US 3332721 A
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y 1967 v. P. SAMOILOV ETAL 3,332,721
DEVICE HAVING ADJUSTABLE KNIVES FOR FORMING TUNNELS IN SOIL Filed July 16, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet l y 1967 v. P. SAMOILOV ETAL 3,332,721
DEVICE HAVING ADJUSTABLE KNIVES FOR FORMING TUNNELS IN SOIL Filed July 16, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 y 25, 1957 v. P. SAMOILOV ETAL 3,332,721
DEVICE HAVING ADJUSTABLE KNIVES FOR FORMING TUNNELS IN SOIL Filed July 16, 1964 4 SheetsSheet 3 DEVICE HAVING ADJUSTABLE KNIVES FOR FORMING TUNNELS IN SOIL Filed July 16, 1964 July 25, 1967 v. P. SAMOILOV ETAL 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 F/G.4d
United States Patent "ice 3,332,721 DEVICE HAVING ADJUSTABLE KNIVES FOR FORMING TUNNELS IN SOIL Vladimir Pavlovich Samoilov, Nikolai Vladimirovich Vasiliev, Evstafy Andreevicl: Vasilenko, Georgy Vladimirovich "inch, and Igor Petrovich Antonov, Moscow, U.S.S.R., assignors to Nauchno-Issledovatelsky Institute Osnovany i Podzemnykh Sooroozheny, Moscow, U.S.S.R.
Filed July 16, 1964, Ser. No. 383,205 Claims. (Cl. 299-33) The present invention relates to devices for driving tunnels in soft soils by urging in the soil the head part of a self-advancing support, namely, a tunnelling shield or a tunnel lining.
The known devices of such kind are fitted in the face part with knife-type members which are fastened in the self-advancing support in such a fashion that the pattern of the formed cutting becomes essentially a stable one. Changing the grid pattern, necessitated by the changing nature or properties of the soil, occurring along the tunnel route, involves lengthy stoppages for assemblage and dismantling.
In the case of frequently altering nature and properties of the soils along the tunnel route, the change of the grid pattern becomes uneconomical.
A particular object of the present invention is to provide a tunnel driving device equipped with knife-type members, which grid pattern can be rapidly changed without any special Work or stoppage. For instance, the knifetype members can form horizontal ribs, efficient in driving through sandy soils, or a lattice with rectangular cells effective in ball clays and forming separate and easily handled briquettes. Changing the grid pattern, while the device is in travel, allows to effect periodic distortions in the soil cohesion, as well as to detach from the face briquettes of soil which enter the device. This very feature of the device allows to employ it for driving tunnels in various soils, and it is of particular importance, in a soil with changing properties along a single route. With that object in view, a self-advancing support is equipped with at least two annular shells, arranged in consecutive order and having built-in knife-type members which form a lattice. Rotation of these shells, in relation to one another, makes it possible to achieve for each particular case quite different and most advantageous lattice patterns.
Other features and advantages of the invention will become clearly understood from the following description and appended drawings, which illustrate the preferred embodiment of the invention adaptable, particularly, to a self-advancing support as a tunnelling shield.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal cross-section view of a tunnelling device according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a front elevation of the device;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the device on a horizontal diameter;
FIGS. 4a-4h inclusive are schematic diagrams of interrelated positions of the knife-type members fixed in front and rear shells.
The head part of a self-advancing support 1, in the case of a tunnelling shield, is furnished with two annular shells (front shell 2 and rear shell 3), both having circular lugs and slots along the ends (FIG. 1). These lugs and slots allow to erect the shells in such a way as to provide for the entering of one of them into the other, as well as for the entering of both of them into the structural members of the head part of the self-advancing support 1. Due thereto, the shells and the circular knife of the self-advancing support 1 are provided with circular grooves and felt packiugs 4 intended to prevent water 3,332,721 Patented July 25, 1967 and soil particles from penetrating through the places where the shells 2 and 3 rotate one in relation to the other as well as through the places where they rotate in relation to the structural members of the support 1. Inside the shells 2 and 3, along equal chords, are mounted knife-type members 5 and 6 in the shape of plates with a sharp front edge and oval holes provided at their both edges. When said plates are mounted, said oval holes coincide with the holes in guide members 7, rigidly fastened tothe shells 2 and 3. In said holes are inserted connecting members, such as bolts 8 (FIG. 2).
The oval shape of the holes in the knife-type members allows displacement of these members in relation to the shells 2 and 3 along the longitudinal axis of the self-advancing support 1. The shells 2 and 3 are rotated by means of an electric motor 9, mounted in the upper part of the self-advancing support 1, and equipped with a drive gear 10 meshing with a driving internal gear 11. The external surface of the driving gear 11 is coated with a layer of compound mixture and rests on radial rollers 12 which move along a circular track made in the selfadvancing support 1. The shifting of the driving gear 11 in a longitudinal direction is prevented by means of side cheeks 13 and 14 which have circular grooves for packing rings 15. The front cheek 13 is provided with ribs 16 and is used as a rotary loader behind the shells. The ends of the front shell 2 and the rear shell 3 have antifriction members 17, in the form of sets of balls, arranged between the two circular grooves in the shells 2 and 3 as well as in the members of the self-advancing support 1.
The annular shells 2 and 3 are supported by means of roller seats 18 also fitted with packing. In order to prevent the self-advancing support 1 from undergoing deformation, which may be caused, for instance, by the action of rock pressure. The rollers in said seats 18 are of a shock-absorbing design, while the circular grooves for anti-friction members 17, in the self-advancing support, are designed in such a manner as to allow the balls to have some displacement in a radial direction.
