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Publication numberUS3327440 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 27, 1967
Filing dateApr 10, 1962
Priority dateApr 10, 1962
Publication numberUS 3327440 A, US 3327440A, US-A-3327440, US3327440 A, US3327440A
InventorsWatkins William C
Original AssigneeKatherine M Griffin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Partition construction with vertically adjustable floor-engaging foot
US 3327440 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

3,327,440 STABLE June 27. 967 w. c. WATKINS PARTITION CONSTRUCTION WITH VERTICALLY ADJU FLOOR'ENGAGING FOOT Filed April 10, 1962 INVENTOR. MY/(am C Ua f/rl'ns United States Patent 3,327,4t0 PARTITION CONSTRUCTION WITH VERTICALLY ADJUSTABLE FLOOR-ENGAGING FOOT William C. Watkins, Manhattan Beach, Calif., assignor,

by mesne assignments, to Katherine M. Griflin, Woodinville, Wash.

Filed Apr. 10, 1962, Ser. No. 186,378 6 Claims. ((11. 52-239) This invention relates to a partition construction and is more particularly concerned with an improved panel sup porting means.

The art of dividing rooms in buildings into small departments, and the like, by the employment of partitions, is old and Well-known.

In recent years, as a result of the rapid development and growth in the art of aluminum extrusion, the use of aluminum extrusions for the several component parts of partition construction has been widely adopted.

While the use of aluminum extrusions has, in the most part, proven to be extremely satisfactory in partition construction, there are several serious disadvantages. One such disadvantage is the heretofore necessity of using conventional screw fasteners and the like to secure together the elements and/or component parts going to make up the partition constructions and the necessity that the fasteners be normally visible and accessible. Another disadvantage resides in the fact that aluminum is rather soft and as a result, easily scratched and deformed, especially when being worked upon by screw fasteners and the necessary tools associated therewith.

Yet another disadvantage found in the use of aluminum extrusions resides in the fact that the various parts and/ or portions formed of aluminum extrusions must be especially made and worked upon in a machine shop or the like, remote from the site of installation, and when once made or established, cannot ordinarily be altered, varied or modified. This has led the manufacturers of such constructions to establish standard, modular components and parts, which the purchaser can obtain for establishing a partition to meet his immediate needs. However, as a result of the above, it is necessary for the manufacturer and sales organizations for such constructions to make and stock many special and unique parts for particular types of installations; for the purchaser of such constructions to carefully and properly order all parts he will require and still further; for the purchaser to reorder and obtain such special parts whenever he wishes to rearrange or alter his partition.

One particular component or part of a partition construction which must be especially made, if established of aluminum extrusion and which ordinarily requires the manufacturer to make, the sales organization to stock and the purchaser to order and possibly reorder from time to time, is the vertical support or post, several of which are ordinarily required in every partition to support the panels thereof. Such posts are conventionally square in crosssection and are arranged to occur at the ends of one panel, at the intersection of two panels intersectin at right angles, between two aligned panels, at the intersection of three panels, two of which are aligned and the third disposed at right angles thereto, and at the intersection of four panels, each of which is at right angles to the panels adjacent to it.

An object of the present invention is to provide a novel post construction for a partition with which and on which panels can be engaged and supported in any one of the five conventional arrangements set forth above.

Another object of this invention is to provide a post construction of the character referred to wherein there are no visible fastening means and the like, when the partition construction is fully assembled.

Still another object of my invention is to provide a novel coupling means for securing the panels of the partition construction to the posts thereof.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a novel vertically adjustable floor or deck engaging foot for my novel post construction.

The various objects and features of my invention will be fully understood from the following detailed description of a typical preferred form and application of my invention, throughout which description reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of a portion of a panel construction with a post as provided by the present invention related thereto;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a portion of an assembled partition;

FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken as indicated by line 3-3 on FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken as indicated at line 4-4 on FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken as indicated by line 5-5 on FIG. 1.

The present invention relates to a novel, improved, universal standard or post construction adapted for use is a partition construction such as is taught and claimed in the patent application of Donald A. Deakins, entitled, Partition Construction filed May 8, 1961, and bearing Ser. No. 158,621.

