US 3331208 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 18, 1967 J. AUBERT 3,331,208
DIVIDED WATER-WAY FOR WATER-CRAFT MOVEMENT Filed Oct. 2, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR F/G Jean AUBERT ATTORNEY July 18, 1967 J. AAAA RT 3,331,208
E ENT July 18, 1967 J. AUBERT 3,331,208
DIVIDED WATER-WAY FOR WATER-CRAFT MOVEMENT Filed Oct. 2, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVEN Jenn AUBE July 18, 1967 J. AUBERT DIVIDED WATER-WAY FOR WATERCRAFT MOVEMENT 4 SheetsSheet 4 Filed Oct. 2, 1963 wmw W M Q it www INVENTOR Jeon AUBERT ATTORNEY United States Patent C) 3,331,208 DIVIDED WATER-WAY FOR WATER-CRAFT MOVEMENT U Jean Aubert, Paris, France, assiguor to Socrete Anonyme dite: Societe Generale de Traction et dExploltatlon, Paris, France Filed Oct. 2, 1963, Ser. No. 313,218 4 Claims. (Cl. 61-7) The instant invention relates to a navigational method and an installation for the control of boat trafiic in an underground water passage.
For reasons of economy, navigational underground water-ways are, as is known, made as one way passages while the wetted cross-sectional area is kept as small as possible.
Because boats or water crafts in general, cannot cross one another in underground water-ways, trailic is kept moving by dividing the day into successive periods wherein the boat movement alternates in direction. This method is conventional and well known.
Displacement of the boats in the water-way is usually obtained by means of electrical tractors which have the advantage of not exhausting harmful gases. A tractor may drag one or several boats and usually travels along lateral ways lengthwise of the canal.
Because of the small cross-section of the tunnel (in fact it frequently happens that the area of the wetted crosssection of the boat is greater than that of the water that surrounds it), movement of the boats is difficult and slow, the speed being sometimes reduced to about 1 km. per hour. Indeed, the water compressed by the front part of the boat, must flow between the hull of the boat and the walls of the tunnel to reach the rear part and, consequently, a certain dilferent in level is created between the front boats follow one another, the available water for each one decreases. In fact, if the power of the dragging tractor was large enough and the speed exaggeratingly increased, the last boats would touch bottom.
Furthermore, during lamination of the water between the hull and the tunnel walls, an important energy is dissipated.
It is an object of the present invention to overcome the above stated disadvantages and allow an appreciable reduction in the wetted transverse cross-section of the tunnel.
An essential object of the invention lies in a method according to which the boat, or string of boats, is displaced in a tunnel in which a flow of Water is created which will cause movement of the boat or boats in one direction and/or in the other. The flow of water is produced by such means as motor pump groups, for instance, and gates both adapted to operate in at least one direction of flow, the flow thus created being reversible in the case of a one-way tunnel and uni-directional in the case of a two-way tunnel.
More precisely, it can be said that, in accordance with the method of the invention, the underground canal will become a travelling water-way. However, it differs from natural water-ways, in that it will sometimes flow in one direction and some other times in the other direction.
The invention will be better understood from the description that follows of various embodiments thereof having reference to the appended drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a water-way made according to the teaching of the invention wherein two pumps are used, each in conjunction with a gate;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of another embodiment of the invention wherein the water-ways installation uses two pumps in conjunction with a single gate;
and rear parts of the boat so that when several ill) 3,331,208 Patented July 18, 1967 FIG. 3 is also a plan view of another embodiment- Wherein two pumps are used between two gates;
FIG. 4 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of a underground water-way installation made up of two tunnels, one for flow in one direction and the other for flow in the other direction;
FIG. 5 is a vertical longitudinal cross-section view of a lock-gate for the installation of FIG. 4, and
FIG. 6 is an enlarged and more complete view of the rightward side of FIG. 4.
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of a canal comprising an underground reduced portion 3 with only the ends thereof being illustrated. The water-way heads are identified by numerals 1 and 2. Beyond heads 1 and 2 are canal portions 5, 6, 7, 8 of normal width 60 represents the ground or concrete work surrounding the water-way.
Movable gates, capable of resisting water pressure on either of their faces, are illustrated at 9 and 10 near heads 1 and 2 respectively. They are completely retractable so as not to hinder boat trafiic when they are open.
A pump 11 makes it possible to force water from portion 5 to portion 6 while a pump 12 will force water from 8 to 7.
