US 3328863 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 4 967 E. s. was Em 3,3283% YARN TEXTUR'I'ZING JET Original Filed No'v. 1, 1964 I INVENTORS EDWARD .5. Case 8: av CARL Jae/(sou Azmelvsys United States Patent 3,323,863 YARN TEXTURIZING JET Edward S. Cobb, Franklin, Mass, and Carl F. Jackson,
Cumberland, R.I., assignors to Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Continuation of application Ser. No. 355,563, Mar. 30, 1964, which is a division of application Ser. No. 149,357, Nov. 1, 1961. This application Apr. 29, 1966, Ser. No- 546,464
8 (Ilaims. (Cl. 28-1) This invention relates to a method and apparatus for producing a texturized yarn and to the novel yarn resulting therefrom.
More particularly, the invention relates to the production of texturized yarn having a bulkiness or loft due to a looped component and including a number of strands or yarns of continuous glass filaments. This is a continuation of our application Ser. No. 355,463, filed on Mar. 30, 1964, now abandoned, which was a division of our application Ser. No. 149,357, filed on Nov. 1, 1961 now US. Patent 3,262,177, granted July 26, 1966.
The invention is concerned especially with texturized yarn of both intermittent and continuous 'bulkiness which is suitable for heavy decorative and industrial fabrics.
The preferred form of apparatus of the invention incorporates an air jet for creating a turbulent texturizing zone through which the yarn is directed. In the turbulent zone individual filaments are separated from each other and whipped around to form convolutions which are retained during withdrawal of the yarn from the zone and subsequent takeup. The convolutions or loops impart bulkiness to the yarn by maintaining the filaments in spaced relation.
Such texturizing contracts the yarn longitudinally and it is accordingly necessary for the takeup rolls to be operated at a slower speed than the rolls feeding the yarn. The degree of texturizing may be regulated within limits by adjusting the relative rates of feed and takeup.
This invention pertains mainly to a finished yarn having core strands or yarn composed of continuous filaments wtih such strands or yarns untexturized but combined with an efiect yarn which has been convoluted in the turbulent zone and which provides the texturized character of the finished yarn.
The method and apparatus of the invention are par ticularly adapted to the production of a yarn having alternate thick and thin portions resulting from intermittent texturizing or bulking of the yarn.
The principal object of the invention is the economical fabrication of a superior bulky yarn containing continuous glass filaments and having uniform qualities permitting trouble-free processing in subsequent twisting, plying and weaving operations.
Another object of the invention is the provision of means for producing a preselected and unvarying style of texturizing.
A further object is to provide a nozzle for creating a particularly eifective turbulent air zone for developing a texturizing action upon the yarn.
Another aim of the invention is to provide a programming means for controlling and regularizing the intermittent texturizing of a yarn being treated.
An additional object of the invention is the provision "Ice of means for securing rapid transition from the texturized to the untexturized portions of a thick and thin yarn.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention are attained, at least in part, by a magnetic clutch controlling the feeding rate of the effect yarn and operated by a rotating element intermittently supplying current to the clutch; and by a special nozzle in which the yarn delivering nipple is offset from the common air and yarn outlet.
The apparatus and methods of the invention will be described in more detail hereafter in connection with the drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of apparatus by which the invention may be practised;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged vertical and longitudinal section of the novel, turbulence forming air nozzle of the invention incorporated in the apparatus of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a front view of the air nozzle of FIG- URE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a perspective schematic presentation of a rotating dial for governing the intermittent texturizing of a yarn produced by the apparatus of FIGURE 1; and
FIGURE 5 shows a rotating pin wheel for intermittent actuation of a switch, and which is an alternate arrangement to that of FIGURE 4 for establishing the pattern of texturizing.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGURE 1 there are three yarn supply packages 9, 1t) and 11. The yarns 14 and 15 from the packages 10 and 11 are, in this example, core yarns and may be untwisted strands of continuous glass filaments. Such strands preferably contain about two hundred and ten filaments and have a length of fifteen thousand yards per pound.
The yarns 14 and 15 are, respectively, drawn upwardly over guiding and tension rollers 17 and 18 by the pairs of feed rolls 20 and 21, and 23 and 24. Through gear boxes 26 and 27 the two pairs of feed rolls are driven from a common power source at the same speed which may for instance be at the number of revolutions per minute which delivers the yarns at the rate of eighty yards per minute.
In a similar manner a texture or effect yarn 30, which may also be an untwisted strand like yarns 14 and 15, is drawn from supply package 9 and over guiding and ten sion roller 31 by the pair of feed rolls 32 and 33, having a basic speed corresponding to that of rolls 20, 21, 23 and 24, obtained through gearing 35 from a common powerdriven shaft.
