US 3332187 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 25, 1967 A. D. ARCARI 3,332,1@7
' BRICK WALL PANEL AND METHOD OF MAKING A Filed Dec. l1, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR Ammo/w Q /em/ BY @Cwwmwgfw July 25, 1967 A. D. ARCARI BRICK WALL PANEL AND METHOD OF MAKING I 2 Sheets-SheecA 2 Filed Dec. ll, 1965 United States Patent @Hice 3,33Z,l87 Patented July 25, 1967 3,332,187 BRICK WALL PANEL AND METHOD F MAKING Y Anthony D. Arcari, East Hartford, Conn., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to The Brix Corporation, a corporation of Connecticut Filed Dec. 11, 1963, Ser. No. 329,742 Claims. (Cl. 52-309) The present invention relates to brick wall panels of the veneer variety, and deals more particularly with a brick wall panel which includes a layer of backing material. It also deals with a method of making such a wall panel.
A general object of the present invention is to provide a brick veneer wall panel, and a method of making the same, which wall panel is economically manufactured with a minimum of equipment and material, which is easily installed, which is durable in use and which in addition to presenting an attractive appearance may also be used to provide effective heat insulation.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a brick wall panel, and a method of making the same, in which the individual bricks are securely anchored relative to one `another and relative to a layer of backing'material which may serve as a heat insulating material between the backs of said bricks and the existing wall or other supporting structure to which the wall panel is attached.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a brick wall panel in which the individual bricks are held relative to one another by a wire mesh material which also extends into the bodies of the bricks to reinforce the same and to prevent detachment of the bricks from the mesh material as a result of handling or severe environmental conditions.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a wall panel of the foregoing character which may be attached to a supporting structure by means of nails or similar fasteners inserted in the spaces between the bricks and Without setting up undue stresses in the bricks tending to break the same or in the mesh material tending to withdraw the nails from the supporting structure.
The drawings show a preferred embodiment of the invention and such embodiment will be described, but it will be understood that various changes may be made from the construction disclosed, and that the drawings and description are not to be construed as dening or limiting the scope of the invention, the claims forming a part of this specification being relied upon for that purpose.
Of the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a plan View of a wall panel of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the wall panel of FIG. l taken on the line 2-2 of that ligure;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view of the FIG. 1 panel along the line 3 3; and
FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view showing an intermediate stage in the construction of the wall panel of FIG. 1.
Referring now to the drawings, a brick veneer Wall panel embodying the invention is shown at 10 and comprises a plurality of bricks or brick-like members 12, 12 combined with a layer 16 of backing material .and a flat sheet of wire mesh material 18. The bricks are arranged in a standard pattern and are xed relative to one .another by the wire mesh material 18 which extends through each of the bricks approximately at the midpoint thereof. The backing layer 16 may be made from various dilferent materials, but preferably is comprised of a material having good heat insulating qualities and has a thickness sufficient to provide a significant heat insulating effect between the backs of the bricks and the wall or other structure to which the panel is subsequently attached. A relatively rigid insulation or composition board may be employed for this layer, but preferably the material of the layer is one having somewhat of a resilient cushioning effect which allows the back of the panel to adapt itself to minor irregularities in the supporting wall or structure. A very suitable material has been found to be styrofoam. This material has superior insulating properties and a Very low density. It is also water proof and insect proof.
More specifically and with particular reference to FIG. l, the brick wall panel 10 is seen to comprise live courses of bricks or brick-like members 12, 12, each one of which courses is staggered with respect to the next adjacent upper and lower courses by a horizontal distance equal to approximately one half the length of an individual brick. Each of these courses includes four such bricks and as shown the top and bottom courses 22 and 24 respectively as well .as the middle course 26 project laterally and to the left beyond the remaining two courses 28 and 30 respectively by an amount equal to the stagger distance already referred to. At the right lateral side of the panel, the said remaining courses 28 and 30 project laterally and to the right beyond the three rst-mentioned courses 22 and 26 by the same stagger distance. In addition to being so arranged in staggered courses, the courses are vertically spaced from each other and each brick in each course is horizontally spaced from the two adjacent bricks, the size of these spacings being generally equal to the size of the spacing between bricks in a conventional brick wall, and which spaces are commonly filled with grout or mortar. As so arranged, this brick wall panel is adapted to being brought together with other panels of identical construction to form a brick veneer wall having all the outward appearances of a conventional brick masonry Wall. Grout or mortar may thereafter be used to ll the spaces between the bricks so that the finished wall appears as a conventional brick wall and gives no external indication of the actual construction. It will, of course, be understood that although FIG. l shows by way of example a particular arrangement of the bricks in the panel and ya particular number of bricks making up the panel, the number and arrangement of the bricks on any one panel may be varied as desired without departing from the invention.