The partition construction disclosed in the aboveidentified application includes fabricated columns or posts. These posts consist of an elongate vertically disposed extruded H-section, the flanges of which establish two opposite outside surfaces of the posts and a pair of elongate, extruded cover plates arranged adjacent to the other two opposite sides of the H-section to close or box in the H- section. The plates are retained or secured to the H-section by the plurality of vertically spaced visible and accessible screw fasteners, and carry portions of suitable coupling means for securing the panels of the partition construction to the posts. The coupling means includes a plurality of vertically spaced registering rectangular openings in the plates on the posts and in the frames of the panels adjacent thereto, resilient fingers 0r tabs, inclined longitudinally of the longitudinal axis of the posts and carried by the plates to project outwardly through the openings therein and into the adjacent registering openings in the panel, and the like, oppositely inclined tabs carried by the panel frames to project outwardly through the openings therein and into the openings in the cover plates and establishing sliding wedging engagement with the tabs on the cover plates, related thereto.

With the general post construction set forth above, it will be apparent that only two panels, in a common plane, and occuring at opposite sides of the posts can be supported thereby. In practice, and in carrying forward the above construction, especially constructed posts must be provided and stocked for each possible panel arrangement, that is, especially made posts are provided for supporting a single panel, for supporting two panels at right angles to each other, for supporting three panels and for supporting four panels.

The panel-supporting partition post A provided by the present invention is an elongate, vertically disposed construction, square in cross-section so as to define four fiat vertically disposed sides and is adapted to cooperatively engage and support a partition panel P on any one or more of its sides, as circumstances require or as desired.

The post A is formed of a tubular extrusion, square in cross-section and having an elongate, outwardly opening channel 10 extending longitudinally of each side thereof. The channels have fiat bottoms 11 and sides 12. The sides 12 are provided with laterally inwardly opening longitudinal grooves 13 which grooves are adapted to cooperatively receive and retain portions of elongate striplike cover plates B provided to close the channels 10, as will hereinafter be described.

In practice, the channels can be simple dovetail channels without departing from the spirit of the invention and in which case, the sides 12 of the groove would be laterally inwardly and outwardly inclined relative to the bottom of the channel and in which case, the grooves 13 could be dispensed with.

The post A further includes a plurality of vertically spaced elongate vertically disposed tabs in each channel 10. The tabs 20 are formed of spring steel and each has a base portion 21 fixed to the bottom 11 of its related channel by means of a pair of rivet fasteners 22, and an upwardly and outwardly projecting work-engaging portion '23, which portion normally projects outwardly from the confines of the channel It).

The post construction A that I provide further, and as mentioned above, includes a removable cover plate B for each channel 10, which plate is in the nature of a straight flat, extruded aluminum strip, equal in longitudinal and lateral extent with the channel and which is provided with inwardly projecting flanges 31 at each side to slidably engage the sides 12 of the channel 10 with which it is related and outwardly projecting lips 32 extending longitudinally of the flanges 31 and adapted to slidably engage in the adjacent grooves 13 in the channel, as clearly illustrated in FIG. 3 of the drawings.

The spring tabs 20 in the channel 10 engage the inner surfaces of the cover plates B and normally yieldingly urge them outwardly in the channels to a position where the lips 32 stop against the outer sides of the grooves 13 and the outer surface of the plate is flush with the outer surface or side of the post A, with which it is related.

In practice, the cover plate or plates B are slidably engaged in the channels 10 with which they are related from one end of the post and are yieldingly frictionally held in position therein by the tabs 20.

With the cover plates B that I provide, the channel 10 and tabs 20 of any one side of the post A with which a panel is not related, can be closed and covered by a plate B, providing a neat and attractive surface on the post, uncluttered and unobstructed with screw fasteners and the like.

The cover plates B are removed from those sides of the posts A with which panels P of the partition construe-tion are related.

In addition to the foregoing, the post A that I provide includes a novel, vertically adjustable, floor or deckengaging foot F.