The shells 2 and 3 are interconnected bymeans of a sliding block 19 which is received in a guide bushing 20 rigidly fixed on the shell 3. During the rotation of the shell 3, the slide block 19 comes out and thrusts against the nearest guide member 7 rigidly fixed on the shell 2. Rotation from the driving gear 11 is transmitted to the shell 3 through a slide block 21 received in the guide bushing 22 which is attached to the front cheek 13 so as to form a kind of cantilever. As a stop for the extended slide block 21 serve both the guide members 7 and the members 23 fixed on the shell 3. In order to maintain the shells 2 and 3 in a definite working position, special braking attachments are employed. Said attachments are arranged on the outer surface of the shells and are constituted by electromagnetic shoes 24 rigidly connected to the external side of the self-advancing support 1. The braking attachments may be of other suitable design. The self-advancing support 1 supports extensible pulsators 25 (FIGS. 1 and 2) which generate longitudinal oscillations. The heads of pulsators 25 are connected to beams 26 which are thrust against the knife-type members 5 and 6 thereby providing for vibrations of these elements so as to ensure their penetration into the soil.
Inside the self-advancing support, a telescopic rod 27 is mounted, said rod being equipped on its end with a working tool which, if necessary, penetrates into the dense soil or removes boulders. As a Working tool, a milling cutter 28 (FIGS. 2 and 3) may be employed as well as a rake grip 29 (shown by dotted line in FIG. 3) or a profiling blade 30 (FIG. 1). The soil, entering the device, is delivered onto a pit-car loader 31 by means of 3 flights 16 attached to the front cheek 13 of the driving gear 11.
The operation of the tunnel-driving device is as follows.
In the case of a sandy soil with a low cohesion, the shells 2 and 3 are set up in such a fashion as to provide a horizontal position for the knife-type members and 6, thereby forming them in alignment with one another (FIG. 4a). Such a set-up ensures for long horizontal straight ribs, which divide the face into separate cells with sandy-soil taluses in them positioned at angles of a slope of repose. While the device is moving ahead, the soil comes down from said ribs and enters the rotary loader, which flights 16 deliver it onto the pit-car loader 31. In case of increased cohesion of the sandy soil, the shell 3 can be turned at a certain angle depending on the value of cohesion, said angle being increased with the increase of cohesion and namely to a maximum of 90 (FIG. 412). Then the knife-type members 6 in the shell 3 cease holding the soil taluses, which come down onto the rotary loader. If the cohesion of a sandy soil is so high as to make the face steady over its whole height, the front shell 3 should also be turned to secure a vertical position for its knife-type members 5 (FIG. 40). This makes the soil separated from the face by the knifetype members fall downwardly. Absence of taluses leads to a considerable decrease in the necessary penetration force of the head part of the device.
When the face is composed of ball clays, the shells are turned in such a manner as to form a grid corresponding to the pattern shown in FIG. 4b. By turning the rear shell 3 periodically at a certain angle, the soil, entering the device, is separated from the face.
In cases of loamy sands or sandy clays, occurring in the face is semi-solid or even solid states, a grid with vertically set knife-type members 5 and 6 (FIG. 40) may be effective. In some cases of certain properties of the soil at the face, a grid, as shown in FIG. 4d, may be expedient.
When the self-advancing support 1 has a large crosssection, the shells 2 and 3 may be provided with an intermediate diametral support member as shown in FIGS. 4a-4h inclusive (in FIG. 2 it is shown by a. dotted line). In this case, four patterns are possible for the knife-type members 5 and 6, which are made up, then, of two parts each (FIGS. 4e, 4 4g, 411). When solid-soil layers or boulders occur in some places of the face, the rod 27 with an appropriate working tool is to be employed. This rod can be efiiciently used for removing clay briquettes to be delivered onto the pit-car loader 31. The fiowsheet of conveying soil from the face along the tunnel is generally known, so is the method of lining mounting in the tail part of the self-advancing support.
What we claim is:
1. A tunnel forming device comprising a self-advancing support having a longitudinal axis; at least two annular shells, arranged in said support in a consecutive order and supported for relative angular rotation about the longitudinal axis of said support; a plurality of knife-type members mounted on said shells for adjustment in relation to the shells along the longitudinal axis of the support; said knife-type members of the shells defining a grid which is adjustable in pattern by relative rotation of the shells, means of fastening said knife members to said shells; means for rotating said shells; means for connecting said shells to each other; means for maintaining said shells in fixed angular relation for a particular working position; and means for selective removal of the soil cut by said knife members for loading it onto a pit-car loader.
2. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said shells have interengaging circular lugs and slots for respective engagement with one another.
3. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said knife members each has a sharp front edge and ends with oval holes.
4. A device as claimed in claim 1 comprising guide members rigidly connected to the shells for attachment of the knife-type members.
5. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for rotating said shells comprises a motor mounted on said support, a crown gear driven by said motor, and a driving gear in mesh with said crown gear and engaged with said shells for rotating the same.
6. A device as claimed in claim 1 comprising antifriction members arranged on the annular shells roller seats on said support surrounding said shells and receiving the same and said anti-friction members.
7. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means connecting said shells comprises at least one sliding block and a receiving guide bushing on respective adjacent shells.
8. A device as claimed in claim 1 comprising braking means supported on said support for engaging the shells.
9. A device as claimed in claim 1 comprising at least two extensible pulsators fastened to said support, beams on said pulsators for engaging said knife-type members to axially pulsate the same.
10. A device as claimed in claim 1 comprising a rod mounted inside said self-advancing support and including a soil working tool thereon for operating on the entire face of the tunnel, said means for removal of the soil comprising a rotary loader located behind the last shell.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Stanley fi l- ERNEST R. PURSER, Primary Examiner.