|Publication number||US3327411 A|
|Publication date||Jun 27, 1967|
|Filing date||May 21, 1965|
|Priority date||May 21, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3327411 A, US 3327411A, US-A-3327411, US3327411 A, US3327411A|
|Inventors||Roberts Charles A|
|Original Assignee||Roberts Charles A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (8), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 27, 1967 c. A. ROBERTS CLEATED ATHLETIC SHOE STRUCTURE INVENTOR Charles ARobers ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,327,411 CLEATED ATHLETIC SHGE STRUCTURE Charles A. Roberts, RO. Box 913, Sherman, TeX. 7509i) Filed May 21, 1965, Ser. No. 457,562 4 Claims. (Cl. Sti-2.5)
This invention relates to athletic shoes having cleated soles, such as those commonly used in football, golf, and other athletic activities, and it has particular reference to the arrangement or positioning of cleats 'by which to provide for the most effective foot posture and balance and transference of body weight of the wearer to reduce foot and leg stresses and generate maximum power and speed relative to expended effort.
It is common practice to attach cleats to the soles of athletic footwear to insure a firm footing, and such cleats are generally frusto-conical in form and arranged in a pattern about the sole and heel portions of the shoe to provide the most advantageous ground contact Without any special consideration for an arrangement best suited to the location of the functional portions of the bone structure of the foot.
A prime object of the invention is that of positioning and spacing the cleats on an athletic shoe by which to provide a near ideal foot posture and 'balance for the wearer `from heel to toe, beginning with the rear of the foot and Ifollowing the continuity of foot effort to direct the acceptance and transference of body weight in such manner as to minimize stresses on the foot and leg anatomy and afford proper coordination between foot anatomy and foot power.
Another object of the invention is that of strategically locating all of the cleats opposite to specific osseous structures of the foot, such as the inferior tuberosity of the calcaneus, or heel bone, the sub-talar joint, referred to as Choparts joint, -formed by the articulation of the neck of the talus, or ankle bone, and navicular or scaphoid bone, and the articulation o-f the calcaneus and the cuboid, and also the metatarsal shafts and phalanges. The arrangement is such as to alleviate excessive stresses applied to these areas brought about through the relatively strenuous activities of the athlete, and avoid fatigue and possible alteration of the foot posture while yet affording maximum foot power.
The progressive distribution of body weight begins as the posterior inferior tuberosity of the calcaneus (heel bone) contacts the walking or running surface, and any interference with immediate contact, such as a portion of the footwear striking behind the heel tuberosity, creates a leverage disadvantage and delays the forward thrust of the body weight. For these reasons an object of the invention is that of positioning the posterior cleats directly under the posterior inferior tuberosity of the calcaneus.
The invention will be best understood by reference to the appended drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of the plantar surface of the bone structure of a right foot -on which is indicated the location of the cleats at the primary points of control contact.
FIGURE 2 is a bottom plan view of a shoe sole on which the cleats are strategically arranged with respect to the critical areas of bone structure of the foot, shown in dotted lines, the front and rear cleat plates being shown in broken lines.
FIGURE 3 is a longitudinal sectional view, on line 3-3 of FIGURE 2, illustrating the shoe in outline and showing the out-sole and in-sole, the cleat plates and the cleats in relation to the bone structure of the foot.
FIGURE 4 is a transverse sectional view, on line 4 4 Mice of FIGURE 3, showing the posterior cleats under the heel bone, and
FIGURE 5 is a transverse sectional view through the toe section, on line 5 5 of FIGURE 3, showing the intermediate cleats beneath the metatarsal shafts.
In the schematic illustration of FIGURE 1 is shown the os calcis, or heel bone 1G', the sustentaculumtali 11, the anterior-inferior portion 12 of the heel bone 10, the calcaneo-cuboid articulations 13 and talo-navicular articulation 14, `comprising the anterior-posterior transverse plane of the foot. The forward foot structure is comprised of the metatarsal shafts 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20, the proximal phalanges 21, 22, 23, 24 and 25 of the toes, and the distal phalanges 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30. The cleats, which will be presently described in detail, are located with relation to the elements just referred to and are shown schematically in FIGURE l, and in plan in FIGURE 2.
The lack of medial control of the rear yfoot constitutes a major hazard to foot posture on the leg, inhibits the maintenance of foot 'balance and distorts all directional forces exerted by the leg muscles on the foot. Lack of control under the cuboid 15 is equally hazardous since this element is the keystone of the lateral weight-bearing segment of the foot. The sulkus of the cuboid 15 carries the tendon of the peroneus longus which originates on the lateral side of the leg and is responsible for major foot movements. Instability of subluxation at this point will disturb foot balance, create stress in Choparts joint and change foot posture on the leg. Continuous depression of the sub-talar segment 14 of the foot -results in accumulative stress on the tendon insertions of the muscles which control am'bulation, particularly those muscles which originate in the leg and insert into the foot.