In FIGURE 1, a boat 13 is shown entering the reduced portion 3 toward head 2 and a second boat 14 is located in canal section 7, being moored therein so that it will not be moved by the water current.
In order to move a boat from head -1 to head 2, the following two preliminary procedures must be carried out:
The boats to be moved are placed at 6, or as in the case of FIGURE 1, at the very beginning of reduced portion 3.
Gate 9 is closed and gate 10 is opened.
Pump 11 is started and water from canal section 5 is forced into section 6 and flows in the reduced portion 3 carrying with it boat 13. The speed of the latter depends on the rate of flow of water through pump 11.
After it has reached and passed head 2, the boat or boats will continue on their travel by the usual power means. After boat 13 has passed through gate 10, the latter is closed and the reversed operation takes place to deliver boat 14 from head 2 to head 1, gate 9 being then open while gate 10 is closed, pump 11 stopped and pump 12 started to force water from canal portion 8 into portion 7.
Of course the same movement of boat 13 from head 1 to head 2 could be obtained by closing gate 10 and opening gate 9 while operating pump 12 rather than pump 11, pump 12 forcing water from section 7 to section 8. Inversely, displacement of boat 14 from head 2 to head 1 could be obtained by opening gate 10, closing gate 9 and operating pump 11 to force water from canal section 6 to 5.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, two pumps 11A and 12A are operated with a single gate 9A. Pump 11A is operated to move water from section 5 to section 6 and pump 12A to force water from section 6 to section 5. The system includes valves 15 and 16 which are closed when the corresponding pumps 11A and 12A are not operated.
In such a system, gate 9A being closed, boat 13 will be carried from head 1 to head 2 when pump 11A is operated in the direction indicated by the arrow, pump 12 being inoperative with valve 16 closed. Inversely, boat 14 will be brought to head 1 by the water current when pump 12A is operated with water flowing in the direction indicated by the arrow with pump 11A inoperative and valve 15 closed.
The embodiment illustrated in FIGURE 3 is similar to those of FIGURES 1 and 2 and comprises a pair of pumps 11B and 12B mounted for reverse action in parallel with the output thereof connected to canal sections 6 and 7 by means of pipes 17 and 18; the equipment also comprising valves 15A and 16A.
With gates 9 and 10 and with valve A closed, pump 11B inoperative, valve 16A open and by operation of pump 12B, water will flow from canal section 7 to section 6 to create a water flow in the underground waterway which will move boat 13 from head 1 to head 2. Inversely, operation of pump 11B will move boat .14 from head 2 to head 1 if valve 15A is open, valve 16A is closed and pump 12B put out of service.
In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the boats coming from the right of the figure enter into the first active tunnel through inlet passage means 21 and leave by the outlet passage means 22. Similarly, in order to move in the second active tunnel, boats coming from the left enter the inlet passage means 23 and leave by the outlet passage means 24. Each inlet and outlet means comprises two gates:
Gates 25 and 26 for means 21 Gates 27 and 28 for means 22 Gates 29 and 30 for means 23 Gates 31 and 32 for means 24 The ground or concrete work on both sides and in the middle of the tunnel is represented by 61.
Two pumps 33 and 34 are respectively installed near the heads of the tunnels. One of such pumps forces water from section 35 to 36 in the direction indicated by the arrow while the second pump draws water from section 37 and delivers it in section 38. Because of this pumping action, the level of the water which is horizontal in the tunnels when the pump-s are not operated, falls in relation to the initial levels at 35 and 37 while it rises at 36 and 38. Consequently, a Water flow is produced between points 36 and 37 in one tunnel and between points 38 and 35 in the other tunnel.
A water movement is thus obtained which is capable of moving the boats travelling in one or the other direction provided the inlet and outlet means make it possible for the boats to enter or exit under satisfactory conditions.
Gates 25 to 32 of the inlet and outlet means are illustrated in a symbolic manner in FIG. 4 by means of the diagram usually used for mitre-gates merely to bring out the direction in which they are likely to retain water.
These gates could also be made as valves or folding panels according to the general arrangement illustrated in FIGURE 5.
In FIGURE 5, the bottom of the canal is numbered 39, the water level in the canal, 40 and the bank above the canal, 41. The folding gate 25A is illustrated in three of the positions which it may occupy when pivoting about a horizontal axis 42: two extreme positions a and c and an intermediate position b. In its lower position, gate 25A is substantially horizontal and rests on lug 43. In the intermediate position b illustrated, the top of the gate starts to emerge from the water level 40.
