US 3329061 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
7 July 4, 1967 KAZUO MOMOI 6 FISHING NET Filed Nov. 12, 1964 n WW INVENTOR.
United States Patent 3,329,061 FISHING NET Kazuo Momoi, 760 Nakahiro, Akou-shi, Hyogo-ken, Japan Filed Nov. 12, 1964, Ser. No. 410,377 1 Claim. (CI. 87-12) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A gill fishing net formed of multi-ply cords comprising a core yarn and outer yarns, each of said core and outer yarns consisting of a plurality of fibers, said core yarn being twisted in one direction, each of said outer yarn being twisted in the direction opposite to that of said core yarn, and said outer yarns 'being disposed around said core yarn in the same direction as the twist of said core yarn.
This invention relates to knotted fishing nets formed of multiple layer twines or multi-ply cords having stable twist structure, and relates more particularly to the structure of a gill net.
An object of this invention is to provide a fishing net having an excellent fish catching ability especially as a gill net, which may be formed of multi-ply cords of suitable resiliency which are formed into such a formation that can be seen to be as thin as possible in the water.
Another object of this invention is to provide a fishing net which has excellent characteristics in strength, current water resistance and durability by being formed of multiply cords having sufliciently stable construction in which outer yarns are intertwined about a core yarn in an orderly manner to maintain good twisting balance among the yarns with the result that said cords may be multi-ply cords having any optional number of twists, such as sixply or seven-ply cords, whereby various defects derived from the twist formation inherently of the multi-ply cord and also from the disturbance of the twist balance of respective yarns can be substantially completely eliminated.
The conventional fishing net is usually formed of threelayer or three-ply cords in which relatively thick yarns serving as component elements for a cord and having preliminary twists to a fixed direction are intertwined in the oppositie direction. Thus, the cordobtained is of inflexibility beyond a desirable degree and restricted in applying resiliency thereon. The net formed of such cords appears to the eye to be thicker in the water than it actually is, so that it is contrary to the foregoing requirements in a gill net. Thus, according to this invention, the cord of a net is formed of a plurality of component yarns each of which is thinner in size than each of the yarns constituting the conventional three-ply cord and which are intertwined to the direction opposite to that of the twist of a core yarn so as to form a cord of multi-ply structure, so that its resiliency will be increased compared with that of the three-ply structure and also it may have the advantage that its formation of twist can exhibit a very smooth appearance in order to be advantageously applicable particularly to a gill net.
On the other hand, however, the steps of arranging a plurality of yarns which have been subjected to a preliminary twisting operation and thereafter simply intertwisting said ya-rns while subjecting them to the final twisting operation to the direction opposite to that of said preliminary twisting has the defect that the balance of twist of each yarn is irregular. For this reason a technique is required in the intertwisting process of the yarns, otherwise 7 partial slack or loosening will occur in the cord obtained and cause lowering of strength, with the result that early damage or breakage of the net will result. Furthermore, such loosened portion of the cord will be caught by the body of fish in the fishing operation and thereby cut. Due to irregularity in the twist formation, the resistance of water against the net will be greatly increased and the net having such an irregular outer appearance 'will have more chance of being distinguished by fish and will not qualify as a gill net, being worse than even the threeply cord. Thus, the cord of the conventional multi-ply structure has disadvantages in addition to those encountered by the three-ply cord, so that in spite of its various advantages such as resiliency and the like, it has not yet reached the stage of sufiicient and wide usage. The defects in such twist formation result from the fact that a plurality of relatively thin yarns subjected to the preliminary twisting operation are merely bundled and thereafter finally intertwisted in the direction opposite to that of their preliminary twist. Therefore, by the application of the final twist, loosely twisted portions will naturally occur in the yarns subjected to the preliminary twisting operation. Even if the number of twists of each of the yarns in the preliminary twisting operation is predetermined in anticipation of the occurrence of said loosely twisted portions, it is difiicult to obtain twisted cords having regular preliminary and final twists which are cooperatively in good balance, since in actuality the pitch of the twists derived from the preliminary twist and that of the final twist differ. As the number of the yarns which are component elements of a cord increases, so does the diameter of all of said yarns to be bundled. Thus, the manor of formation of the loose twist in the final twisting operation varies depending upon the location of the yarns, viz a yarn located at the core portion and yarns at the outer-portions of a cord, so that the cord of multi-ply structure which is to be obtained through the final twisting operation is inclined to be of an irregularly twisted configuration as mentioned above. Accordingly, in a fishing net formed of such cords of an irregularly twisted configuration, such inclination may be exaggerated as the fishing operation is repeated and hence is not durable over a long period of use and desirable fish-catching ability is unexpectable.
Accordingly, this invention aims to improve the defects present in the conventional multi-ply cords of fishing nets, to settle the problems residing in the manufacture of the multi-ply cords and yet to provide a multi-ply cord of stable twist structure and of regular twist configuration in order to provide a fishing net especially a gill net in compliance with the foregoing objects of this invention.