The wire mesh material 18 included in the panel 10 may be any `of a number of different types of materials, such as expanded metal, hardware cloth or wire screening, which is of an open mesh construction and which is supplied in generally flat sheets or which may be readily formed into such flat sheets as by unrolling and cutting the material from a roll thereof. The bricks, or brick-like members 12, 12 may also be made from any of a number of different materials, the basic requirement of the material being that it be capable of being applied to the wire mesh material in a plastic or owable state and thereafter curable into a hardened state. An example of a suitable material is an ordinary mixture of sand, water and Portland cement to which may be added an appropriate coloring material.
Reference is now made to FIGS. 2 and 3 for a more detailed discussion of the construction of the panel 10` and of the manner in which it is attached to a wall or other supporting structure indicated at 32. As shown, a plurality of nails or staples 34, 34 are driven through the wire mesh material 18 and through the backing layer 16 into the wall 32 at locations on said wire mesh 18 where the latter is exposed along the edges of the panel and between the bricks 12, 12. It will be seen that the layer of backing material is formed with a plurality of outwardly facing rectangular cavities 33, 33 which receive the rear portions of the bricks, these cavities being defined and separated by outwardly extending Wall portions 35, 35 which are 1ocated between the bricks and which at their outer faces engage the wire mesh material. The backing material also extends a substantial distance rearwardly beyond the rear faces of the bricks. The thickness of this portion of the backing material may vary and is in general determined by the anticipated heat transfer requirements of the resulting wall. The material of the -bricks is firmly adhered to the layer of backing material by reason of the backing material being roughened or provided with open pores which receive and hold the brick material firmly to the backing material. As so constructed, the backing material included in the spaces between adjacent bricks will tend to maintain the bricks in their initial relationship and to resist deformation of the wire mesh material as the panel is attached to a wall. This in turn tends to prevent damaging stresses from being set up in the bricks and also reduces other stresses tending to pull the fasteners from the wall.
It should also be noted that the wire mesh material 18 extends through the body of each brick 12 at the approximate midpoint thereof. The individual bricks are therefore reinforced by the wire mesh to reduce the likelihood of chipping or cracking both by handling of the panel and as a result of severe environmental conditions or the like after erection of the panel. Additionally, the material of each brick completely surrounds the material of the wire mesh backing and thereby provides a positive or locking bond between the two materials making it impossible for the bricks to be torn or loosened from the mesh material.
In accordance with the method of the present invention, the first step in producing a panel such as that described above is to provide a llat horizontal working surface. This may be conveniently provided by a pallet 36, as shown in FIG. 4, which has side walls 38, 38 and a fiat bottom 39 dening a generally rectangular receptacle. The bottom 39 provides the at horizontal working surface and the walls 38, 38 although not absolutely necessary, are convenient for use in locating and holding in proper relationship the various tools and materials which are subsequently placed on the bottom 39;
The first item placed on the pallet 36 is a generally rectangular sheet 16 of the backing material which may be taken to be Styrofoam. This backing sheet is preferably notched as shown at 4), 40 and is provided with the shallow rectangular cavities 33, 33 which subsequently receive the rear portions of the bricks 12, 12. These cavities may be formed in the sheet 16 in various different ways, depending on the nature of the material from which the sheet is made. If the sheet 16 is made from Styrofoam or other similar moldable material, the sheet 16 may be made by a molding process and the cavities formed therein during such molding process. On the other hand, the cavities may also be made by cutting the same from a sheet of material initially flat on both sides. Where such a cutting process is used to form the cavities, it is desirable that it be one which leaves a roughened texture on the bottom of the cavities, as this enhances the bond between the backing material and the bricks subsequently applied thereto. For example, where the backing sheet is made of Styrofoam, the cavities may be cut from an initially flat sheet by a tool in the nature of the small rotary wire brush which essentially scratches material from the sheet and produces a roughened texture. Although it is desirable that the cavities be as close to a rectangular shape as possible, any irregularities in their shapes will not be evident in the finished panel, and therefore the process used to cut the cavities need not be precise any may in fact be relatively crude.