The specific locations of cleats on the heel and sole of athletic shoes, such as used in football, has heretofore been considered relatively unimportant, their primary purpose being that of providing traction for the athlete. By positioning these cleats beneath the critical areas of the anatomical structure of the foot the stresses and strains usually imposed upon the foot and leg are minimized or completely eliminated.
My invention contemplates the location of cleats 31 and 32 at each side of the heel portion 33 of the shoe 34, which are generally conventional, and occur beneath the heel bone 10, as shown in FIGURES 1 and 2. Forwardly of the cleats 31 and 32 are provided cleats 35 and 36 which are arranged directly beneath the talo-navicular articulation 14 and the calcaneo-cuboid articulation 13, respectively. Each of the cleats 31, 32, 35 and 36 have shank portions 37 which extend through special metal plates 38 arranged in the heel portion 33 of the shoe 34 and interposed between the insole 39 and outsole 40, as shown in lsection in FIGURES 3 and 4, and in broken lines in FIGURE 2.
Conventional arrangements of the cleats on athletic shoes fail in consideration of the importance of locating these elements beneath the critical areas of the foot, especially with regard to the positioning of cleats directly under the talo-navicular articulation of the foot, such as the cleat 35 which is slightly longer than the posterior heel cleats 31 and 32, andthe arrangement of the cleat 36 under the calcaneocuboid articulation 13 on the lateral side of the foot, the latter cleat being the same in height as the heel cleats 31 and 32. The reason for lengthening the cleat 35 is to compensate for the concavity in the last at this point, as best illustrated in FIG- URE 3, where additional height is required to maintain continuity of pressure, and a critical point at which the maintenance of ideal foot balance is at the medial shelf of the calcaneus, the sustentaculum tali.
The lowering of the anterior-inferior portion r12 of the heel bone results in the ankle bone (talus) 1S moving downwardly and medialward. The tibia and fibula (leg bones) twist with the ankle and heel valgus on the vertical and horizontal axes spreading the malleoli and torsioning the ankle joint creating stress and strain on the ligaments of the ankle and sub-talar foot segment. All foot and leg muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints are distorted when the calcaneus moves into a valgus position and predisposes improper foot posture on the leg and usually imposes an abnormal amount of body weight on the medial border of the foot.
Mechanically there is one major control point for maintaining the proper posture of the heel bone in relation to the leg which occurs directly under and along the medial aspect of the anterior-inferior portion of the calcaneus 12 and the inferior-medial shelf 11 of the heel bone, the lowering of this shelf being lpresent in heel valgus. The inferior-postereior portion of the heel bone 10 moves outward and away from the mid-line of the body and from under the direct thrust of the leg bone or tibia. The superior articulation of the heel bone, where it forms a joint with the ankle bone, moves inwardly and downwardly toward the mid-line of the body, or the center line of body weight.
The positioning of the cleat 35 beneath the talo-navicular articulation 14, and the cleat 36 beneath the calcaneo-cuboid articulation 13, controls the sub-talar joint, and acts as stabilizing factors yof the rear foot and controlling rear foot posture as weight bearing begins, creating an ideal fulcrum for forward body propulsion and provides additional rear foot control and assures positive continuous ground contact.
The invention is designed to smoothly and efficiently transfer the kinetic body weight iiow from heel to toe and create a more ideal foot balance and posture and continuity of foot effort'The proximal sole cleats 41 and 42 are positioned directly beneath the shafts of the first and fifth metatarsals 16 and 20, respectively, and immediately 'behind the distal heads Iof these elements, as shown in FIGURES 1 and 2. The fifth metatarsal shaft being the shorter, the lateral proximal sole cleat 42 is located slightly rearwardly of the opposite cleat 41. This arrangement affords immediate contact with the walking surface and forward propulsion is smooth, even and effective in direct proportion to the effort so that no lost motion or wasted energy results. The cleats 41 and 42 provide for added speed, eXtra power through concentrated directional effort and the natural fiow of body Weight through the foot.
Forwardly of the cleats 41 and 42 are medial cleats 43 and 44 which are positioned so as to. accept the grasping motion of the prehensile plane of the foot with the thrust directly beneath the proximal phalanges 21 and 25, respectively, of the first and fifth toes 26I and 30. The cleats 43 and 44 are aligned at a slight angle transversely of the foot, the cleat 44 being set rearwardly of the cleat 43, as best indicated in FIGURE 1. By arranging the cleats 43 and 44 in this maner positive and smooth controlled flow of weight is provided at points most advantageous to foot mechanics and power.
