprising the principal means oering such resistance quickly and effectively are positionable in ultimate operative position, after release of the retaining means for the blades, by simple and relatively inexpensive means embodied in the footing and render it operable simply by a limited amount of additional downward driving movement.
While the foregoing description and illustrations specifically included in the attached drawing have referred to piles which are either substantially square or circular in cross-section, it should `be understood that the present invention, with equal facility, can be applied to piles having other cross-sectional shapes such as I-beams, channels, and other structural members commonly employed in building structures and suitable for use as piles,
While the invention has been described and illustrated in its several preferred embodiments, it should be under- 6 stood that the invention is not to be limited to the precise details herein illustrated and described since the same may be carried out in other ways falling with the scope of the invention as claimed.
1. A footing for a pile or the like comprising `a footing -base arranged to be disposed on the lower end of a pile so as to be driven into the earth thereby, a plurality of blades extending longitudinally along the sides of said base, pin-like means extending into said base transversely to the axis thereof and the outer ends thereof engaging said blades to retain them against separation from said base while being so driven into the earth, additional means operable to fracture said pin-like means, and means operable to extend the lower ends of said blades laterally outward from said base when said base is a predetermined position in the earth while the upper ends of said blades are maintaining in operative engagement with said base, whereby upon limited furthere driving of said base into the earth the lower ends of said blades will be moved laterally farther from said base toward horizontal position while the upper ends of blades remain engaged with said base to restrain the same against farther movement into the earth.
2. The pile footing according to claim 1 in which said means operable to fracture said retaining means comprise explosive means capable of being detonated from a remote source.
3. The pile footing according to claim 1 in which said means to extend the lower ends of said blades outward from said ybase comprise springs carned by said base adjacent said retaining means and positioned to act against said blades and maintained energized by the action of said retaining means upon said blades, whereby when said retaining means are fractured said energized springs immediately move the lower ends of said blades away from said body for the purposes aforesaid upon further driving of said body into the earth.
4. The .pile footing according to claim 3 in which said base is provided with means having laterally extending surfaces against which the upper ends of the blades abut forcefully during substantially all movement of the base into the earth and also to provide effective coaction between said base and blades to prevent further downward movement of the base into the earth.
5. The pile footing according to claim 4 further including yieldable means engaging the upper ends of the blades and operable to maintain the same in position to insure engagement of the upper ends of said blades with said laterally extending abutting surfaces on said base.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 720,225 2/ 1903 Clum 52-162 795,660 7/ 1905 Stanford 51-53 X 2,947,149 8/ 1960 Barkley 6 1-5 3 3,212,110 10/ 1965 Lombardo 114-206 X DAVID I. WILLIAMOWSKY, Primary Examiner.
JACOB SHAPIRO, Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US720225 *||Apr 9, 1902||Feb 10, 1903||Ira E Clum||Pole or post anchor.|
|US795660 *||Mar 3, 1905||Jul 25, 1905||Homer Reed Stanford||Expanding point for bearing piles.|
|US2947149 *||Feb 11, 1958||Aug 2, 1960||Barkley Jr Lowell J||Pile with self-spreading anchors|
|US3212110 *||Nov 6, 1961||Oct 19, 1965||Lombardo Paul A||Collapsible anchor and buoy|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3373569 *||Nov 1, 1966||Mar 19, 1968||William O. Backman||Articulated pile stabilizer and anchoring device|
|US3432977 *||Mar 8, 1967||Mar 18, 1969||Us Navy||Application of shaped charge to earth anchor|
|US3503213 *||Aug 14, 1967||Mar 31, 1970||Rotary Oil Tool Co||Method of and apparatus for installing reinforcing members in boreholes|
|US3774361 *||Mar 27, 1972||Nov 27, 1973||Tanner E||Shore line boat anchor|
|US3832859 *||Jun 5, 1970||Sep 3, 1974||Kanjanavanit R||Method and apparatus for spread-foot piles|
|US3986366 *||Sep 22, 1975||Oct 19, 1976||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Hedgehog anchor|
|US4355927 *||Jul 28, 1980||Oct 26, 1982||Karl Stephan||Piling structure and methods|
|US5282701 *||Mar 12, 1992||Feb 1, 1994||Samsung Construction Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for a loading test of a pile using a self-repulsive force|
|US5494378 *||Jul 5, 1994||Feb 27, 1996||Hanson; Larry K.||Piling apparatus|
|US5873679 *||Nov 12, 1996||Feb 23, 1999||Cusimano; Matt||Seismic foundation pier with ground anchor means|
|US6047505 *||Dec 1, 1997||Apr 11, 2000||Willow; Robert E.||Expandable base bearing pile and method of bearing pile installation|
|US6062771 *||May 4, 1998||May 16, 2000||Roberts; Kenneth B.||Piling and method for driving and setting the piling in-situ|
|US6256942 *||Jul 14, 1999||Jul 10, 2001||Michael A. Schatz||Stake system|
|US7779589 *||Aug 24, 2010||Salman Mark T||Post anchor/adapter system|
|US20060239764 *||Mar 31, 2005||Oct 26, 2006||Salman Mark T||Post anchor/adapter system|
|US20150284926 *||Apr 3, 2014||Oct 8, 2015||David Y. Du||Explosive pile device for increasing pile capacity|
|U.S. Classification||405/231, 52/159, 114/305, 52/155, 405/244, 52/162|
|International Classification||E02D5/22, E02D5/72, E02D5/54, E02D5/00|
|Cooperative Classification||E02D5/72, E02D5/54|
|European Classification||E02D5/72, E02D5/54|