The eight gates 25A to 32A inclusively, which correspond to the gates having the same reference numerals but no indices in FIGURE 4, are of identical construction. Each is formed as a plane panel having a waterballast 44 as shown in FIGURE 5, the water-ballast being so positioned as to be totally immersed below level 40 at all times even when the gate is in the upper extreme position.
By introducing, during an initial permanent adjustment, an appropriate volume of water in the water-ballast, it is possible, when water pressure is equal on both faces of the gate, to produce a tendency for the gate to rise from its lower position a or to drop from that in c.
In fact, odd numbered or upstream gates 25A, 27A, 29A and 31A located at the upstream ends of the inlet and outlet passage means, are adjusted by means of their water-balance so that their normal position is the horizontal position a. In order to maintain one such odd numbered gates in the raised position 0, it is necessary to exert on its leftward face a water pressure greater than that existing on its rightward face. If this difference in pressure disappears, then the gate falls slowly from position 0 to position a. Inversely, if water flows through a lower orifice 45 in the direction indicated by the arrow in FIGURE 5, the gate rises from position a to reach first position b. From that moment on, water delivered from 45 is imprisoned on the left of the gate, its level rises and the water pressure on the face corresponding thereto increases slowly. Under this action, the gate reaches the upward position of FIGURE 5 and therefore moves from position b to position c.
The even numbered or downstream gates 26A, 28A, 30A and 32A are adjusted by means of their water-ballast in such a way that, independently of all water pressure, their normal position is the raised position.
FIGURE 6 shows in greater detail the rightward portion of FIGURE 4. Pump 33 is therein replaced by two pumps 33A and 33B respectively drawing water at 35A and 35B and delivering it at 36A and 36B. In the hydraulic circuit 35B, 36B, there is a valve 46B which, when in the position shown in full line, directs all water to 36B. To the contrary, when the position of valve 468 is that shown in the dot and dash outline, a portion of the water fiow, necessary to obtain the action hereinafter described, takes passage 47 to come out at 45 under gate 25A through the ground or concrete work 62. Passage or duct 47 is formed mostly in the concrete work below level 39 (FIGURE 5). The water flow delivered at 45 must be such that it causes rising of gate 25A which, as was seen previously, has a horizontal inoperative position.
Another valve 46A is provided to divert portion of the flow from pump 33A into conduit 48 and orifice 49 below gate 31A.
Operation of valve 46B may, for instance, be controlled by a photo-electric circuit 50-51. In a similar manner, operation of valve 46A may be controlled by photoelectric circuit 52-53.
Operation of the navigational system is as follows, assuming that, upon arrival of the boat, pumps 33A and 33B as well as their counterparts 34A and 34B on the other side of the passage-ways are already operating.
A boat coming from the right will enter inlet passage means 21 the gate 25A of which lies horizontal. Due to the upstream pressure created by the entrance of the boat, the latter gradually looses its speed such that it stops without hitting gate 26A. As a safety precaution, the latter is protected by a wooden body or any other equivalent arrangement. Just before it stops, the boat cuts the photoelectric circuit 50-51 and this interruption causes progressive rotation of valve 46B clockwise so that water rises at 45 which causes rising of gate 25A. Both gates 25A and 26A now being elevated, the water level between them rises gradually. When it stands a few centimeters above the level existing at 36A, that is the water level upstream in the tunnel, gate 26A falls and the boat which is pressed forward by the water delivered behind it at 45 moves downstream and penetrates into the tunnel. It is then propelled from 36B to 37 (FIG. 4) the action of the water current and starts into the outlet passage means 22, the gate 27 of which is normally horizontal, as was gate 25A.
When the boat lies in the inlet passage means, the photo-electric circuit 50-51 is constantly broken, but when it starts up into the tunnel in the conditions indicated above the circuit is again closed and valve 46B gradually returns from the position indicated by the dot and dash line to the position indicated in full line. The water no longer being delivered at 45', the level between gates 25A and 26A is no longer above that at 36B so that gate 26A rises. Gate 25A being purposely non-watertight, the level between gates 25A and 26A gradually decreases until it reaches the level in the canal at the right of gate 25A. Because of its setting, gate 25A returns to its normal horizontal position and inlet passage means 21 is again ready to receive a new boat and it introduce it into the tunnel.