The gear box 34 encasing the gearing 35 of feed rolls 32 and 33 also includes geared or belt driving means 36 operating at a speed above that of the basic speed. An associated magnetic disc clutch shifts such higher speed driving means into engagement with rolls 32 and 33 and overrides a ratchet connection between the basic speed gearing 35 and the rolls. In this way the yarn delivering rotation of the rolls is temporarily increased. The texture or effect yarn 30 may thus be supplied at the rate of one hundred and sixty yards per minute or twice as fast as the core yarns 14 and 15.
The effect yarn 30 and the core yarns 14 and 15 pass through series of guide eyes 37, 38 and 39* leading the yarns to the air texturizing nozzle 40 to which air under pressure is delivered through inlet nipple 42.
The resulting bulked composite yarn 45 then proceeds around the guide wheel 47 to be wound into a package 49 on the spindle 51. A conventional transversing device 48 directs the yarn back and forth across the package 49. The constant yarn takeup speed is obtained by having the package 49 rotated through friction contact with roll 50, which is rotated by driving mechanism 52. Through this arrangement the increasing diameter of package 49 does not affect the takeup speed, which should be between two and four percent below the core feeding rate, and under the described circumstances preferably at the rate of seventy eight yards per minute.
With the effect yarn 30 fed at the same speed as the core yarns 14 and 15 and with the composite yarn resulting from the combining of the three yarns taken up at the same speed or at a speed only slightly less, no bulking or texturizing of the composite yarn is secured. When, however, the effect yarn is delivered through the clutch action at a higher rate, convolutions are formed in the effect yarn by the air turbulence within nozzle 40 and the composite yarn is bulked, as indicated, at points 55. This bulking may be intermittent through repeated oper ations of the clutch or may, of course, be made continuous by non-interrupted, high speed driving of the feed rolls 32 and 33 delivering the effect yarn 30.
The magnetic clutch acts quickly to abruptly increase the feed of effect yarn and when the clutch is disengaged an immediate transition of the rolls to their lower basic speed is facilitated through a light drag weight suspended by a strap hung over a rear extension of the roll 33.
Details of the texturizing nozzle 40 are shown in FIG- URES 2 and 3. Fitted within the rear bore 57 of the cylindrical body 58 is the yarn guiding nipple 59. This is held to the body by screws 62 and 63 extending through the external flange 65.
From the conical entrance 67 the yarn passes down the axial channel 68 of nipple 59, said channel having a restricted terminating portion 69 which in this case has a diameter of .028 of an inch. Air under pressure from an air supply connected to the inlet 42 enters the chamber 71 surrounding the forward narrow tip 72 of the yarn guiding nipple 59.
The combined air and yarn venturi outlet member 74 is press fitted into the body 58 and is held in selected position by the set screw 76 through the collar 77 as may be seen in FIGURE 3. The collar 77 is held to the body 58 by screws 78 and 79. The restricted portion of the passage through venturi member 74 should have a diameter about two and a half times the diameter of the outlet passage 69 of the nipple 59, or a diameter in this example of .070 of an inch. The turbulence of the air during the air travel through the outlet member 74 forms convolutions in any of the yarn components which are taken up on a collecting package at a rate substantially lower than that at which they are delivered to the texturizing nozzle 40.
A feature contributing to the texturizing action of the nozzle 40 is the offsetting or eccentric position of the outlet tip 72 of the yarn guiding nipple in relation to the venturi outlet member 74. This is accomplished by having the rear bore 57 of the nozzle body 58 drilled oif center, in this example a distance of .010 of an inch. This displaces the yarn guiding nipple and its outlet tip 72 a like degree out of line with the venturi outlet member 74.
This arrangement, which is illustrated in FIGURES 2 and 3, increases the number of convolutions in the effect yarn while making the loops individually smaller. The texturizing is accordingly more uniform. Also, with the offset guiding nipple the production rate may be increased.
Exact positioning of the guiding nipple 59 and of the venturi outlet member 74 is very important. For this reason, these parts are slip fitted in place within body 59 instead of relying on threading, which is frequently not accurately matched.
When it is desired to produce a decorative yarn in which the effect yarn is convoluted for spaced intervals,
instead of a bulky yarn in which the effect yarns or all the yarns are continuously convoluted, there must be means for rapidly operating the clutch mechanism of this invention or some other mechanism for varying the speed of the effect yarns.
This invention provides efficient and reliable devices for this purpose. A preferred embodiment is illustrated schematically in FIGURE 4. It comprises a pattern disc mounted on a shaft 87 and rotated at a speed, for instance, of eight revolutions per minute. The face 89 of the disc has a dull, non-reflecting surface except for radial strips 91 circumferentially spaced around the face. The main area may have a fiat black finish while the strips may carry a coating of aluminum.