The adjustable foot F includes an elongate vertically disposed block 40 having a central longitudinal, internally threaded, bore 41 and an outwardly projecting stop flange 42 about its lower end. The block 40 is equal in crosssection with the inside of the post A, and is split longitudinally intermediate the said two opposite sides thereof, to define two like half-sections. Sufficient stock is removed from the inner opposing surfaces of the sections of the block to allow the said sections to be shifted towards each other a sufficient amount to allow the block assembly to freely enter the lower end of the post and to a position where its stop flange 42 engages the lower end of the post.

. If desired, the post can be provided with outwardly projecting burrs 43 on its opposite sides to bite into and engage in the inside surface of the post as clearly illustrated in the drawings.

The foot F further includes an elongate threaded stem 45 threaded-1y engaged in the bore in the block from the lower end thereof. The stem 45 serves to urge the sections of the block outwardly or apart and so that the opposite sides thereof are urged into engagement with the wall opposing sides of the post, and so that in case the block is provided with burrs 43, as illustrated, the burrs are urged into engagement in the post.

The lower end of the stem 45 is provided with a floorengaging pad or disc 46.

In the preferred carrying out of the invention and as illustrated in the drawings, I provide a tubular boot 47 of limited longitudinal extent, which boot is slidably engaged about the lower end of the post A and depends therefrom to engage and seat on the floor or on the pad 46. The boot 47 serves only to shroud and obscure the threaded stern and lower flange portion of the block and to thereby provide a neat, attractive installation.

The partion panels P which I provide are simple, unitary rectangular structures, each having a central panel portion 50 formed of a suitable structural board and a frame 51 surrounding the panel portion and made up of a plurality of like aluminum extrusions.

In the case illustrated, the central portion 50 of each panel is made up of two sheets of masonite or the like, and a core of honeycomb-like fibrous material fixed to and extending between the said sheets.

In practice, the central portion 50 can be of plywood, beaverboard, plastic foam or any other suitable and desirable material.

The frame 51 about the central portion 50 of each panel is made up of four lengths or rails of aluminum extrusion, there being a top rail 53, a bottom rail 54 and side rails 55.

Several rails are alike in cross-section and each has a body portion with a flat outer surface 56 and an inner surface 57, inwardly projecting, longitudinal flanges 58 are provided along the opposite side edges of the body portion to project inwardly from the inner surface there of, and laterally inwardly projecting ribs 5-9 are provided on the flanges 58, spaced from the body portion and defining laterally, inwardly opening longitudinal channels or recesses 60 at the opposite sides of the said body portion. The sever-a1 rails of the frame are related to the respective sides of the central panel portion with the flanges thereon embracing the opposite surfaces of the panel portion, as clearly illustrated in the drawings.

The several rails are secured together at the corners of the frame by means of suitable mounting brackets engaged in the adjacent end of the recesses 60 at the corners of the frame. One such bracket is illustrated at X in FIG. 1 of the drawings.

It will be apparent, that with the form of panel constructions as set forth above, no screw fasteners need be engaged through or into the extrusions, which are of aluminum and which will not advantageously receive such screw fasteners.

The panels P which I provide are releasably secured to the post A with the outer surfaces 56 of the side rails of the panels in flat bearing engagement with the outer surface of one side of the post, by means of a plurality of longitudinally spaced, releasable coupling means M.

Each coupling means M that I provide includes an elongate rectangular opening 61 in the surface 56 of the rail to communicate with the channel 10 in the post related thereto, a block 62 carried by the rail to occur adjacent the inner surface thereof and having a downwardly and inwardly inclined tab 63 projecting therefrom and through the opening 61.

The block 62 is a simple rectangular plate of sheet metal and is of sufficient lateral extent so that its vertical side edges slidably engage in the laterally inwardly opening recesses 60 established by the ribs 59 on the said rails.

The blocks 62 are provided with one or more threaded openings in which suitable screw fasteners 66 are engaged, which fasteners are adapted to project through the plates and engage the inner opposing surfaces of the rails. With this relationship of parts it will be apparent that by advancing the fasteners 66 into pressure engagement against the said opposing inner surfaces, the blocks are urged inwardly and away from the said surfaces and their side portions, engaged in the recesses, are urged into tight pressure and gripping engagement with the ribs establishing the recesses.