Operation of the outlet means is, in all respects, the same as that of the inlet passage means. Thus, a photoelectric circuit 52-53, ahead of gate 42A, acts the same way as photo-electric circuit 50-51 located in front of gate 26A.
It may happen that as a craft enters into an inlet passage means, the four pumps 33A, 34A and 34B are all inoperative. The boat cuts circuit 56-51, or its counterpart in the inlet passage means 23, open which puts all of the pumps in operation. They are so adjusted that the starting impulse places them in operation during a period of time slightly longer than is necessary for the boat to move through the tunnel. If other crafts enter into one or the other channels before the pumps stop, the new impulse Which results therefrom prevents their premature stopping.
The method described in relation to FIGS. 1 to 6 may apply to stagnant water or to a stream flowing naturally in one direction or the other; in the latter case, the pumps must of course be dimensioned while taking into account any increase or decrease in flow rate due to natural flow; at the limit, one of the two pumps may eventually be removed.
The method is applicable also to underground channels used for various purposes such as to shunt loops in a river; in this latter case, portions 5 and 8 of the channel referred to above, discharge into the same stream, upstream or downstream of the loop.
The method is, of course, also applicable to narrow channel stretches which do not run underground.
1. In a stretch of water-way divided into two channels intended for water-craft movement in reverse directions, the combination comprising:
(a) inlet and outlet means for the ends of each channel arranged so that the inlet means of one channel lies adjacent the outlet means of the other, and
(b) pump means at each end of said stretch and between said inlet and outlet means, adapted to pump water adjacent the outlet means of one channel and discharge it adjacent the inlet means of the other channel thus to create a flow of water in closed circuit in said channels whereby a water-craft may be carried by said flow from the inlet to the outlet means of said channels, each inlet and outlet means further comprising;
(c) a downstream and an upstream gate pivotable on an axis normal to the channels and at the bottom thereof;
(d) means tending to keep said downstream gates upward and said upstream gates horizontal and lying on the bottom of the channels; said pump means comprising:
(e) two pumps each having a suction duct opening in one channel upstream of an outlet means and a discharge duct opening in the other channel downstream of an inlet means;
(f) a diversion passage connecting each outlet duct to the bottom of one channel beneath an upstream gate;
(g) a valve normally closing each diversion passage from the corresponding outlet duct, and
(h) photoelectric means between the gates of each inlet and outlet means, adjacent the downstream gates, operative when cut by a water-craft to cause opening of said valves to divert water flow to below said upstream gates to force the latter upwards.
2. In a stretch of water-way divided into two channels intended for water-craft movement in reverse directions, the combination comprising:
(a) inlet and outlet means for the ends of each channel arranged so that the inlet means of one channel lies adjacent the outlet means of the other, and
(b) pump means at each end of said stretch and between said inlet and outlet means, adapted to pump water adjacent the outlet means of one channel and discharge it adjacent the inlet means of the other channel thus to create a flow of water in closed circuit in said channels whereby a water-craft may be carried by said flow from the inlet to the outlet means of said channels wherein each of the inlet and outlet means is substantially constituted by a double-gate lock adapted for one direction of the water-craft, the upstream gate of each double-gate lock being operated by adduction, in the direction of the lock, of a water stream actuated by the pumping means.
3. A combination as claimed in claim 2, wherein each lock comprises:
(a) a downstream and an upstream gate pivotable on axis normal to the channels and at the bottom thereof;
(b) means tending to keep said downstream gates upward and said upstream gates horizontal and lying on the bottom of the channels; said pump means comprising at each end of the water way;
(c) two pumps each having a suction duct opening in one channel upstream of an outlet means and a discharge duct opening in the other channel downstream of an inlet means;
(d) a diversion passage connection each outlet duct to the bottom of one channel beneath an upstream gate;
(e) a valve normally closing each diversion passage from the corresponding outlet duct.
4. A combination as recited in claim 2, comprising:
photoelectric means between the gates of each lock, ad-
jacent the downstream gates, operative when cut by a water-craft to cause opening of said valves to divert water flow to below said upstream gates to force the latter upwards.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 319,303 6/1885 Nougues 61-7 448,072 3/1891 Pickard 61-7 725,927 4/ 1903 Bradley 617 FOREIGN PATENTS 496,156 7/1919 France. 565,297 11/ 1923 France.
10,519 1888 Great Britain.
EARL J. WITMER, Primary Examiner.