The toe cleats 45 and 46 are located near the forward end of the sole and positioned in line with the first and fourth toes 26 and 29, respectively, and in alignment transverse to the toe portion of the shoe. These cleats provide stability and balance during the push off stage of ambulation, which occurs mainly at the distal end of the great toe, and :accomplishes an even Weight thrust avoiding the uncertainty and stress occasioned by the conventional single toe cleat.
All of the forward or sole cleats 41, 42, 43, 44, 4S and 46 are provided with shank portions 37 which extend through a metal plate 47 which is interposed between the insole 39 and outsole 40 of the shoe 34, and is shown in broken lines in FIGURE 2. Thus all sole cleats are positioned so as to avoid direct pressure on fore-footy joints, a common problem encountered in the use of conventionally placed cleats by which joint pressure and damage produces a constant trauma in the joint areas.
The plates 38 and 47 are generally of greater dimensions than the conventional plates whereby to more securely support and stabilize the cleats and to allow the sole cleats to be installed rearwardly of the metatarsal heads and to reduce the spacing between the sole and heel cleats. The arrangement provides for improved foot posture, boot balance and boot ability for the wearer, affording osseus alignment, and improvement of muscle, tendon and ligament vfunctions and the blood and nerve supply to the foot-ankle area so that stress and strain factors, such as sprains in the foot-ankle area, are substantially minimized.
Since the spring, short plantar and long plantar ligaments are directly Ibeneath the sub-talar segment of the foot, and grossly maintain the talo-navicular and calcaneocuboid articulations, excessive demands of prolonged durations will tend to elongate these ligaments with corresponding stress and strain occurring in the foot-ankle assembly, a contition which the ,invention is designed to correct.
The invention is capable of substantial changes and modifications in structure and design to accomplish the purposes thereof without departing from the spirit and intent thereof of the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In an athletic shoe structure having frusto-conical sole and heel cleats, one of said cleats being of greater height than others thereof and positioned beneath the talo-navicular articulation and the sustentaculum tali, a laterally opposite anterior cleat 'below the calcaneo-euboid articulation, a pair of sole cleats spaced laterally and positioned beneath the first and fifth metatarsal shafts, respectively, and rearwardly of the distal heads thereof, a second pair of sole cleats spaced forwardly of said last named cleats, each positioned beneath the proximal phalanges of the first and fth toes, respectively, and a pair of cleats arranged near the forward end of the sole and aligned transversely thereof, and positioned in line with the great toe and fourth toe, respectively.
2. In an athletic shoe structure having frusto-conical heel cleats, and frusto-conical sole cleats arranged in relation to certain specific areas of the osseous structures of the foot, an elongated cleat positioned beneath the talo-navicular articulation of the foot, a companion cleat spaced laterally therefrom and positioned under the calcaneo-cuboid articulation, a pair of laterally spaced cleats in the forward portion of the shoe sole and positioned beneath the first and fifth metatarsal shafts, respectively, adjacent to and rearwardly of the distal heads thereof, an intermediate pair of cleats spaced forwardly of said first pair and positioned beneath the first and fifth proximal phalanges of the toes, and a third pair of cleats arranged near and transversely of the toe end of the sole in line with the great toe and third toe, respectively, the arrangement being such as to provide an even distribution of foot articulation with relation to foot posture, body weight and foot effort.
3. The arrangement of sole cleats, as described in` claim 1, wherein to provide control for the sub-talar segment and medial control of the rear foot.
4. The arrangement as described in claim 2 in which the longer medial cleat is located beneath the medial shelf of the calcaneus and the talo-navicular articulation.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,902,780 9/ 1959 Bellew 36-25 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,168,693 12/1958 France.
PATRICK D. LAWSON, Primary Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2902780 *||Mar 12, 1957||Sep 8, 1959||Bellew Bernard A||Sport shoe|
|FR1168693A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4135317 *||Jul 6, 1977||Jan 23, 1979||Mizuno Sporting Goods, Co., Ltd.||Sports shoes equipped with cleats|
|US4212120 *||Jun 10, 1976||Jul 15, 1980||Brs, Inc.||Track shoes having straight last and improved spike placement|
|US4224750 *||May 10, 1976||Sep 30, 1980||Delport Marthienes J||Foot-wear|
|US4454662 *||Feb 10, 1982||Jun 19, 1984||Stubblefield Jerry D||Athletic shoe sole|
|US4527344 *||May 17, 1983||Jul 9, 1985||Mozena John D||Cleated shoes|
|US7971374 *||Apr 24, 2007||Jul 5, 2011||Hernandez Peter J||Apparatus for use in footwear and the like|
|US20080263893 *||Apr 24, 2007||Oct 30, 2008||Hernandez Peter J||Apparatus for use in footwear and the like|
|WO1983002715A1 *||Feb 10, 1983||Aug 18, 1983||Stubblefield, Jerry, D.||Athletic shoe sole|
|International Classification||A43C15/16, A43C15/00|