It will be apparent that with the above manner of mounting and anchoring the blocks of the coupling means, no screw fasteners or the like, need be engaged through the aluminum extrusions, the blocks are suitably guided in the opposing recesses with which they are related so that they are not subject to becoming mis-aligned and finally, the blocks can be easily and conveniently adjusted longitudinally of the rails or members, as circumstances require.

The tabs 63 on the blocks 62 are simple, elongate strips of spring steel, or the like, and are secured to the blocks by spot welding.

The tabs 63 carried by the rails and the tabs 20 on the posts are slightly less in lateral extent than the opening 61 through which and into which they project, so that while they project freely through the said opening, the vertical sides of the openings serve to guide the tabs and prevent lateral displacement of the rail and post.

The downwardly extending tabs 63 on the blocks 62 project from the outer surface 56 of the rail 55 with which they are related and into the opposing channel in the post to slidably engage the inwardly disposed sides or surfaces of the upwardly extending, inclined tabs on the post related thereto. The tabs 63 project into the channels, the sides of which serve to direct or guide the tabs 63 and thereby guide the rail and panel into alignment with the post.

The tabs 20 on the post slidably engage the inner surface of the downwardly inclined tabs 62 and project through the openings 61 in the rail 55 to be guided thereby in the same manner as set forth above.

With the above relationship of parts, it will be apparent that by initially engaging in the end portions of the related tabs 20 and 63 and then shifting the panels downwardly relative to the posts, the tabs of the several coupling means serve to draw the panels and posts towards each other and the surfaces 56 of the rails and their adjacent sides of the posts into fiat bearing engagement with each other.

With the coupling means end that I provide and which has been described above, it will be apparent that a plurality of panels P as provided by the present invention, can be easily and quickly engaged on the post A to establish a rigid tight assembly which is not subject to working and becoming loose or rickety, but on the contrary, due to the wedging action afforded by the coupling means, can only become tighter and more snug upon working of the various components of the partition construction.

It will be further apparent that no screw fasteners are visible in the completed assembly that I provide.

It will also be apparent that if and when it is desired to move the partition construction, the construction can be easily disassembled by simply shifting the panels upwardly and from engagement with the posts. Such operation requires no special tools or the disengagement of screw fasteners and the like, or any other operation which might adversely affect the panel or post units from being reassembled in a manner to establish tight snug rigid partition construction.

In practice, the cover plates that I provide are no load supporting or structural members and as a result, can be made of light inexpensive extrusions and as a result can if desired, be expendable. Further, since the post construction A that I provide is never used with less than one partition P related thereto, only three cover plates need be provided.

In accordance with the above, in practice, the post construction A is stocked and sold with three cover plates and the purchaser, at his choice, can store those cover plates which are provided and which he does not need at the time of initial installation or, he can dispose of those cover plates which he does not initially need and order new plates if and when his partition construction is altered and additional cover plates are required.

Having described only a typical preferred form and application of my invention, I do not wish to be limited or restricted to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any modifications or variations that may appear to those skilled in the art and fall within the scope of the following claims.

Having described my invention, I claim:

1. A partition comprising:

(a) a ost;

(b) a panel;

(c) said post in lateral cross-section being polygonal and having a longitudinal outwardly-opening groove in a side;

(d) a plurality of elongate vertically-spaced resilient primary tabs arranged in each channel;

(e) each primary tab having a lower portion fixed to the bottom of the channel and an upper portion projecting upwardly and outwardly from the channel;

(f) said panel having a frame with vertically-disposed side rails to abut the sides of the post;

(g) each side rail having a plurality of vertically-spaced openings for slidably receiving the upper portion of one of the primary tabs carried by the post;

(h) an elongate secondary tab related to each opening in the rail;

(i) said elongate secondary tab having an upper portion attached to the inside part of the rail and a downwardly and outwardly-inclined lower portion projecting through the opening related thereto;

(j) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab being of slightly less width than the width of the opening;

(k) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab and said opening establishing a sliding, Wedging, engagement with respect to each other with the post and the panel in assembled relationship;

(1) a block in the lower end of said post;

(In) a stem;

(n) said block adapted to receive said stem;

(0) said block being a split block and tapped;

(p) said stem being threaded and adapted to be screwed into said block;

(q) a boot;

(r) said boot slidably engages the lower end of the post; and,

(s) said stem upon screwing into the block expands said block and the lower end of the post to snugly engage said boot.