The next item to be placed on the pallet 36 is a generally rectangular sheet of the wire mesh 18. As shown in FIG. 4, this wire mesh sheet is also preferably notched, as at 43, in a manner similar to the backing sheet.
The last item to be placed on the pallet is a generally rectangular grid type mold 44 having a pattern of cavities 45, 4S therein conforming with the cavities 33, 33 in the backing sheet and having open tops and bottoms. As
shown, this mold has blocked or closed end portions 46, 46 which overlie the notched portions 43, 43 of the wire mesh and the notched portions 40, 40 of the backing sheet. When brought together on the pallet, the mold cavities 45, 4S are accurately aligned with those in the backing material 18 by the locating function of the pallet side walls 38, 38.
A hardenable plastic substance such as the above-mentioned mixture 0f sand, water and Portland cement is thereafter introduced into the mold cavities 45, 45. As the material enters said cavities, it flows through the openings in the mesh material at the bottom of the grid mold and into the cavities 33, 33 of the backing sheet. Material is added to the cavities 45, 45 until all of the cavities 33, 33 and 45, 45 are filled and at which time the wire mesh material is embedded in said material and said material is in the form of brick-like members. Thereafter the tops of said `brick-like members may be smoothed or textured by running a board, trowel, brush or other tool over the top of the grid mold.
After the plastic material has set for some time, or has otherwise been cured into a self-supporting state, the grid mold may be removed and the pallet with the panel therein placed to one side for further curing or hardening of the brick material, if required. Upon hardening, the originally plastic substance forms a pattern of brick-like elements, each of which is reinforced by a portion of the wire mesh material. Further, the backing material is securely attached to said bricks and to said wire mesh, providing a brick wall panel which can be readily attached to an existing wall structure, thereby presenting an attractive appearance as well as improving the heat insulating characteristics of the wall.
Brick wall panels constructed and arranged as above described are well adapted to providing a brick veneer wall edect either on an unfinished studding structure or on a pre-existing wall, the spaces between adjacent bricks and between adjacent panels being filled with a grout material in a conventional manner after the panels are nailed or stapled in place.
It should be understood also that the term wire mesh as used herein and in the claims refers broadly to expanded metal, hardware cloth or any other perforated material suitable for holding and supporting the brick-like elements, and it is not intended that this term be used to refer only to a material made of wire.
The invention claimed is:
1. The method of making a brick wall panel comprising the steps of providing a sheet of non-metallic backing material having a pattern of rough surfaced cavities in the upper surface thereof, placing a generally flat sheet of perforated wire mesh material loosely over said sheet of backing material so as to cover said cavities, placing a grid mold having a pat-tern of cavities generally conforming to said backing sheet cavities over said wire mesh sheet with its cavities generally registering with said backing sheet cavities, casting a quantity of hardenable plastic material into said mold cavities so as to ill both said mold cavities and said backing sheet cavities and to embed said wire mesh sheet in said plastic material, and thereafter allowing said plastic material to harden and bond itself to said backing material.
2. The method of making a brick wall panel comprising the steps of providing a sheet of non-metallic backing material having a plurality of rough surfaced cavities in the upper surface thereof, placing a generally flat sheet of wire mesh material loosely over said backing sheet so as to cover said cavities, placing a mold over said wire mesh material which mold is in the nature of a grid having open brick defining cavities which are open both at their tops and bottoms and are aligned with said backing sheet cavities, casting a hardenable plastic substance into the tops of said mold cavities so that said substance ows downwardly into said backing sheet cavities and into intimate contact with the rough surfaces thereof, hardening said plastic substance into a self-supporting state, and thereafter removing said mold from said substance and allowing said substance to harden further and bond itself to said backing material.