A light source 93 directs a narrow light beam 94 at a spot successively passed by the strips, and a photoelectric cell 95 is positioned to receive the reflection of the beam from each strip. The instantaneous reaction of the cell is amplified and through suitable electrical circuits momentarily motivates the clutch associated with high speed drive 36.
There are fourteen of the radial strips 91 on the face 89 of the disc 85, with the disc turned at eight revolutions per minute the clutch would be actuated 112 times per minute. As described, the composite yarn 45 is collected on the package at the rate of seventy-eight yards, or 2808 inches, per minute.
Accordingly, should the bulked or texturized zones 55 of the yarn 45 average ten inches in length, there are plain, untexturized sections between zones 55 running on the average about fifteen inches in length. The number, width and spacing of the strips 91 may be varied to obtain different frequencies, lengths and spacings of the texturized zones 55.
The action of the electronic system and the response of the clutch are instantaneous and consequently the rotation of the rolls 32 and 33 feeding the effect yarn 30 shifts sharply from non-bulking speed to the higher bulking and texturizing speed. The transition is so rapid that there is little taper at the beginning or end of each texturized zone 55, and the character of the texturizing through each zone 55 is very uniform.
A definite pattern of zones 55 is of course set by the strips 91 and is repeated with each rotation of the disc 85. The preferred form of disc 85 is larger than that indicated in FIGURE 4 and has a greater number of strips 91. This permits a more extensive variation in the pattern and a slower rotational speed of the disc.
For a more varied texturizing of the product yarn, effect yarns differing in weight or color may be fed separately at alternating speeds by several of the change speed structures 34 with associated pattern control discs 85.
In FIGURE 5 is shown an alternate form of pattern governing device involving a micro switch 99 controlling current flow to the clutch mechanism 35. The arm 101 of the switch is successively tripped by radiating fingers 103 on the rotated wheel 105. There are a continuous annular series of sockets on the wheel for selective spaced insertion of the fingers and the latter may be of different widths to effect varying lengths of the texturized zones 55.
While, for purposes of disclosure, the combination of two ends of core yarn and one end of effect yarn has been shown and described herein, many other combinations are feasible. For instance, two ends only of effect yarn may be utilized. The resulting composite ya-rn will have less tensile strength along the texturized or convoluted portions, but this may be remedied to a sufiicient extent by subsequently applying a twist to the product yarn. For heavier composite yarns two or three effect yarns may be combined with two core yarns, or live or six ends of effect yarn processed with two or more core yarns. The core yarns may be fed together from a common pair of rolls such as the pair 20 and 21 instead of from individual pairs as shown.
For economical reasons untwisted yarns are preferable for both effect and core y-arns. However, pretwisted yarns may be used for either or both of the basic yarns. Lighter or heavier yarns than the 15,000 yards per pound type specified herein may be substituted therefor. As an example, a single end of 7,500 yards per pound yarn may replace two ends of the 15,000 yards per pound yarn.
Generally, air at higher pressures is used for greater texturizing or in producing heavier yarn. For the particular three ply construction resulting from the described processing, a pressure between fifty and sixty pounds is prescribed.
An increase in the texturizing or bulking is secured by widening the differences between the feeding rate and the takeup rate. For instance, the effect yarn 30 may be delivered by rolls 32 and 33 at a speed as high as two hundred and forty yards per minute with the composite yarn 45 collected at only seventy-eight yards per minute. Alternately, the rate of feed may be only fifty percent greater than the speed of takeup.
Where the full yarn is not texturized, the texturized zones 55 may be of different lengths, varying upwardly from several inches, as controlled by the width of the strips 91 of the pattern disc 85 or the width of the fingers 103 of the pattern wheel 105, and by the speed of these pattern devices relative to the traveling speed of the yarns.
In summary, the basic features of the invention include the special texturizing nozzle, the programming devices for intermittent texturized effects, the magnetic clutch in cooperation with the programming devices for producing sharp transition from untexturized to texturized sections of yarn, and the composite y-arn products incorporating core yarns and effect yarns with the latter yarns texturized uniformly throughout spaced texturized portions and said portions following a definite predetermined repeated pa-ttern.
Modifications in the practice of the invention other than those discussed herein may be made without departing from the scope of the appended claims and the spirit of the invention.