2. A partition comprising:

(a) a post;

(b) a panel;

(c) said post in lateral cross-section being polygonal and having a longitudinal outwardly-opening groove in a side;

(d) a plurality of elongate vertically-spaced resilient primary tabs arranged in each channel;

(e) each primary tab having a lower portion fixed to the bottom of the channel and an upper portion projecting upwardly and outwardly from the channel;

(f) said panel having a frame with vertically disposed side rails to abut the sides of the post;

(g) each side rail having a plurality of vertically-spaced openings for slidably receiving the upper portion of one of the primary tabs carried by the post;

(h) an elongate secondary tab related to each opening in the rail;

(i) said elongate secondary tab having an upper portion attached to the inside part of the rail and a downwardly and outwardly-inclined lower portion projecting through the opening related thereto;

(j) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab :being of slightly less width than the width of the opening;

(k) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab and said opening establishing a sliding, wedging, engagement with respect to each other with the post and the panel in assembled relationship;

(1) a vertically adjustable floor-engaging foot at the lower end of the post;

(rn) said foot including an elongate vertically-disposed block with a stop flange at its lower end and slidably engaged in the lower end of the post;

(n) an elongate vertically-disposed stem threadedly engaged in the block to depend therefrom;

(o) a floor-engaging pad at the lower end of the stem;

and,

(p) an elongate vertically-disposed tubular boot corresponding in inside configuration with the outside configuration of the post and slidably engaged about the lower end of the post to depend therefrom and engage the floor about said pad.

3. A partition comprising:

(a) a post;

(b) a panel;

() said post in lateral cross-section being polgonal having a longitudinal outwardly-opening groove in a side;

(d) a plurality of elongate vertically-spaced resilient primary tabs arranged in each channel;

(e) each primary tab having a lower portion fixed to the bottom of the channel and an upper portion projecting upwardly and outwardly from the channel;

(f) said panel having a frame with vertically-disposed side rails to abut the sides of the post;

(g) each side rail having a plurality of vertically-spaced openings for slidably receiving the upper portion of one of the primary tabs carried by the post;

(h) an elongate secondary tab related to each opening in the rail;

(i) said elongate secondary tab having an upper portion attached to the inside part of the rail and a downwardly and outwardly-inclined lower portion projecting through the opening related thereto;

(j) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab being of slightly less width than the width of the opening;

(k) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab and said opening establishing a sliding, wedgin'g, engagement with respect to each other with the post and the panel in assemble-d relationship;

(1) an elongate vertically-adjustable floor-engaging foot construction for the partition post;

(111) said foot construction including an elongate vertically-disposed block corresponding in outside configuration with the inside configuration of the post and having a central longitudinal bore;

(11) a radially-outwardly-projectin-g stop flange at its lower end to engage the bottom end of the post and post engaging burrs projecting from opposite sides of the block;

(0) said block being spit longitudinally in a plane at right angles to said opposite sides and having stock removed whereby the block with its burrs projecting from it can be slidably engaged in the post;

(p) an elongate vertically-disposed stem threadedly engaged in the bore to depend therefrom and urging the said opposite sides of the block and the burrs thereon into engagement on and into the walls of the post; and,

(q) a flat horizontally-disposed floor-engaging pad fixed to the lower end of the stem.

4. A partition comprising:

(a) one or more posts and a pluraliy of like panels;

(h) each post having at least one panel engaged therewith and including an elongate vertically-disposed tubular member, polygonal in cross-section and hav ing a longitudinal outwardly-opening channel in each side thereof;

(c) each channel having a fiat bottom, parallel side walls and opposing longitudinal recess in the side walls;

((1) a plurality of elongate vertically-disposed resilient primary tabs arranged in vertical spaced relationship in each channel and having lower portions fixed to the bottom of the channel and upwardly and outwardly-inclined upper portions projecting from the channel;

(e) an elongate vertically-disposed cover plate having a flat body portion;

(f) said plate having inwardly-projecting side flanges and outwardly-projecting li-ps on the side flanges engaged in certain of the channels with their bodies flush with the related side of the said tubular member, their flangestin sliding engagement with the side Walls of the channels and their lips engaged in the recesses;