3. The method of making a brick wall panel comprising the steps of molding a quantity of non-metallic heat insulating material to produce a sheet thereof having a plurality of generally rectangular rough surfaced cavities in the upper surface thereof which cavities have open tops and closed bottoms, placing a generally fiat sheet of wire mesh material loosely over said insulating sheet so as to cover the tops `of said cavities, placing a mold over said wire mesh material which mold is in the nature of a grid having brick defining cavities which are open both at their tops and bottoms and are aligned with said in sulating sheet cavities, casting a hardenable plastic substance into the tops of said mold cavities so that said substance flows downwardly into and fills both said insulating sheet cavities and said mold cavities, hardening said plastic substance into a self-supporting state, and thereafter removing said mold from said substance and allowing said substance to harden further and bond itself to said heat insulating material.
4. The method defined in claim 3 further characterized by said insulating material being Styrofoam.
5. The method of making a brick wall panel compris. ing the steps of providing a sheet of non-metallic backing material having two generally flat and parallel surfaces, removing material from one of said surfaces in such a manner as to form a plurality of generally rectangular cavities in said sheet having rough surfaces, said cavities having open tops and closed bottoms, placing a generally flat sheet of wire mesh material loosely over said backing sheet so as to cover the tops of said cavities, placing a mold over said wire mesh material which mold is in the nature of a grid having open brick defining cavities which are open both at their tops and bottoms and are aligned with said backing sheet cavities, casting a hardenable plastic substance into the tops of said mold cavities so that said substance flows downwardly into said backing sheet cavities and into intimate contact with the rough surfaces thereof, hardening said plastic substance into a self-supporting state, and thereafter removing said mold from said substance and allowing said substance to harden further and bond itself to said backing material.
6. The method defined in claim 5 further characterized by said backing material being Styrofoam.
"7. A brick wall panel comprising a sheet of non-metallic backing material, said sheet having a forward portion defining a plurality of generally rectangular cavities and a rear portion located behind said forward portion and closing the rear ends of said cavities, a generally flat sheet of wire mesh material located adjacent said forward portion and extending across the forward ends of siad cavities, and a plurality of brick elements each of which elements includes a rear portion extending into a respective yone of said cavities and a forward portion extending forwardly from the forward end of said cavity, the portion of said wire mesh material which extends across said latter cavity being embedded in said brick element and said rear portions of said brick elements being 'bonded to said backing material to hold said sheet of backing material in assembly with said brick elements and wire mesh material.
8. A brick wall panel as defined in claim 7 further characterized by said backing sheet comprising a sheet of Styrofoam.
9. A brick wall panel comprising a generally flat sheet of wire mesh material, a plurality of brick elements arranged in spaced relationship to each other and each of which elements includes a rear portion extending in one direction from the plane of said wire mesh material and a forward portion extending in the other direction from the plane of said Wire mesh material, said wire mesh material at the locations of said brick members being embedded in the bodies of said brick members, and a sheet of non-metallic backing material adhered to the rear faces of said brick members and including wall portions which are located in the spaces between said brick members and which wall portions extend forwardly from the rear faces of said bricks and into engagement with said wire mesh material, said sheet of backing material being held in assembly with said wire mesh material and with said brick members solely by the bond between said brick members and said sheet.
10. A brick Wall panel as defined in claim 9 further characterized by said backing material being Styrofoam and having a rough surface in areas contacted by said brick members to enhance the bond between said brick members and said Styrofoam.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,853,824 4/1932 Krauss 52-384 1,994,644 3/ 1935 Harshberger 52-388 2,329,610 9/ 1943 Harman 52-388 OTHER REFERENCES Progressive Architecture, June 1956, p. 51, Call No. Na. P7.
FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner. I. L. RIDGILL, Assistant Examiner'.