These and other objects as well as advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which FIG. 1 is an enlarged cross sectional view of a net cord having multi-ply structure illustrating one embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a side view of the and FIG. 3 is a front view of a knotted fishing net formed of the cords ,shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
Referring now to FIG. 1 of the accompanying drawing, the reference numeral 1 designates a nylon core yarn of net cord shown in FIG. 1;
210 denier 1 (letter S twist) and 2 indicates outer yarns of nylon 210 denier 1 (letter Z twist). Six of said outer yarns 2 are arranged on the outer periphery of said core yarn 1 and subjected, as a whole, to the final twisting operation to be intertwisted by S twist, while applying a predetermined tension to the core yarn 1. As a result, seven-ply net cord 3 may be formed which in turn will be formed into a knitted net 4 in any suitable manner well known to those skilled in the art. The term S twist herein is intended to mean clockwise twist going from the lower portion to the upper portion in the drawing, while the term Z twist means anticlockwise twist. Also the term preliminary twist herein means twists applied to an individual component yarn prior to the final bundling and intertwisting operation, and the term final twist means twists finally applied to the bundle of component yarns to form a multi-ply cord.
According to another embodiment of this invention, the multi-ply cord may comprise a core yarn of nylon 210 denier 3 (S twist) and six of outer yarns of nylon 210 denier 2 (Z twist). According to still another embodiment of this invention, the cord may comprise a core yarn 1 of nylon 210 denied 2 (S twist) and five of outer yarns 2 each of which is formed of nylon 210 denier 2 (Z twist). In the above embodiments, the bundle of core yarn and the outer yarns is subjected to S twist, while applying tension to said core yarn, to obtain a cord which is, in turn, to be formed into a net.
According to the foregoing examples of this invention, since the whole component yarns are intertwined while applying a predetermined tension to the core yarn 1, without merely intertwisting the whole bundle of the yarns as has been the practice in the conventional art, the core yarn 1 is prevented from getting mixed with the outer yarns 2 and thus a cord of seven-ply structure in which the outer yarns 2 are arranged about the core yarn in an orderly manner can be obtained.
Also, varying from the conventional process wherein the whole bundle of yarns subjected to the preliminary twisting operation so as to be twisted to the same direction is intertwisted to the opposite direction, the net cord of this invention comprises the core yarn 1 and the outer yarns 2 of which direction of twist is opposite to that of twist of said core yarn 1. Furthermore, since the outer yarns 2 which constitute the majority portion of the cord 3 are applied with the final twisting operation and twisted to the opposite direction to their original twisting direction, the outer yarns 2 are untwisted to a certain degree, while the yarn core 1 is given additional twists, thus avoiding the relative variation in untwists between the core and the outer yarns and disturbance of balance caused by such variation, which have been the defects inherent to the prior art cord. The final twisting operation affects independently the core yarn 1 and the outer yarns 2. Thus, the number of the preliminary twists of the respective yarns may be suitably arranged in such a manner that each of 4.,
the number of the final twists thereof will be approximately equal. Therefore, the core yarn 1 and the outer yarns 2 whose directions of twist are opposite may keep the balance by repelling each other, so that a cord of multi-ply construction will be formed which will be free from untwists to occur subsequently.
The cord 3 of the net thus obtained is much superior in resiliency than the conventional three-ply cord, and the outer yarns 2', 2" intertwined about the core yarn 1 at a fixed pitch do not cause the core yarn to appear outside of the cord an dthe pattern of twisting is very smooth and gentle differing from a cord of three-ply structure wherein three of yarns are intertwisted each other. For this reason, such a cord is seen to be thinner than the conventional net cord, since the reflection from the surface of the cord is greatly decreased in the water. Accordingly, it is difficult for fish to see the net, so that the fish may easily be caught by the net.
The foregoing description of this invention has been made mainly with respect to a net cord of 7-ply structure. Cords of optional multi-ply structure, such as five-ply or eight-ply cords, may be readily made by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of this invention by suitably selecting the size of both the core and the outer yarns, as defined in the appended claim.
What is claimed is:
A gill fishing net formed of multi-ply cords comprising a core yarn and outer yarns, each of said core and outer yarns consisting of a plurality of fibers, said core yarns being twisted in one direction, each of said outer yarns be- I ing twisted in the direction opposite to that of said core yarn, and said outer yarns being disposed around said core yarn in the same direction as the twist of said core yarn.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,930,661 10/1933 Rochester 57--144 2,055,037 9/1936 MacKinnon 57-144 2,755,214 7/1956 Lyons et al 5714O X 3,201,930 9/1965 Stirling 57-144 FOREIGN PATENTS 891,618 3/1962 Great Britain.
FRANK J. COHEN, Primary Examiner.
JOHN PETRAKES, Examiner.