1. An air nozzle for texturizing yarn having a main body with a bore therein, a yarn receiving and guiding nipple extending into the bore from the rearward end thereof and axially offset in respect to the longitudinal axis of said bore, said nipple having a cylindrical outlet passage for the yarn, means providing an air supply passage communicating with the bore, and a member at the forward end of the bore providing a common cylindrical outlet for the yarn and the air, the diameter of the cylindrical outlet being greater than the diameter of the nipple outlet passage, the axis of said nipple outlet passage being laterally offset in respect to the axis of the common cylindrical outlet an amount less than half the difference in diameters of said outlet passage and said common cylindrical outlet.
2. A texturizing unit for the production of texturized yarn comprising a body, an air passageway extending through said body, air supply means communicating with said air passageway, yarn guiding nipple extending forwardly into said air supply passageway, said nipple having a yarn passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, an outlet for said air passageway for exiting both yarn and air supplied to said unit, said outlet having a converging entrance from said air passageway, the forward portion of said nipple extending into and terminating in said converging entrance, the forward portion of said nipple being laterally offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of said converging entrance.
3. A nozzle for the production of texturized yarn comprising a body having an air chamber, a yarn guiding nipple having a yarn passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, said nipple extending from the rear of said body through said air chamber, an air supply passageway communicating with said air chamber, an outlet for said air chamber for exiting both yarn and air supplied to said nozzle, said common outlet having a converging entrance from said air chamber, the forward portion of said nipple extending into and terminating within said converging entrance, the forward portion of said nipple being laterally offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of said converging entrance.
4. A nozzle for the production of texturized yarn comprising a main body having an air chamber, a yarn guid ing nipple extending from the rear of said body through said air chamber, said nipple having a yarn passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, an air supply passageway communicating with said air chamber, a common outlet for said air chamber for exiting both yarn and air supplied to said nozzle, said common outlet having a converging entrance extending to a most restricted portion, the forward portion of said nipple extending into and terminating within said converging entrance short of said most restricted portion, the forward portion of said nipple being laterally offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of said converging entrance.
5. A nozzle for the production of texturized yarn recited in claim 4 wherein said yarn passageway is so aligned and dimensioned that the forward axial projection of said yarn passageway is wholly contained by the most restricted portion of said common outlet.
6. A nozzle for the production of texturized yarn comprising a body having an air chamber, said body having a forward end and a rearward end, a yarn guiding nipple extending forward from the rearward end of said body through said air chamber, said nipple having a yarn passageway extending longitudinally therethrough, an air supply passageway communicating with said air chamber, a common outlet at the forward end of said body for both yarn and air passed through said nozzle, said common outlet having a converging entrance and a most restricted portion, said most restricted portion being forward of said converging entrance, the forward portion of said nipple extending at least into said converging entrance but not into said most restricted portion, the forward end of said nipple being laterally offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of said converging entrance and parallel thereto.
7. A nozzle for the production of texturized yarn comprising a body having an air chamber, said body having a forward end and a rearward end, a yarn guiding nipple extending forward from the rearward end of said body through said air chamber, said nipple having a cylindrical outlet passageway bore extending longitudinally therethrough, an air supply passageway communicating with said air chamber, a venturi outlet at the forward end of said body for both yarn and .air passed through said nozzle, said venturi out-let comprising a converging entrance from said chamber leading to a most restricted portion and a divergent exit, the forward end of said nipple extending at least into said converging entrance but not into said most restricted portion, the forward end of said nipple being laterally offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of said venturi outlet, the longitudinal axis of said cylindrical outlet yarn passageway being laterally offset with respect to said venturi outlet an amount less than half the difference in diameters of said most restricted portion and said cylindrical outlet passageway.
3. A nozzle for the production of texturized yarn comprising a body having an air chamber, said body having an inlet region and an outlet region, a yarn guiding nipple extending forward from the inlet region of said body through said air chamber, said nipple having a yarn pas sageway extending longitudinally therethrough, an air supply passageway communicating with said air chamber, a venturi outlet portion at the outlet region of said body for both yarn and air passed through said nozzle, said venturi outlet portion comprising a converging entrance from said chamber leading to a most restricted portion and diverging exit, the forward end of said nipple 7 extending at least into said converging entrance but not into said most restricted portion, the forward end of said nipple being laterally offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of said venturi outlet portion, the longitudinal axis of the yarn passageway of said nipple being laterally offset with respect to the longitudinal axis of said venturi outlet portion an amount equal to the lateral offset of said nipple.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,852,906 9/1958 Breen 5734 2,938,256 5/1960 Bauer et al. 5734 8 Bauer 281 Palm 57--34 Burns 5734 Loveland et al. 281
Hallden et al 281 Yamamoto 281 10 MERVIN STEIN, Primary Examiner. L. K. RIMRODT, Assistant Examiner.