(g) said primary tabs in the channels normally yieldingly urging the plates outwardly and the lips thereon into tight frictional engagement in the recesses;

(h) said panels having frames with vertically-disposed side rails to abut the sides of the posts with which the cover plates are not related;

(i) each side rail *having a plurality of vertically spaced openings to communicate with the channel in the side of the post related thereto and slidably receiving the upper portions of the primary tabs carried by the post;

(j) an elongate secondary tab relates to each opening in the rail; and,

(k) said elongate secondary tab having an upper portion fixed in the rail and a downwardly and outwardly-inclined lower portion projecting through the opening and establishing sliding wedging engagement with the primary tab related thereto.

5. A partition according to claim 4 and comprising:

(a) a vertically adjustable floor-engaging foot at the lower end of the post;

(b) said foot including an elongate vertically-disposed block with a stop flange at its lower end and slidably engaged in the lower end to the post;

(0) an elongate vertically-disposed stem threadedly engaged in the block to depend therefrom;

(d) a floor-engaging pad-at the lower end of the stem;

and.

(e) an-elonagte vertically-disposed tubular boot corresponding in inside'configuration with the outsideconfiguration of the post and slidably engaged about the lower end of the post to depend therefrom and engage the floor about said pad.

6. A partition comprising:

(a) a post;

(b) a panel;

(c) said post in lateral cross-section being polygonal and havinga longitudinal outwardly-opening groove in a side;

(d) a plurality of elongate vertically-spaced resilient primary tabs arranged in each channel;

(e) each primary tab having a lower portion fixed, t0

the bottom of the channel and an upper portion projecting upwardly and outwardly from the channel;

(f) said panel having a frame with vertically-disposed side rails to abut the sides of the post;

(g) each side rail having a plurality of vertically-spaced openings for slidably receiving the upper portion of one of the primary tabs carried by the post;

(h) an elongate secondary tab related to each opening in the rail;

(i) said elongate secondary tab having an upper portion attached to the inside part of the rail and a downwardly and outwardly-inclined lower portion,

projecting through the opening related thereto;

(j) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab being of slightly less width than the width of the opening;

(k) said primary tab and said elongate secondary tab and said opening establishing a sliding, wedging, engagement with respect to each other with the post and the panel in assembled relationship;

(1) a block in the lower end of said post;

(m) a stem;

(n) said block adapted to receive said stem;

() an elongate vertically-adjustable floor-engaging foot construction for the partition post;

(p) said foot construction including an elongate vertically-disposed block corresponding in outside configuration with the inside configuration of the post and having a central longitudinal bore;

(q) a radially-outwardly-projecting stop flange at its lower end to engage the bottom end of the post and opposed engaging burrs projecting from opposite sides of the block;

(r) said block being split longitudinally in a plane at right angles to said opposite sides and having stock removed whereby the block with its burrs projecting from it can be slidably engaged in the post;

(s) an elongate vertically-disposed stem threadedly engaged in the bore to depend therefrom and urging the said opposite sides of the block and the burrs thereon into engagement on and into the walls of the post; and, (t) a flat horizontally-disposed floor-engaging pad fixed 10 to the lower end of the stem and an elongate tubular boot corresponding in outside configuration with the post and slidably engaged about the lower end of the post to depend therefrom and engage the floor about the pad.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,696,288 12/ 1928 Underwood 52-296 1,805,731 5/ 1931 Beckwith 52-298 2,660,270 11/ 1953 Jenkins et a1 52-206 2,863,532 12/ 1958 French 287-18936 2,963,131 12/1960 Brockway 52-349 X 2,998,110 8/ 1961 Hutzelman 52-301 3,078,206 4/1963 Delf et a1. 52-704 X FOREIGN PATENTS 795,714 5/ 1958 Great Britain.

824,583 12/1959 Great Britain.

260,500 7/ 1949 Switzerland.

BENJAMIN BENDETT, Examiners.

R. S. VERMUT, Assistant Examiner.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/239, 248/340, D25/131, 52/292, 52/774, 52/282.2
International ClassificationE04B2/74
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2/7437
European ClassificationE04B2/74C3E2